The paradigmatic shift from a teacher-centered learning environment to a student-centered one is not an easy transition; and, does not occur effortlessly. What is student-centered learning? Necessary areas of change. Strategies for the shift. Positive outcomes. The paradigm shift. What changed? Teacher-centered vs. learning-centered instruction. 8 steps in the change process. Instructor concerns. Measurable objectives. Agent for change. Action plan.
Text of The Paradigm Shift: Migrating from Teacher-Centered to Student-Centered Instruction & Learning
1. The Paradigm Shift: Migrating from Teacher-Centered to Student-Centered Instruction & Learning Milisa Sammaciccia Ismail, MEd. 24 October 2011
2. The significant problems we face cannot be solved at the same level of thinking we were at when we created them. ~ Albert Einstein
3. Problem The paradigmatic shift from a teacher- centered learning environment to student-centered: Is not an easy transition Does not occur effortlessly
4. What is Student-Centered Learning? Information and content is relevant and interesting to students. Content is built to expand on their current knowledge base. Focuses on the student rather than the transmission of information. Students can experiment with their learning. Learning is more meaningful. Students are more engaged. Learning is deeper and long-term.
5. Necessary Areas of Change The balance of power The function of content The role of the teacher The responsibility for learning The purpose and processes of evaluation
6. Strategies for the Shift Active involvement Social Integration Self-Reflection Personal Validation
7. Positive Outcomes Deep learning Intrinsic Motivation Student Retention
8. The Paradigm Shift Two AAHE national conferences 12 years apart revealed a clear shift in higher education focus: 1986: Taking Teaching Seriously 1998: Taking Learning Seriously
9. What Changed? Instruction Shifted: From: Teacher-centered/Content-driven To: Learner-centered/Process-driven Student Role Shifted: From: Passive recipient/empty receptacle To: Engaged learner and active agents Instructor Role Shifted: From: Disseminator of factual information To: Facilitator/Learner mediator
10. Teaching-Centered vs. Learning-Centered Instruction Teaching Goals TCI: Covers discipline LCI: Students learn - How to use the discipline How to integrate disciplines to solve complex problems An array of core learning objectives Organization of Curriculum TCI: Courses in the catalog LCI: Cohesive program with systematically created opportunities to - Synthesize Practice Develop increasingly complex ideas, skills & values
11. Teaching-Centered vs. Learning-Centered Instruction Core Structure TCI: Faculty covers topics LCI: Students master learning objectives How Students Learn TCI: Listening, reading, independent learning, often in competition for grades LCI: (1) Students construct knowledge by integrating new learning into current knowledge. (2) Learning is viewed as a cognitive & social act. Pedagogy TCI: Based on delivery of information. LCI: Based on engagement of students.
12. Teaching-Centered vs. Learning-Centered Instruction Course Delivery TCI: Lecture, assignments & exams for summative purposes. LCI: Active learning, assignments for formative purposes, collaborative learning, community service learning, cooperative learning, self-directed learning, problem-based learning. Course Grading TCI: Faculty as gatekeepers. Normal distribution expected. LCI: Grades indicate mastery of learning objectives.
13. Teaching-Centered vs. Learning-Centered Instruction Faculty Role TCI: Sage on the stage. LCI: Designer of learning environments. Effective Teaching TCI: Teach (present information) well and those who can, will learn. LCI: Engage students in their learning. Help all students master learning objectives. Use classroom assessment to improve courses. Use program assessment to improve the program.
14. 8 Steps in the Change Process 1. Shock 2. Denial 3. Strong Emotion 4. Resistance & Withdrawal 5. Surrender & Acceptance 6. Struggle & Exploration 7. Return of Confidence 8. Integration & Success
15. Instructor Concerns 1. Spending time on active learning does not allow for syllabus coverage. 2. Lack of lecture means loss of control. 3. Students do not understand reading material when independent. 4. Students do not understand open-ended problems vs. finding the right answer. 5. Group work resistance. 6. Cooperative teams are superficially working on assignments & lack of participation from all group members.
16. Measurable Objectives Objectives should be specific & measurable. Objectives should be focused on the student. Effective objectives encompass: Behavior Performance Understanding Objective should complete the statement: The student will be able to Should be aligned with level of learning: Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation
17. Agents for Change Instructor How do they view their role? At what levels are they willing to accept change? Teaching does not bring about learning Only learners can control their own learning Professional development Development of skills Enhancement of current skills Collaboration on instructional strategies
18. Action Plan Step 1: Assessment of Applicability Discipline Class size Subject within the discipline Room layout Environmental factors for the room Teacher personality Classroom dynamics (Weimer, 2002, para. 4) Step 2: Strategy Suggestions Active Learning Cooperative Learning
19. Action Plan Step 2 continued Inductive teaching & learning Inquiry-based learning Case-based instruction Problem-based learning Project-based learning Discovery learning Just-In-Time learning Timeline to Implementation Syllabus: students should have direct input in creation. First Day/Week of Class: Discuss the climate Open discussion about previous experiences in classes
20. Action Plan Timeline continued Decisions are made about which assignments to tackle & due dates. Short essay about why the student is taking the course, what they hope to learn and content. Prioritize list of skills to be successful Class Structure Promote self-awareness with content Use short activities often Utilize learning center staff Use supplementary materials Teach students how to study the textbook Let students summarize Have students collaborate on what makes a group successful Have students provide examples
21. Action Plan Class Structure continued Write concepts on the board during discussions and make connections through illustration. Use matrices and concept mapping. Assignments Students discuss details of assignments. Make them interactive. Students self-assess their work prior to submission. Allow time for students to discuss progress during process. Allow time for debriefing. Assessments Should be linked to content. Can be negotiated but must be specific. Various forms of assessment can be used: Peer assessment Group assessment Expert assessment
22. Action Plan Feedback Solicit feedback early and often. Students should complete a start, stop & continue feedback sheet on the class. Use questions to solicit feedback. Ask students questions.
23. Conclusion Both instructors and students can feel overwhelmed by the process. With proper application, skill and familiarity, SCI may change: The way students learn; and, The way teachers teach The very nature of higher education Lecture method is still the dominant pedagogical strategy Research has proven its ineffectiveness Promoting higher learning outcomes is at the core Overestimating students cognitive involvement during lecture has been one of the major illusions for instructors. Proper implementation brings an increase in motivation. Diverse learning needs are met. Not just a short-term fix but has demonstrated long-term results.
24. Effective teaching strategies begin with realizing that there are multiple pathways to learning. Frequent and careful assessment aligned with observation determines the direction taken for optimal learning. Respect for all learners takes place. Varying teaching styles within a student-centered environment maximizes educational effectiveness. ~ Mary Rose