The audiolingual method

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Audio lingual method

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<ul><li> 1. Reading # 8 Richards, J. C. and Rodgers, T.S. Approaches and Methods in laneuaee teachin~.C.U.P., pp. 44 63 4 The Audiolingual Method Background The Coleman Report in 1929 recommended a reading-based approach to foreign language teaching for use in American schools and colleges (Chapter 1). This emphasized teaching the comprehension of texts. Teacliers taught from books containing short reading passages iii the foreigii language, preceded by lists of vocabulary. Rapid silent reading was tlie goal, but in practice teachers often resorted to discussing the coiitent of the passage in English. Those involved in the teaching of Englisli as a second language in the United States between the two world wars used either a modified Direct Method approach, a reading-based approach, or a reading-oral approach (Darian 1972). Unlike the ap- proach that was being developed by British applied linguists during the same period, there was little attempt to treat language content system- atically. Sentence patterns and grammar were introduced at the whiiii of the textbook writer. There was no standardization of the vocabulary or granimar that was included. Neither was there a consensus on wlint graiiiniar, sentence patterns, and vocabulary were rnost important for beginning, intermediate, or advanced learners. But the entry of the United States into World War 11had a significant effect on language teaching in America. To supply the U.S. government with personnel who were fluent in German, French, Italian, Chinese, Japanese, Malay, and other languages, and who could work as inter- preters, code-room assistants, and translators, it was necessary to set up a special language training program. The government commissioned American universities to develop foreign language programs for inilitary persoiiiiel. Thus the Army Specialized Training Program (ASTP) wns establislied in 1942. Fifty-five American universities were involved in thc program by the beginnig of 1943. Tlie objective of the army programs was for students to attain con- versiitional proficiency in a variety of foreign languages. Since this was not tlie goal of conventional foreign language courses in the United States, iiew approaches were necessary. Linguists, such as Leonnrd Blooiiifield at Yale, had already developed training prograins as part ot thcir liriguistic research that were designed to give linguists and antliro- pologists mastery of American Indian lang~iagesand other Ianguager Este material es proporcionado al alumno con fines educativos, para la crtica y la investigacin respetando la reglamentacin en materia de derechos de autor. Este ejemplar no tiene costo alguno. El uso indebido de este ejemplar es responsabilidad del alumno. Richards, J.C. y T.S. Rodgers (1987). The Audiolingual Method. En Approaches and Methods in language teaching (pp. 44-63). Reino Unido: Cambridge University Press. </li></ul><p> 2. The Audiolitzgual Method they were studying. Texcbooks did not exist for such languages. The technique Bloomfield and his colleagues used was sometiines known as the "informant method," since it used a native speaker of the language - the informant - who served as a source of phrases and vocabulary and who provided sentences for imitation, anda linguist, who supervised the learning experience. The linguist did not necessariiy know the lan- guage but was trained in eliciting the basic structure of the language from the informant. Thus the students and the linguist were able to take part in guided conversation with the informant, and together they grad- ually learned how to speak the lariguage, as well as to understand much of its basic grammar. Students in such courses studied ten hours a day, six days a week. There were generally fifteen hours of drill witli native speakers and twenty to thirty hours of private study spread over two to three six-week sessions. This was the system adopted by the army, and in small classes of mature and highly motivated students, excellent results were often achieved. The Army Specialized Training Program lasted only about two years but attracted considerable attention in the popular press and in the academic community. For the next ten years the "Army Method" and its suitability for use in regular language programs was discussed. But the linguists who developed the ASTP were not interested primarily in language teaching. The "methodology" of the Army Method, like the Direct Method, derived from the intensity of contact with the target language rather than froni any well-developed methodological basis. It was a program innovative mainly in terms of the procedures used and the intensity of teaching rather than in terms of its underlying theory. However, it did convince a iiurnber of prominent linguists of the value of an intensive, oral-baskd approach to the learning of a foreign language. Linguists and applied linguists during this period were becoming in- creasingly involved in the teachirig of English as a foreign language. America had now emerged as a inajor international power. There was a growing demand for foreigii expertise in the teaching of English. Thou- sands of foreign students entcred the United.States to study in univer- sities, and many of these st~identsrequired training in English before they could begin their studies These factors led to the emergence of the American approach to ESL, wliich by the mid-fifties had become Audiolingualism. In 1939 the University of hlichigan developed the first English Lan- guage Institute in the Uniteci States; it specialized in the training of teachers of English as a foreigii language and in teaching English as a second or foreign language. Charles Fries, director of the institute, was trained in structural linguisrici, ;trtd he applied the principies of structural linguistics to language teaching. Fries and his colleagues rejected ap- proaches like those of ttie 1)irzct blethod, in which learners are exposed Este material es proporcionado al alumno con fines educativos, para la crtica y la investigacin respetando la reglamentacin en materia de derechos de autor. Este ejemplar no tiene costo alguno. El uso indebido de este ejemplar es responsabilidad del alumno. Richards, J.C. y T.S. Rodgers (1987). The Audiolingual Method. En Approaches and Methods in language teaching (pp. 44-63). Reino Unido: Cambridge University Press. 3. Approaches &amp; methods in h~r~:iir speaking skills are themselves dependent upon the ability to acc~ir:trely perceive and produce the major ph~nologicalfeatures of the target I;trigiiage, fluency in the use of the key grammatical patterris in the Iniigiingr, and knowl- edge of sufficient vocabulary to use with these pnttcriis Este material es proporcionado al alumno con fines educativos, para la crtica y la investigacin respetando la reglamentacin en materia de derechos de autor. Este ejemplar no tiene costo alguno. El uso indebido de este ejemplar es responsabilidad del alumno. Richards, J.C. y T.S. Rodgers (1987). The Audiolingual Method. En Approaches and Methods in language teaching (pp. 44-63). Reino Unido: Cambridge University Press. 10. The Audiolingual Method The syllabus Audiolingualism is a linguistic, or structiire-based, approach to language teaching. The starting point is a linguistic syllabus, which contains the key items of phonology, morphology, and syntax of the language ar- ranged according to their order of presentation. These may have been derived in part from a contrastive analysis of the differences between the native tongue and the target language, since these differences are thought to be the cause of the major difficulties the learner will en- counter. In addition, a lexical syllabus of basic vocabulary iterns is also usually specified in advance. In Foundations for English Teaching (Fries and Fries 1961), for example, a Corpus of structural and lexical items graded into tliree levels is proposed, together with suggestions as to the situations that could be used to contextualize them. The language skills are taught in the order of listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Listening is viewed largely as training in aura1 discriminatiori of basic sound patterns. The language rnay be presented entirely oraily at first; written representations are usually withheld from learners in early stages. The learner's activities must at first be confined to the audiolingual and ges- tural-visual baiids of language behavioc.:. . Recognition and discrirnination are followed by imitation, repetition and mernorization. Oiily when he is thoroughly familiar with sounds, arrange- rnents, and forriis does he center his attention on enlarging his vocabulary.. .. Throughout he concentrares upon gaining accuracy before striving for fluency. (Brooks 1964: SO) When reading nnd writing are introduced, students are taught to read and write wlint rhey have already learned to say oraily. An atternpt is made to miniinize the possibilities for making mistakes both in speaking and writing by iising a tightly structured approach to the presentation of new langliage items. At more advanced levels, more compiex reading and writing tiisks may be introduced. Types of learning and teaching activities Dialogues anci cirills form the basis of audioliiigual classroom practices. Dialogues provide the means of contextualizing key structures and il- lustrate situarioiis iii which structures might be used as well as some cultural aspects of t:-2 target language. Dialogues are used for repetition and rnemorizarioii. Correct pronunciation, stress, rhythrn, and intona- tion are ernpliiisi~ed..4fter a dialogue has been presented and memorized, specific grniiiin3rical patterns in the dialogue are seiected arid becomr the focus o1 viirious kixids of dril1 and pattern-practice exercises. Este material es proporcionado al alumno con fines educativos, para la crtica y la investigacin respetando la reglamentacin en materia de derechos de autor. Este ejemplar no tiene costo alguno. El uso indebido de este ejemplar es responsabilidad del alumno. Richards, J.C. y T.S. Rodgers (1987). The Audiolingual Method. En Approaches and Methods in language teaching (pp. 44-63). Reino Unido: Cambridge University Press. 11. Approaches &amp; methods in lunguage teaching The use of drills anJ p;ittern practice i s a distinctive feature of the Audiolingual Method. V~iriouskinds of drills are used. Brooks (1964: 156-61) includes the folloviiig: l. Repetition. The studenr rcpears an utterance aloud as soon as he has heard ir. He does this wirhoiit looking at a printed text. The utterance must be brief enough to !&gt;eretained by rhe ear. Sound is as important as form and order. EXAMPLE. This is the seventh month. -This is the seventh monrh. After a student has repeared an utterance, he inay repeat it again and add a few words, then repeat that whole utterance and add more words. EXAMPLES. 1 used to know him. -1 iised to know him. 1 used to know him y e ~ r sogo. -1 used to know hini years ago when we were in school.. .. 2. Inflection. One word in nn utterance appears in another torm when repeated. EXAMPLES. 1bought the ticket. -1 bought the tickets. He bought the candy -She bought the candy. 1called the young man. -1 called the young men 3. Replacement. One word in an utteonce is replaced by another EXAMPLES. He bought this house cheap. -He bought it clieap Helen left early -She lefr early. They gave their boss a. watch. -They gave him a wntch 4. Restatement. The studeiir tephrases an utterance and addresses ir to someone else, according to instructions. EXAMPLES. Tell him to wait for you. -Wait for me. Ask her how old she is -How old are you? Ask John when he began -John, when did you begin? .. 5. Completion. The srudent hears an utterance that is complete except for one word, then repeats the utterance in complered form. EXAMPLES. I'll go my way and yoii go.. ..-1'11 go my way and you go yortrs. We al1 have ...own troubles. -We al1 have our own troubles. ... 6. Transposition. A change in word order is necessary when a word is added. EXAMPLU. i'm hungry. (so). -So .lin l. i'll never do it again. !iieirlier). -Neither w:ll 1 ... Este material es proporcionado al alumno con fines educativos, para la crtica y la investigacin respetando la reglamentacin en materia de derechos de autor. Este ejemplar no tiene costo alguno. El uso indebido de este ejemplar es responsabilidad del alumno. Richards, J.C. y T.S. Rodgers (1987). The Audiolingual Method. En Approaches and Methods in language teaching (pp. 44-63). Reino Unido: Cambridge University Press. 12. The Audiolingual Method 7. Expansion When a word is added it takes a certniii place in the sequence. EXAMPLES. 1know him. (hardly). -1 hardly know him. 1 know him. (well). -1 know him well.. .. 8. Contractiort. A single word stands for a phrase or clnuse. EXAMPLES. Put your hand on the table. -Put your hand there They believe that the earth is flat -They believe it V. Trnnsformation. A sentence is transformed by beirig made negative or in- terrogative or through changes in tense, mood, voice, aspect, or modality. EXAMPI.ES. He knows my address. He doesn't know my address. Does he know my address? He used to know my address. If he had known my address. 10. Integration Two separate utterances are integrnted into one. EXAMPLES. They must be honest. This is irnportant. -1t is important that they be honest. 1 know that man. He is looking for you. -1 knor, tlic niaii who is look- ing for you.. .. 11. Rejoinder The student makec an appropriri;~reji,;n?ii.i 10 3 gi-vsii utisr- ance. He is told in advance to respond in one ot rlic following ways: Be polite. Answer the question. Agree. Agree emphatically. Express sucprise. Express regret. Disagree. Disagree emphatically. Question what is said. Fail to understand. BE L'OLITE. EXAMPI-ES. Thank you. -You're welcome. May 1 take one? -Certainly. ANSWER THE QUESTION. FXAMPI.ES. What is your name? -My name is Srnitli. Where did it happen? -1n the middle of the street Este material es proporcionado al alumno con fines educativos, para la crtica y la investigacin respetando la reglamentacin en materia de derechos de autor. Este ejemplar no tiene costo alguno. El uso indebido de este ejemplar es responsabilidad del alumno. Richards, J.C. y T.S. Rodgers (1987). The Audiolingual Method. En Approaches and Methods in language teaching (pp. 44-63). Reino Unido: Cambridge University Press. 13. Approaches &amp; methods in language teachi?zsy AGREE. EXAMPLES. He's following us. -1 think you're right. This is good coffee. -Ir's very good. 12. Restoration The student is given a sequence ot .ords that have been culled from a sentence but still bear its basic iii~~niiing.He uses these words with a minimum of changes and additioiis to restore the sentence to its original form. He may be told whether thc tinic is present, past, or future. EXAMPLES. students/waitine/bus-The students are waiting tor the bus.-boys/build/house/tree-The boys built a hous...</p>

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