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Teaching is a Rainbow EDE4103 Assessment 1 Student Name: Aspen Forgan Student Number: 0061035994

Teaching is a Rainbow

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Teaching is a RainbowEDE4103 Assessment 1

Student Name: Aspen ForganStudent Number: 0061035994

Welcome to my presentation teaching is a rainbow.1Katzemeyer and Mollers Philosophy of Education

To create my metaphor I completed this survey and discovered that my teaching practices and principles align with the humanistic philosophy of education (Katzenmeyer & Moller, 2001).2

Who I am as a teacherClick on the mind map to enlarge

Through a mind map I considered who I am as a teacher and found this aligned closely with my survey.

3Teaching is a rainbow

I reflected on my past experience in early childhood settings and how I could visually represent the joy and happiness I experience when teaching. This is how I arrived at my metaphor teaching is a rainbow.

4Principle 1Learning occurs best in a community of learnersWhat is a community of learners?

A sense of 'connectedness' in personal, family and community relationships increases a child's ability to interact successfully with others, and to grow and learn (ECA, 2014).

I would now like to present my five teaching principles that are captured in my metaphor teaching is a rainbow. My first teaching principle is that learning occurs best in a community of learners. But what is a community of learners?

The term community of learners is used to describe the complex, interrelated nature of relationships that are an integral part of being an early childhood educator. These relationships include those between children, families, other educators, the broader community, and potentially many other organisations. A community of learners recognises the importance of relationships and how these change over time in response to learning that occurs (MacNaughton & Williams, 2009).

The Early Years Curriculum Guidelines (QSA, 2006) identifies families as a childs first and most influential educators. All people involved in a community of learners engage in a range of interactions, negotiations and collaborations within the social, cultural and physical environments (Fleer et al., 2006) relevant to that early childhood context. Therefore, parent involvement in childrens learning and the curriculum (MacNaughton & Williams, 2009) is a major component of a community of learners. In addition to this, parents, teachers and children often become life-long learners as they explore, hypothesise, investigate and co-construct meaning. 5Principle 1Learning occurs best in a community of learnersBenefits of forming a community of learners:

All people involved feel valued, respected and empoweredPlanning around childrens strengths and interestsDevelopment of support networksPromotes awareness of a broader range of perspectives

Parents feel valued and respected as we acknowledge their expectations and insights into their childs strengths, personality, moods and behaviours (Kids matter, n.d.), engage in open and honest communication, and collaborate on curriculum decisions. As families have increased opportunities for connecting with other families that attend the school, they develop support networks, enabling them to share information, ideas and work through challenges together (Kids matter, n.d.).

Children feel valued and empowered when their ideas and input into the curriculum are made visible, or when they are able to teach the teacher; whilst being made aware of the point of view of others, and considering whether or not to change their own point of view. This emphasises that the cognitive processes involved in relationships are an essential component of learning (Fleer et al., 2006).

As educators develop these relationships they begin to feel more connected, rewarded and appreciated (Kids matter, n.d.) as their program begins to represent their commitment, hard work, and holistic and inclusive approach to learning.6Principle 1 Link to MetaphorLearning occurs best in a community of learners

The rainbow is made up of seven colours- red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet (Science kids, 2013), representing each part of the learning community, the child, their peers, family, and so on. At their edges, the colours of the rainbow overlap (Evers, n.d.), highlighting the interrelatedness of each member of the learning community.

Without one of the colours, a rainbow would be incomplete. Similarly, without all members of the learning community, the childs learning potential would be incomplete. For example, without the input of a childs family, teachers would be unable to gain a holistic view of the child, their strengths, and abilities. Similarly, without collaboration with other teachers, there would be inconsistency between what is taught and how this is extended upon in the next year level. Just as the rainbow needs all seven colours, a learning community needs all members to be actively involved. 7Relevant Theories of LearningLearning occurs best in a community of learnersUrie Bronfenbrenners Ecological Systems Theory

Microsystem People and places immediately associated with childMesosystem Relationships between those in microsystemThese relationships have direct effect on a childs development

Urie Brofenbrenners ecological systems theory describes the different levels of the environment and the interactions of these systems on individuals (Geoghegan, 2014, p. 14). His theory asserts that children live and learn in more than one environment and that children learn best through interactions with people they have formed positive relationships with (QSA, 2006).

The systems are categorised according to the level of impact they have on the child. The micro system describes the people and places directly associated with the child, such as their parents, siblings, peers and teachers. The mesosystem describes the relationship between those in the microsystem and how they have a direct impact on the childs learning and development (Sigelman, Rider & De George-Walker, 2013).

Rogoff (2003) extended on the work of Brofenbrenner and emphasised the importance of communities of learning that foster collaborative relationships. 8Principle 1 in Practice Learning occurs best in a community of learnersEveryday interactions with familiesValuing input and contributionsAsking parents to assist in the classroomStudent centred curriculum

So how can we as teachers put this into practice in an early childhood classroom?

The relationships children develop with their peers and teachers play an important role in the successful learning of children. As teachers and children work together to explore ideas and come to shared understandings, they create a classroom where all children respect and consider the ideas of others, as they discuss how their ideas and approaches vary (MacNaughton & Williams, 2009). In doing this, teachers foster childrens emotional development, enabling them to become capable and confident learners.

In order to develop a mutual and collaborative partnership with children and their families we need to:Appreciate everyday interactions with families, such as morning greetings.Value each parents input and contributions, no matter how big or small. Ask parents to assist in the classroom by sharing stories, helping with class projects or investigations, or simply being another pair of hands.Involve children and parents in authentic tasks, such as including their work and voices in the school newsletter. Provide a student-led program that allows children to make decisions and take responsibility for their learning. 9Principle 2Childrens learning is influenced by the environmentThe learning environment is a reflection of your core values and beliefs as a teacher.

SpaceTimeResourcesPeopleAesthetics

My second teaching principle is that childrens learning is influenced by the environment.

When establishing learning environments, it is important to consider a number of factors including space, time, open-ended resources, people, and aesthetics.

This includes factors such as:How the classroom is set up, and whether there is enough room for students to engage in the task at hand. If there is sufficient time to complete activities, draw on their prior knowledge, consolidate and reflect on learnings (Noble, 2010b).Whether the resources enable children to practice higher order thinking skills, such as classifying and ordering, describing and re-calling (Curtis & Carter, 2003).Consideration of how students can be supported appropriately, for example, through peer scaffolding.Whether experiences are presented in an aesthetically pleasing way to stimulate curiosity, decision making and expression of ideas, thoughts and feelings (Noble, 2010b).

I believe the learning environment is a reflection of the teachers core values and beliefs. For example, a learning environment that is disorganised, has poorly looked after resources and doesnt allow children to make decisions, tells children that they are not capable of making decisions associated with their learning and that the classroom is not a place to be valued, respected and looked after.

10Principle 2 Link to MetaphorChildrens learning is influenced by the environment

Three conditions must be met in order to see a rainbow:

1. Rain2. Sun3. Position

Three conditions must be met in order to see a rainbow. First, it must be raining. Second, the sun must be shining. Third, the person looking must be situated between the sun and rain (Weather wiz kids, 2013). Without all three environmental factors, a rainbow will not appear.

Similarly, childrens learning and understanding will not appear unless they are exposed to a number of environmental factors, such as the time allocated to activities, and having the necessary space and resources to complete a task. 11Relevant theories of learningChildrens learning is influenced by the environment

Childrens interestsAesthetics of materials and activitiesEnvironment as third teacherValues and beliefs of teacherMaria MontessoriReggio Emilia Philosophy

Maria Montessori believed that a learning environment that focuses its attention on the order and aesthetics of materials and activities (Curtis & Carter, 2003) will draw on childrens interest and ultimately stimulate their learning.

The philosophy of Reggio Emilia has drawn on the ideas of Maria Montessori and advocates the notion of the environment as the third teacher, emphasising its importance in motivating childrens learning (Noble, 2010) and providing a sense of security and well-being (Fleer, 2013; DEEWR, 2009). The Reggio Emilia teachers believe that the arrangement of materials, objects and activities encourages decision making, problem solving and investigations (Curtis & Carter, 2003).

Curtis and Carter (2003, p. 5) suggest that, if we embrace the idea of the environment as a significant educator, we must expand our thinking beyond room arrangements. We must ask ourselves what values we want to communicate through our learning environments. For example, having individual desks, rather than grouping children together suggests that the teacher believes children learn best in isolation, rather than through social interactions and collaboration with their peers (Curtis & Carter, 2003).

12Principle 2 in PracticeChildrens learning is influenced by the environment

StrengthsInterestsLearning StylesOpen-ended materials

The learning environment needs to be set up so that all children's strengths, interest and learning styles are catered for in a balanced way (Noble, 2010a).

Curtis and Carter (2003, p. 55) point out that Children often come up with thoughts about how they want to use materials or space, and in many cases this is different than what the teacher originally envisioned, highlighting the importance of providing open-ended materials which are presented in an aesthetically pleasing manner (Noble, 2010b); for example, having different shaped cane baskets for displaying craft materials. Activities should also be presented in response to their interests, and to provide them with the opportunity to demonstrate what they already know (Stacey, 2009). 13Principle 3 Childrens learning is influenced by their social and cultural backgroundsChildren in different countries learn ways of thinking that are necessary to live in their own culture and community (TAFE NSW, 2010). Each child and family bring their ownValuesBeliefsAttitudesAssumptionsIdeas of societal norms

My third teaching principle is that childrens learning is influenced by their social and cultural backgrounds.

Each child brings with them their own values, beliefs, attitudes, assumptions and ideas of societal norms, all of which are based on their social and cultural background. This in turn influences their thought process and how they interpret the everyday events of school life.

Therefore, teachers need to consider if their teaching strategies are culturally appropriate, have been correctly understood and promote an environment of inclusivity. 14Principle 3 Link to MetaphorChildrens learning is influenced by their social and cultural backgrounds

Did you know that no one sees the same rainbow? The appearance of a rainbow depends on where youre standing in relation to the sun. Since no two people can stand in exactly the same spot at the same time, the rainbow they see is slightly different (Evers, n.d.).

None of the children in a class will have exactly the same social and cultural background; therefore, every child will see the learning environment, the information given to them, their teacher and peers in different ways; just as everyone sees a different rainbow.

Similarly, none of the teachers at your school will have the same social and cultural background; therefore, they will view their role as teacher and the children they are teaching in different ways. 15Relevant theories of learningChildrens learning is influenced by their social and cultural backgrounds

The iceberg model of culture is an analogy used to describe the observable and non-observable aspects of a persons culture. The iceberg model asserts that when we look at a child from any culture, it is the obvious aspects that we notice, such as behaviours, beliefs and customs, just like the tip of an iceberg is visible above the water. However, the hidden or subconscious aspects of culture, such as assumptions, perceptions and thought processes are more difficult to identify, just like the iceberg that is hidden under the surface (Edward Halls cultural iceberg model, 2010).

Teachers also need to be aware of their underlying ideas, concepts, cultural norms and habits, also known as tacit knowledge (Churchill et al., 2011). Developing this awareness will ensure teachers approach teaching and learning with an open-mind.16Principle 3 in PracticeChildrens learning is influenced by their social and cultural backgroundsEmbrace diversityIntegrate culture into classroomMultilingual resourcesParentsPlay based learning

So now that we know that childrens learning is influenced by their social and cultural backgrounds, how can we use this information to enhance their learning outcomes?

The first and most important step is embracing and promoting respect of the range of cultures within the classroom. Some ways of doing this is to have children teach each other about their culture, through traditional games, songs or stories (Harrison, 2011), having parents read stories to the class in their native language and the provision of multilingual resources.

It is also beneficial to speak with parents to find out more about their culture and how it influences their childs learning.

Play and investigation enables children to make meaning of the world around them (Fleer, 2013), highlighting that through the social contexts of play, children draw on their social and cultural backgrounds and use the available resources to represent their thoughts, feelings and understandings (Arthur et al., 2008).17Principle 4 Children learn in different ways, based on their learning styles and preferencesDiversity in contemporary Australian classrooms

Catering for different learning styles increases students:MotivationConfidenceLearning outcomesAttitude towards learning

By now you may have noticed that valuing children as individuals with their own strengths and interest is an important component of my teaching philosophy. Therefore, my fourth teaching principle is that children learn in different ways, based on their learning styles and preferences.

Did you know that in Australia 17% of all students aged 5-17 years speak a language other than English at home (Moni & Hay, 2012) or that 10% of children ages 5-14 years have a reported disability (Ashman & Merrotsy, 2012)? These statistics show that no two students are the same. Every child is unique, bringing their own thoughts, ideas and interests to the classroom. Therefore what suits one student, will not necessarily suit another child.

Research shows that providing a balanced curriculum that meets the needs, interests and learning styles of all children leads to increased interest, motivation, confidence, learning outcomes and a positive disposition towards learning (Arthur et al., 2008).

18Principle 4 Link to MetaphorChildren learn in different ways, based on their learning styles and preferences

Did you know there are many different types of rainbows? These pictures show a double rainbow, an upside down rainbow, a red rainbow and a moon bow (Evers, n.d.; Weather wiz kids, 2013).

Just as there are a variety of rainbows, there are variety of learning styles that must be catered for. 19Relevant Theories of LearningChildren learn in different ways, based on their learning styles and preferences

Howard Gardners Theory of Multiple Intelligences

LinguisticLogical/mathematicalKinaestheticMusicalSpatialInterpersonalIntrapersonalNaturalistic

Howard Gardeners multiple intelligences explains the way children think and communicate. Each of the intelligences has its own unique codes and rules used to make meaning, which manifest in different ways, depending on the childs cultural background (Noble, 2010a). Arthur et al. (2008, p. 236) notes that, the multiple intelligences highlight the need for a variety of learning experiences that provide opportunities for children to reach their full potential through different domains of learning. When childrens learning preferences are catered for in the learning environment, children recognise the things they are good at and begin to feel a sense of success and accomplishment (Arthur et al., 2008).

Relating back to the social constructivist theories discussed earlier, it is important to note that all societies value different types of intelligences. The cultural value placed on the ability to perform a particular task provides motivation to become skilled in those areas (Noble, 2010a), leading to preferential variations between cultures. This may also result in children utilising intelligences that are not their strengths, ultimately hampering their learning experiences.

20Principle 4 in PracticeChildren learn in different ways, based on their learning styles and preferencesDifferentiated instructionStudents strengths and interests ResourcesHundred Languages of learning

So how can students different learning styles be catered for in a classroom context?

Differentiated instruction is a strategy used to meet students individual needs, where teachers adjust tasks to cater for a range of ability levels, rather than using a one size fits all approach.

Catering for students strengths and interests motivates them to learn and helps to develop a positive disposition towards learning (Arthur et al., 2008).

Using a variety of resources to suit different learning styles; for example, providing science kits and brain teasers will cater for the logical-mathematical intelligence, whilst providing modelling clay and dress up costumes will cater for the bodily-kinaesthetic intelligence.

Loris Malaguzzi, the founder of the Reggio Emilia approach, developed the hundred languages of learning to highlight the various ways children represent their thinking and ideas (Reggio kids, 2014). The inclusion of various mediums, resources and activities, such as drawing, painting, writing and dramatic play, allows children to express themselves in different ways, whilst catering for a variety of learning styles.

21Principle 5Childrens learning is enhanced when teachers engage in reflective practiceTeachers who are critically reflective focus their attention both inwardly at their own practice and outwardly at the social conditions in which these practices are situated (Larrivee, 2008, p. 343).

Reflective practice is important as it helps teachers:

Make informed decisionsJustify their practiceDevelop mutual trust and respect with their studentsConsider alternative teaching strategies

My fifth teaching principle is that childrens learning is enhanced when teachers engage in reflective practice.

Reflective practice enables educators to evaluate their beliefs about teaching and learning, how they influence classroom practice and how their teaching philosophy will affect future actions (Calvet, 2011), ultimately leading to improved practice and learning outcomes.

Remaining with the socio-constructivist approach that is my teaching philosophy, Larrivee (2008, p. 343) notes, Teachers who are critically reflective focus their attention both inwardly at their own practice and outwardly at the social conditions in which these practices are situated.

Reflective practice involves identifying the strengths, as well as, short comings of the situation being evaluated, in order to gain a holistic view and prepare appropriate action (Churchill et al., 2011).

Reflective practice is important as it helps teachers:Make informed decisionsJustify their practiceDevelop mutual trust and respect with their studentsConsider alternative teaching strategies

22Principle 5 Link to MetaphorChildrens learning is enhanced when teachers engage in reflective practice

Many people dont realise that rainbows are in fact a full circle; because they are most often viewed from the ground we only see a semi-circle (Science kids, 2013). If we were to go high enough into the sky, we would see that rainbows continue below the horizon (Weather wiz kids, 2013).

Just as the rainbow is a full circle, so too is the teaching and learning process. 23Relevant Theories of learningChildrens learning is enhanced when teachers engage in reflective practice

John Dewey

John Dewey encouraged teachers to reflect on situations and question what needs to be done to change and improve their teaching practice (Rogers, 2002).

Donald Schon extended on Deweys work and asserted that, when practitioners take a new and different view on a situation, they reframe it, making it possible to understand it in new ways and opening new possibilities (Churchill et al., 2011, p. 438)

The diagram on this slide illustrates the cyclical process of reflective practice.

24Principle 5 in PracticeChildrens learning is enhanced when teachers engage in reflective practiceIndividual reflectionNotes/ written reflectionReflective diary/ journalPeer ObservationAudio/ Video recordingsStudent feedbackBlogs

Whole school reflection

So how can teachers engage in reflective practice?

On an individual basis, teachers can write notes at the end of a lesson, day or unit of work to be kept as part of a series of reflections used to identify reoccurring issues or identify if your practice is improving (Churchill et al., 2011). Similarly, a reflective diary describes the teachers feelings and reactions regarding a teaching episode.

Other ways of gaining additional information is to invite a colleague into the classroom to observe your teaching practices, recording your teaching episodes or seeking student feedback. Churchill et al. (2011, p. 449) notes that, this can offer new insights and access to things that perhaps would never be seen or noticed from a teachers individual vantage point. With the increasing emergence and integration of technology in the education industry, teacher blogs have become an increasingly popular form of reflection.

It is also important for educators to engage in reflective practice on a whole school level. Not only will this model appropriate reflection strategies for beginning teachers, but allow the teachers to see the progress of the school and identify which teaching strategies are working and those that arent.

Thankyou for taking the time to view my presentation.

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Simulated Early Learning Centre [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.holmesglen.edu.au/showcase/facilities/simulated_early_learning_centre

Stacey, S. (2009). Emergent curriculum in early childhood settings: From theory to practice. St Paul: Redleaf Press.

Stiryanova. (n.d.). Two girls standing in grass, and looking at rainbow on sky [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.gettyimages.com.au/detail/photo/girls-looking-at-rainbow-royalty-free-image/145027605

Studio portrait of John Dewey [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/160445/John-Dewey

The cost of play schemes for children this summer is going up[Image]. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/8631022/Working-parents-face-summer-play-scheme-price-hikes.html

The Reggio Emilia approach [Image]. (2011). Retrieved from http://austingreenschool.blogspot.com.au/2011/09/reggio-emilia-appraoch-conerstone-to.html

Tips for engaging multiple learning styles [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://blogs.faithlafayette.org/faithkids/tips-for-engaging-multiple-learning-styles/

Understanding Your Student's Learning Style: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.connectionsacademy.com/blog/posts/2013-01-18/Understanding-Your-Student-s-Learning-Style-The-Theory-of-Multiple-Intelligences.aspx

Weather Wiz Kids. (2013). Optical Illusions. Retrieved April 14, 2014, from http://weatherwizkids.com/weather-optical-illusions.htm

Where do you look for a rainbow [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.totallifecounseling.com/2011/08/tips-for-changing-schools-and-social-adjustment-back-to-school/

26Reference ListCalvet, E. (2011, November 24). Reflective practice in primary education [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://cockroachesladybugs.blogspot.com.au/2011/11/reflective-practice-in-primary.htmlChildren of the world [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.dreamstime.com/royalty-free-stock-photos-children-world-image11407378Children playing with a sandpit [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.hallfieldschool.co.uk/pre-prep/early-years/receptionChurchill, R., Ferguson, P., Godinho, S., Johnson, N.F., Keddie, A., Letts, W., Vick, M. (2011). Teaching making a difference. Milton, QLD: John Wiley & Sons.Curtis, D., & Carter, M. (2003). Designs for living and learning: Transforming Early Childhood Environments. St Paul: Redleaf Press.Curtis, D., & Carter, M. (2008). Learning together with young children: A curriculum framework for reflective teachers. St Paul: Redleaf Press.Double Rainbow [Image]. (2010). Retrieved from http://photoshd.wordpress.com/2010/11/20/double-rainbow/Early Childhood Australia (ECA). (2014). Connecting children, families and learning. Retrieved April 14, 2014, from http://www.earlychildhoodaustralia.org.au/every_child_magazine/every_child_index/editorial_connecting_children_families_and_learning.html

A bibliography of Dr Maria Montessori [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://montessori.org.au/montessori/biography.htm

Arthur, L., Beecher, B., Death, E., Dockett, S., & Farmer, S. (2008). Programming and planning in early childhood settings (4th ed.). South Melbourne, Vic.: Cengage Learning Australia.

Ashman, A., & Merrotsy,P. (2012). Learners and environments. In Ashman, A & Elkins, J (Eds.), Education for inclusion and diversity (pp. 63-98). Frenchs Forest: Pearson Education.

Badz, S. (2013). A double rainbow appears over the 18th hole during the third round of the Utah Championship [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/08/31/facts-about-rainbows_n_3779801.html

Becker, G.A. (2002). Double Rainbow [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.astronomy.org/StarWatch/August/index-8-02.html

Brisbane Catholic Education. (1998). The Iceberg model of culture [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.asiaeducation.edu.au/for_teachers/professional_learning/intercultural_competencies/developing_intercultural_understanding/diu_resources/resource_2_iceberg_model.html

Bronfenbrenners Ecological Systems Theory [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://impactofspecialneeds.weebly.com/bronfenbrennerrsquos-ecological-systems-theory.html

Calvet, E. (2011, November 24). Reflective practice in primary education [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://cockroachesladybugs.blogspot.com.au/2011/11/reflective-practice-in-primary.html

Children of the world [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.dreamstime.com/royalty-free-stock-photos-children-world-image11407378

Children playing with a sandpit [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.hallfieldschool.co.uk/pre-prep/early-years/reception

Churchill, R., Ferguson, P., Godinho, S., Johnson, N.F., Keddie, A., Letts, W., Vick, M. (2011). Teaching making a difference. Milton, QLD: John Wiley & Sons.

Curtis, D., & Carter, M. (2003). Designs for living and learning: Transforming Early Childhood Environments. St Paul: Redleaf Press.

Curtis, D., & Carter, M. (2008). Learning together with young children: A curriculum framework for reflective teachers. St Paul: Redleaf Press.

Double Rainbow [Image]. (2010). Retrieved from http://photoshd.wordpress.com/2010/11/20/double-rainbow/

Early Childhood Australia (ECA). (2014). Connecting children, families and learning. Retrieved April 14, 2014, from http://www.earlychildhoodaustralia.org.au/every_child_magazine/every_child_index/editorial_connecting_children_families_and_learning.html

Edward T. Halls cultural iceberg model. (2010). Retrieved April 15, 2014, from http://region10.acui.org/region/10/conference/2011/presentations/Hall's%20Iceberg%20Model%20handout.pdf

Evers, J. (n.d.). Rainbow. In National geographic online encyclopaedia. Retrieved April 14, 2014, from http://education.nationalgeographic.com/education/encyclopedia/rainbow/?ar_a=1

Fleer, M., & Williams-Kennedy, D. (2002). Building bridges: Literacy development in young Indigenous children. Canberra: Australia Early Childhood Association.

Fleer, M., Edwards, S., Hammer, M., Kennedy, A., Ridgway, A., Robbins, J., & Surman, L. (2006). Early childhood learning communities: Sociocultural research in practice. Frenchs Forest: Pearson Education.

Fleer, M. (2013). Play in the early years. Port Melbourne, VIC: Cambridge University Press.

Geoghegan, D. (2014). EDE4103 Module 1: What makes a good teacher? Retrieved March 20, 2014, from http://usqstudydesk.usq.edu.au/m2/mod/page/view.php?id=178679

Harrison, N. (2011). Relationship to place: Positioning Aboriginal knowledge and perspectives in classroom pedagogies. Critical studies in education, 52(1), 65-76. doi: 10.1080/17508487.2011.536513

Impressive rainbow over the dollmites in Italy [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://cdn.theatlantic.com/static/infocus/ngpc112713/n15_18230434.jpg

Katzenmeyer, M., & Moller, G. (2001). Awakening the sleeping giant: helping teachers develop as leaders (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press.

Kids matter early childhood. (n.d.). Building partnerships between families and early childhood staff [Fact sheet]. Retrieved April 14, 2014, from https://www.kidsmatter.edu.au/sites/default/files/public/KMEC_C4_201205_03_building-partnerships.pdf

Larrivee, B. (2008). Development of a tool to assess teachers level of reflective practice. Reflective practice, 9(3), 341-60.

Leadership in the classroom [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://fortresslearning.com.au/2011/10/leadership-in-the-classroom-a-new-role-for-teachers/

Learning From Mom Boosts Low-Income Kids School Readiness [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.redorbit.com/news/education/2066689/learning_from_mom_boosts_lowincome_kids_school_readiness/#4yrvsVCYiMBTQCRz.99

Lunar Rainbows [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://listverse.com/2012/12/20/10-beautiful-types-of-rainbows/

MacNaughton, G., & Williams, G. (2009). Techniques for teaching young children: Choices for theory and practice (3rd ed.). Frenchs Forest, NSW: Pearson Education.

Mifsud, T. (n.d.). 30 epic example of inspirational classroom dcor [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.pinterest.com/pin/231724343301654906/

Mifsud, T. (n.d.). Peachtree Presbyterian Preschool classroom environment [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.pinterest.com/pin/231724343301711745/

Mifsud, T. (n.d.). The cutest little classroom I ever did see [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.pinterest.com/pin/231724343301335367/

Moni, K.B., & Hay, I. (2012). Secondary school and beyond. In Ashman, A & Elkins, J (Eds.), Education for inclusion and diversity (pp. 325-362). Frenchs Forest: Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd.

Noble, K. (2010a). EDE3103 Module 2: Play as an integrative device through multi-symbolic representation [PowerPoint Presentation]. Retrieved from http://usqstudydesk.usq.edu.au/m2/course/view.php?id=4201

Noble, K. (2010b). EDE3103 Module 3: Scaffolding and interpreting play in context [PowerPoint Presentation]. Retrieved from http://usqstudydesk.usq.edu.au/m2/course/view.php?id=4201

Noble, K. (2010c). EDE 3103 Module 5: Changing role of the teacher in contemporary early childhood contexts [PowerPoint Presentation]. Retrieved from http://usqstudydesk.usq.edu.au/m2/course/view.php?id=4201

Online learning community [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.thelearningcommunity.org.uk/

Parent involvement [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://goletafamilyschool.com/about/parent-involvement/

Parents helping their children with homework [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.dreamstime.com/stock-photos-parents-helping-children-homework-kitchen-pointing-to-textbook-leaning-over-shoulder-image35613943

Primary learning styles of young children [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://mothergoosetimeblog.com/category/activities-by-theme/reflections/individualized-instruction/

Queensland Studies Authority (QSA). (2006). Early Years Curriculum Guidelines (EYCG). Retrieved April 15, 2014, from http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au/downloads/p_10/ey_cg_06.pdf

Queensland Studies Authority. (2010). Queensland kindergarten learning guidelines (QKLG). Retrieved from http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au/downloads/p_10/qklg.pdf

Rainbow [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://gicleeprepress.blogspot.com.au/2010/11/how-wide-is-your-rainbow.html

Reflecting on our practice [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.learner.org/workshops/connectarts68/program8/

Reggio Kids. (2014). The hundred languages of children. Retrieved April 19, 2014, from http://www.reggiokids.com/the_hundred_languages_of_children.html

Rocks, S. (2010). Double rainbow [Image]. Retrieved from http://scienceblogs.com/startswithabang/2012/08/14/how-many-colors-are-really-in-a-rainbow/

Rogers, C. (2002). Defining Reflection: Another Look at John Dewey and Reflective Thinking. Teachers College Record Volume 104 Number 4, 2002, p. 842-866 . Retrieved from http://www.jcu.edu/education/ed100/Rodgers,%20C.%20(2002).%20Defining%20Reflection%20Another%20Look%20at%20John%20Dewey%20and%20Reflective%20Thinking.%20Teachers%20College%20Record,%20104(4),%20842-866..pdf

Rogoff, B. (2003). The cultural nature of human development. Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press.

Saffas, A.G. (n.d.). Upside down rainbow [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.neatorama.com/2007/02/24/an-upside-down-rainbow/#!DX8xc

Saskatchewan Ministry of education. (n.d.). Playhouse and pathways for childrens outdoor enjoyment [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.education.gov.sk.ca/Default.aspx?DN=4de38060-953f-4922-9b9b-1d3bec94400d

Science kids. (2013). Rainbow facts for kids. Retrieved April 14, 2014, from http://www.sciencekids.co.nz/sciencefacts/weather/rainbows.html

Sigelman, C., Rider, E., & De George-Walker, L. (2013). Life Span Human Development (Australian and New Zealand Edition). South Melbourne, VIC: Cengage Learning Australia Pty Ltd.

Simulated Early Learning Centre [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.holmesglen.edu.au/showcase/facilities/simulated_early_learning_centre

Stacey, S. (2009). Emergent curriculum in early childhood settings: From theory to practice. St Paul: Redleaf Press.

Stiryanova. (n.d.). Two girls standing in grass, and looking at rainbow on sky [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.gettyimages.com.au/detail/photo/girls-looking-at-rainbow-royalty-free-image/145027605

Studio portrait of John Dewey [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/160445/John-Dewey

The cost of play schemes for children this summer is going up[Image]. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/8631022/Working-parents-face-summer-play-scheme-price-hikes.html

The Reggio Emilia approach [Image]. (2011). Retrieved from http://austingreenschool.blogspot.com.au/2011/09/reggio-emilia-appraoch-conerstone-to.html

Tips for engaging multiple learning styles [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://blogs.faithlafayette.org/faithkids/tips-for-engaging-multiple-learning-styles/

Understanding Your Student's Learning Style: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.connectionsacademy.com/blog/posts/2013-01-18/Understanding-Your-Student-s-Learning-Style-The-Theory-of-Multiple-Intelligences.aspx

Weather Wiz Kids. (2013). Optical Illusions. Retrieved April 14, 2014, from http://weatherwizkids.com/weather-optical-illusions.htm

Where do you look for a rainbow [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.totallifecounseling.com/2011/08/tips-for-changing-schools-and-social-adjustment-back-to-school/

27Reference ListEdward T. Halls cultural iceberg model. (2010). Retrieved April 15, 2014, from http://region10.acui.org/region/10/conference/2011/presentations/Hall's%20Iceberg%20Model%20handout.pdfEvers, J. (n.d.). Rainbow. In National geographic online encyclopaedia. Retrieved April 14, 2014, from http://education.nationalgeographic.com/education/encyclopedia/rainbow/?ar_a=1Fleer, M., & Williams-Kennedy, D. (2002). Building bridges: Literacy development in young Indigenous children. Canberra: Australia Early Childhood Association.Fleer, M., Edwards, S., Hammer, M., Kennedy, A., Ridgway, A., Robbins, J., & Surman, L. (2006). Early childhood learning communities: Sociocultural research in practice. Frenchs Forest: Pearson Education. Fleer, M. (2013). Play in the early years. Port Melbourne, VIC: Cambridge University Press.Geoghegan, D. (2014). EDE4103 Module 1: What makes a good teacher? Retrieved March 20, 2014, from http://usqstudydesk.usq.edu.au/m2/mod/page/view.php?id=178679Harrison, N. (2011). Relationship to place: Positioning Aboriginal knowledge and perspectives in classroom pedagogies. Critical studies in education, 52(1), 65-76. doi: 10.1080/17508487.2011.536513Impressive rainbow over the dollmites in Italy [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://cdn.theatlantic.com/static/infocus/ngpc112713/n15_18230434.jpg

A bibliography of Dr Maria Montessori [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://montessori.org.au/montessori/biography.htm

Arthur, L., Beecher, B., Death, E., Dockett, S., & Farmer, S. (2008). Programming and planning in early childhood settings (4th ed.). South Melbourne, Vic.: Cengage Learning Australia.

Ashman, A., & Merrotsy,P. (2012). Learners and environments. In Ashman, A & Elkins, J (Eds.), Education for inclusion and diversity (pp. 63-98). Frenchs Forest: Pearson Education.

Badz, S. (2013). A double rainbow appears over the 18th hole during the third round of the Utah Championship [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/08/31/facts-about-rainbows_n_3779801.html

Becker, G.A. (2002). Double Rainbow [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.astronomy.org/StarWatch/August/index-8-02.html

Brisbane Catholic Education. (1998). The Iceberg model of culture [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.asiaeducation.edu.au/for_teachers/professional_learning/intercultural_competencies/developing_intercultural_understanding/diu_resources/resource_2_iceberg_model.html

Bronfenbrenners Ecological Systems Theory [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://impactofspecialneeds.weebly.com/bronfenbrennerrsquos-ecological-systems-theory.html

Calvet, E. (2011, November 24). Reflective practice in primary education [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://cockroachesladybugs.blogspot.com.au/2011/11/reflective-practice-in-primary.html

Children of the world [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.dreamstime.com/royalty-free-stock-photos-children-world-image11407378

Children playing with a sandpit [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.hallfieldschool.co.uk/pre-prep/early-years/reception

Churchill, R., Ferguson, P., Godinho, S., Johnson, N.F., Keddie, A., Letts, W., Vick, M. (2011). Teaching making a difference. Milton, QLD: John Wiley & Sons.

Curtis, D., & Carter, M. (2003). Designs for living and learning: Transforming Early Childhood Environments. St Paul: Redleaf Press.

Curtis, D., & Carter, M. (2008). Learning together with young children: A curriculum framework for reflective teachers. St Paul: Redleaf Press.

Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations (DEEWR). (2009). Belonging, Being, Becoming: The Early Years Learning Framework. Retrieved from http://education.gov.au/early-years-learning-framework

Double Rainbow [Image]. (2010). Retrieved from http://photoshd.wordpress.com/2010/11/20/double-rainbow/

Early Childhood Australia (ECA). (2014). Connecting children, families and learning. Retrieved April 14, 2014, from http://www.earlychildhoodaustralia.org.au/every_child_magazine/every_child_index/editorial_connecting_children_families_and_learning.html

Edward T. Halls cultural iceberg model. (2010). Retrieved April 15, 2014, from http://region10.acui.org/region/10/conference/2011/presentations/Hall's%20Iceberg%20Model%20handout.pdf

Evers, J. (n.d.). Rainbow. In National geographic online encyclopaedia. Retrieved April 14, 2014, from http://education.nationalgeographic.com/education/encyclopedia/rainbow/?ar_a=1

Fleer, M., & Williams-Kennedy, D. (2002). Building bridges: Literacy development in young Indigenous children. Canberra: Australia Early Childhood Association.

Fleer, M., Edwards, S., Hammer, M., Kennedy, A., Ridgway, A., Robbins, J., & Surman, L. (2006). Early childhood learning communities: Sociocultural research in practice. Frenchs Forest: Pearson Education.

Fleer, M. (2013). Play in the early years. Port Melbourne, VIC: Cambridge University Press.

Geoghegan, D. (2014). EDE4103 Module 1: What makes a good teacher? Retrieved March 20, 2014, from http://usqstudydesk.usq.edu.au/m2/mod/page/view.php?id=178679

Harrison, N. (2011). Relationship to place: Positioning Aboriginal knowledge and perspectives in classroom pedagogies. Critical studies in education, 52(1), 65-76. doi: 10.1080/17508487.2011.536513

Impressive rainbow over the dollmites in Italy [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://cdn.theatlantic.com/static/infocus/ngpc112713/n15_18230434.jpg

Katzenmeyer, M., & Moller, G. (2001). Awakening the sleeping giant: helping teachers develop as leaders (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press.

Kids matter early childhood. (n.d.). Building partnerships between families and early childhood staff [Fact sheet]. Retrieved April 14, 2014, from https://www.kidsmatter.edu.au/sites/default/files/public/KMEC_C4_201205_03_building-partnerships.pdf

Larrivee, B. (2008). Development of a tool to assess teachers level of reflective practice. Reflective practice, 9(3), 341-60.

Leadership in the classroom [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://fortresslearning.com.au/2011/10/leadership-in-the-classroom-a-new-role-for-teachers/

Learning From Mom Boosts Low-Income Kids School Readiness [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.redorbit.com/news/education/2066689/learning_from_mom_boosts_lowincome_kids_school_readiness/#4yrvsVCYiMBTQCRz.99

Lunar Rainbows [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://listverse.com/2012/12/20/10-beautiful-types-of-rainbows/

MacNaughton, G., & Williams, G. (2009). Techniques for teaching young children: Choices for theory and practice (3rd ed.). Frenchs Forest, NSW: Pearson Education.

Mifsud, T. (n.d.). 30 epic example of inspirational classroom dcor [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.pinterest.com/pin/231724343301654906/

Mifsud, T. (n.d.). Peachtree Presbyterian Preschool classroom environment [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.pinterest.com/pin/231724343301711745/

Mifsud, T. (n.d.). The cutest little classroom I ever did see [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.pinterest.com/pin/231724343301335367/

Moni, K.B., & Hay, I. (2012). Secondary school and beyond. In Ashman, A & Elkins, J (Eds.), Education for inclusion and diversity (pp. 325-362). Frenchs Forest: Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd.

Noble, K. (2010a). EDE3103 Module 2: Play as an integrative device through multi-symbolic representation [PowerPoint Presentation]. Retrieved from http://usqstudydesk.usq.edu.au/m2/course/view.php?id=4201

Noble, K. (2010b). EDE3103 Module 3: Scaffolding and interpreting play in context [PowerPoint Presentation]. Retrieved from http://usqstudydesk.usq.edu.au/m2/course/view.php?id=4201

Noble, K. (2010c). EDE 3103 Module 5: Changing role of the teacher in contemporary early childhood contexts [PowerPoint Presentation]. Retrieved from http://usqstudydesk.usq.edu.au/m2/course/view.php?id=4201

Online learning community [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.thelearningcommunity.org.uk/

Parent involvement [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://goletafamilyschool.com/about/parent-involvement/

Parents helping their children with homework [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.dreamstime.com/stock-photos-parents-helping-children-homework-kitchen-pointing-to-textbook-leaning-over-shoulder-image35613943

Primary learning styles of young children [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://mothergoosetimeblog.com/category/activities-by-theme/reflections/individualized-instruction/

Queensland Studies Authority (QSA). (2006). Early Years Curriculum Guidelines (EYCG). Retrieved April 15, 2014, from http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au/downloads/p_10/ey_cg_06.pdf

Queensland Studies Authority. (2010). Queensland kindergarten learning guidelines (QKLG). Retrieved from http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au/downloads/p_10/qklg.pdf

Rainbow [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://gicleeprepress.blogspot.com.au/2010/11/how-wide-is-your-rainbow.html

Reflecting on our practice [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.learner.org/workshops/connectarts68/program8/

Reggio Kids. (2014). The hundred languages of children. Retrieved April 19, 2014, from http://www.reggiokids.com/the_hundred_languages_of_children.html

Rocks, S. (2010). Double rainbow [Image]. Retrieved from http://scienceblogs.com/startswithabang/2012/08/14/how-many-colors-are-really-in-a-rainbow/

Rogers, C. (2002). Defining Reflection: Another Look at John Dewey and Reflective Thinking. Teachers College Record Volume 104 Number 4, 2002, p. 842-866 . Retrieved from http://www.jcu.edu/education/ed100/Rodgers,%20C.%20(2002).%20Defining%20Reflection%20Another%20Look%20at%20John%20Dewey%20and%20Reflective%20Thinking.%20Teachers%20College%20Record,%20104(4),%20842-866..pdf

Rogoff, B. (2003). The cultural nature of human development. Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press.

Saffas, A.G. (n.d.). Upside down rainbow [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.neatorama.com/2007/02/24/an-upside-down-rainbow/#!DX8xc

Saskatchewan Ministry of education. (n.d.). Playhouse and pathways for childrens outdoor enjoyment [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.education.gov.sk.ca/Default.aspx?DN=4de38060-953f-4922-9b9b-1d3bec94400d

Science kids. (2013). Rainbow facts for kids. Retrieved April 14, 2014, from http://www.sciencekids.co.nz/sciencefacts/weather/rainbows.html

Sigelman, C., Rider, E., & De George-Walker, L. (2013). Life Span Human Development (Australian and New Zealand Edition). South Melbourne, VIC: Cengage Learning Australia Pty Ltd.

Simulated Early Learning Centre [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.holmesglen.edu.au/showcase/facilities/simulated_early_learning_centre

Stacey, S. (2009). Emergent curriculum in early childhood settings: From theory to practice. St Paul: Redleaf Press.

Stiryanova. (n.d.). Two girls standing in grass, and looking at rainbow on sky [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.gettyimages.com.au/detail/photo/girls-looking-at-rainbow-royalty-free-image/145027605

Studio portrait of John Dewey [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/160445/John-Dewey

The cost of play schemes for children this summer is going up[Image]. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/8631022/Working-parents-face-summer-play-scheme-price-hikes.html

The Reggio Emilia approach [Image]. (2011). Retrieved from http://austingreenschool.blogspot.com.au/2011/09/reggio-emilia-appraoch-conerstone-to.html

Tips for engaging multiple learning styles [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://blogs.faithlafayette.org/faithkids/tips-for-engaging-multiple-learning-styles/

Understanding Your Student's Learning Style: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.connectionsacademy.com/blog/posts/2013-01-18/Understanding-Your-Student-s-Learning-Style-The-Theory-of-Multiple-Intelligences.aspx

Weather Wiz Kids. (2013). Optical Illusions. Retrieved April 14, 2014, from http://weatherwizkids.com/weather-optical-illusions.htm

Where do you look for a rainbow [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.totallifecounseling.com/2011/08/tips-for-changing-schools-and-social-adjustment-back-to-school/

28Reference ListKatzenmeyer, M., & Moller, G. (2001). Awakening the sleeping giant: helping teachers develop as leaders (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press.Kids matter early childhood. (n.d.). Building partnerships between families and early childhood staff [Fact sheet]. Retrieved April 14, 2014, from https://www.kidsmatter.edu.au/sites/default/files/public/KMEC_C4_201205_03_building-partnerships.pdfLarrivee, B. (2008). Development of a tool to assess teachers level of reflective practice. Reflective practice, 9(3), 341-60. Leadership in the classroom [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://fortresslearning.com.au/2011/10/leadership-in-the-classroom-a-new-role-for-teachers/Learning From Mom Boosts Low-Income Kids School Readiness [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.redorbit.com/news/education/2066689/learning_from_mom_boosts_lowincome_kids_school_readiness/#4yrvsVCYiMBTQCRz.99Lunar Rainbows [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://listverse.com/2012/12/20/10-beautiful-types-of-rainbows/MacNaughton, G., & Williams, G. (2009). Techniques for teaching young children: Choices for theory and practice (3rd ed.). Frenchs Forest, NSW: Pearson Education.

A bibliography of Dr Maria Montessori [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://montessori.org.au/montessori/biography.htm

Arthur, L., Beecher, B., Death, E., Dockett, S., & Farmer, S. (2008). Programming and planning in early childhood settings (4th ed.). South Melbourne, Vic.: Cengage Learning Australia.

Ashman, A., & Merrotsy,P. (2012). Learners and environments. In Ashman, A & Elkins, J (Eds.), Education for inclusion and diversity (pp. 63-98). Frenchs Forest: Pearson Education.

Badz, S. (2013). A double rainbow appears over the 18th hole during the third round of the Utah Championship [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/08/31/facts-about-rainbows_n_3779801.html

Becker, G.A. (2002). Double Rainbow [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.astronomy.org/StarWatch/August/index-8-02.html

Brisbane Catholic Education. (1998). The Iceberg model of culture [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.asiaeducation.edu.au/for_teachers/professional_learning/intercultural_competencies/developing_intercultural_understanding/diu_resources/resource_2_iceberg_model.html

Bronfenbrenners Ecological Systems Theory [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://impactofspecialneeds.weebly.com/bronfenbrennerrsquos-ecological-systems-theory.html

Calvet, E. (2011, November 24). Reflective practice in primary education [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://cockroachesladybugs.blogspot.com.au/2011/11/reflective-practice-in-primary.html

Children of the world [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.dreamstime.com/royalty-free-stock-photos-children-world-image11407378

Children playing with a sandpit [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.hallfieldschool.co.uk/pre-prep/early-years/reception

Churchill, R., Ferguson, P., Godinho, S., Johnson, N.F., Keddie, A., Letts, W., Vick, M. (2011). Teaching making a difference. Milton, QLD: John Wiley & Sons.

Curtis, D., & Carter, M. (2003). Designs for living and learning: Transforming Early Childhood Environments. St Paul: Redleaf Press.

Curtis, D., & Carter, M. (2008). Learning together with young children: A curriculum framework for reflective teachers. St Paul: Redleaf Press.

Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations (DEEWR). (2009). Belonging, Being, Becoming: The Early Years Learning Framework. Retrieved from http://education.gov.au/early-years-learning-framework

Double Rainbow [Image]. (2010). Retrieved from http://photoshd.wordpress.com/2010/11/20/double-rainbow/

Early Childhood Australia (ECA). (2014). Connecting children, families and learning. Retrieved April 14, 2014, from http://www.earlychildhoodaustralia.org.au/every_child_magazine/every_child_index/editorial_connecting_children_families_and_learning.html

Edward T. Halls cultural iceberg model. (2010). Retrieved April 15, 2014, from http://region10.acui.org/region/10/conference/2011/presentations/Hall's%20Iceberg%20Model%20handout.pdf

Evers, J. (n.d.). Rainbow. In National geographic online encyclopaedia. Retrieved April 14, 2014, from http://education.nationalgeographic.com/education/encyclopedia/rainbow/?ar_a=1

Fleer, M., & Williams-Kennedy, D. (2002). Building bridges: Literacy development in young Indigenous children. Canberra: Australia Early Childhood Association.

Fleer, M., Edwards, S., Hammer, M., Kennedy, A., Ridgway, A., Robbins, J., & Surman, L. (2006). Early childhood learning communities: Sociocultural research in practice. Frenchs Forest: Pearson Education.

Fleer, M. (2013). Play in the early years. Port Melbourne, VIC: Cambridge University Press.

Geoghegan, D. (2014). EDE4103 Module 1: What makes a good teacher? Retrieved March 20, 2014, from http://usqstudydesk.usq.edu.au/m2/mod/page/view.php?id=178679

Harrison, N. (2011). Relationship to place: Positioning Aboriginal knowledge and perspectives in classroom pedagogies. Critical studies in education, 52(1), 65-76. doi: 10.1080/17508487.2011.536513

Impressive rainbow over the dollmites in Italy [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://cdn.theatlantic.com/static/infocus/ngpc112713/n15_18230434.jpg

Katzenmeyer, M., & Moller, G. (2001). Awakening the sleeping giant: helping teachers develop as leaders (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press.

Kids matter early childhood. (n.d.). Building partnerships between families and early childhood staff [Fact sheet]. Retrieved April 14, 2014, from https://www.kidsmatter.edu.au/sites/default/files/public/KMEC_C4_201205_03_building-partnerships.pdf

Larrivee, B. (2008). Development of a tool to assess teachers level of reflective practice. Reflective practice, 9(3), 341-60.

Leadership in the classroom [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://fortresslearning.com.au/2011/10/leadership-in-the-classroom-a-new-role-for-teachers/

Learning From Mom Boosts Low-Income Kids School Readiness [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.redorbit.com/news/education/2066689/learning_from_mom_boosts_lowincome_kids_school_readiness/#4yrvsVCYiMBTQCRz.99

Lunar Rainbows [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://listverse.com/2012/12/20/10-beautiful-types-of-rainbows/

MacNaughton, G., & Williams, G. (2009). Techniques for teaching young children: Choices for theory and practice (3rd ed.). Frenchs Forest, NSW: Pearson Education.

Mifsud, T. (n.d.). 30 epic example of inspirational classroom dcor [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.pinterest.com/pin/231724343301654906/

Mifsud, T. (n.d.). Peachtree Presbyterian Preschool classroom environment [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.pinterest.com/pin/231724343301711745/

Mifsud, T. (n.d.). The cutest little classroom I ever did see [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.pinterest.com/pin/231724343301335367/

Moni, K.B., & Hay, I. (2012). Secondary school and beyond. In Ashman, A & Elkins, J (Eds.), Education for inclusion and diversity (pp. 325-362). Frenchs Forest: Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd.

Noble, K. (2010a). EDE3103 Module 2: Play as an integrative device through multi-symbolic representation [PowerPoint Presentation]. Retrieved from http://usqstudydesk.usq.edu.au/m2/course/view.php?id=4201

Noble, K. (2010b). EDE3103 Module 3: Scaffolding and interpreting play in context [PowerPoint Presentation]. Retrieved from http://usqstudydesk.usq.edu.au/m2/course/view.php?id=4201

Noble, K. (2010c). EDE 3103 Module 5: Changing role of the teacher in contemporary early childhood contexts [PowerPoint Presentation]. Retrieved from http://usqstudydesk.usq.edu.au/m2/course/view.php?id=4201

Online learning community [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.thelearningcommunity.org.uk/

Parent involvement [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://goletafamilyschool.com/about/parent-involvement/

Parents helping their children with homework [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.dreamstime.com/stock-photos-parents-helping-children-homework-kitchen-pointing-to-textbook-leaning-over-shoulder-image35613943

Primary learning styles of young children [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://mothergoosetimeblog.com/category/activities-by-theme/reflections/individualized-instruction/

Queensland Studies Authority (QSA). (2006). Early Years Curriculum Guidelines (EYCG). Retrieved April 15, 2014, from http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au/downloads/p_10/ey_cg_06.pdf

Queensland Studies Authority. (2010). Queensland kindergarten learning guidelines (QKLG). Retrieved from http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au/downloads/p_10/qklg.pdf

Rainbow [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://gicleeprepress.blogspot.com.au/2010/11/how-wide-is-your-rainbow.html

Reflecting on our practice [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.learner.org/workshops/connectarts68/program8/

Reggio Kids. (2014). The hundred languages of children. Retrieved April 19, 2014, from http://www.reggiokids.com/the_hundred_languages_of_children.html

Rocks, S. (2010). Double rainbow [Image]. Retrieved from http://scienceblogs.com/startswithabang/2012/08/14/how-many-colors-are-really-in-a-rainbow/

Rogers, C. (2002). Defining Reflection: Another Look at John Dewey and Reflective Thinking. Teachers College Record Volume 104 Number 4, 2002, p. 842-866 . Retrieved from http://www.jcu.edu/education/ed100/Rodgers,%20C.%20(2002).%20Defining%20Reflection%20Another%20Look%20at%20John%20Dewey%20and%20Reflective%20Thinking.%20Teachers%20College%20Record,%20104(4),%20842-866..pdf

Rogoff, B. (2003). The cultural nature of human development. Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press.

Saffas, A.G. (n.d.). Upside down rainbow [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.neatorama.com/2007/02/24/an-upside-down-rainbow/#!DX8xc

Saskatchewan Ministry of education. (n.d.). Playhouse and pathways for childrens outdoor enjoyment [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.education.gov.sk.ca/Default.aspx?DN=4de38060-953f-4922-9b9b-1d3bec94400d

Science kids. (2013). Rainbow facts for kids. Retrieved April 14, 2014, from http://www.sciencekids.co.nz/sciencefacts/weather/rainbows.html

Sigelman, C., Rider, E., & De George-Walker, L. (2013). Life Span Human Development (Australian and New Zealand Edition). South Melbourne, VIC: Cengage Learning Australia Pty Ltd.

Simulated Early Learning Centre [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.holmesglen.edu.au/showcase/facilities/simulated_early_learning_centre

Stacey, S. (2009). Emergent curriculum in early childhood settings: From theory to practice. St Paul: Redleaf Press.

Stiryanova. (n.d.). Two girls standing in grass, and looking at rainbow on sky [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.gettyimages.com.au/detail/photo/girls-looking-at-rainbow-royalty-free-image/145027605

Studio portrait of John Dewey [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/160445/John-Dewey

The cost of play schemes for children this summer is going up[Image]. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/8631022/Working-parents-face-summer-play-scheme-price-hikes.html

The Reggio Emilia approach [Image]. (2011). Retrieved from http://austingreenschool.blogspot.com.au/2011/09/reggio-emilia-appraoch-conerstone-to.html

Tips for engaging multiple learning styles [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://blogs.faithlafayette.org/faithkids/tips-for-engaging-multiple-learning-styles/

Understanding Your Student's Learning Style: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.connectionsacademy.com/blog/posts/2013-01-18/Understanding-Your-Student-s-Learning-Style-The-Theory-of-Multiple-Intelligences.aspx

Weather Wiz Kids. (2013). Optical Illusions. Retrieved April 14, 2014, from http://weatherwizkids.com/weather-optical-illusions.htm

Where do you look for a rainbow [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.totallifecounseling.com/2011/08/tips-for-changing-schools-and-social-adjustment-back-to-school/

29Reference ListMifsud, T. (n.d.). 30 epic example of inspirational classroom dcor [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.pinterest.com/pin/231724343301654906/Mifsud, T. (n.d.). Peachtree Presbyterian Preschool classroom environment [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.pinterest.com/pin/231724343301711745/Mifsud, T. (n.d.). The cutest little classroom I ever did see [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.pinterest.com/pin/231724343301335367/Moni, K.B., & Hay, I. (2012). Secondary school and beyond. In Ashman, A & Elkins, J (Eds.), Education for inclusion and diversity (pp. 325-362). Frenchs Forest: Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd. Noble, K. (2010a). EDE3103 Module 2: Play as an integrative device through multi-symbolic representation [PowerPoint Presentation]. Retrieved from http://usqstudydesk.usq.edu.au/m2/course/view.php?id=4201Noble, K. (2010b). EDE3103 Module 3: Scaffolding and interpreting play in context [PowerPoint Presentation]. Retrieved from http://usqstudydesk.usq.edu.au/m2/course/view.php?id=4201Noble, K. (2010c). EDE 3103 Module 5: Changing role of the teacher in contemporary early childhood contexts [PowerPoint Presentation]. Retrieved from http://usqstudydesk.usq.edu.au/m2/course/view.php?id=4201Online learning community [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.thelearningcommunity.org.uk/Parent involvement [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://goletafamilyschool.com/about/parent-involvement/

A bibliography of Dr Maria Montessori [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://montessori.org.au/montessori/biography.htm

Arthur, L., Beecher, B., Death, E., Dockett, S., & Farmer, S. (2008). Programming and planning in early childhood settings (4th ed.). South Melbourne, Vic.: Cengage Learning Australia.

Ashman, A., & Merrotsy,P. (2012). Learners and environments. In Ashman, A & Elkins, J (Eds.), Education for inclusion and diversity (pp. 63-98). Frenchs Forest: Pearson Education.

Badz, S. (2013). A double rainbow appears over the 18th hole during the third round of the Utah Championship [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/08/31/facts-about-rainbows_n_3779801.html

Becker, G.A. (2002). Double Rainbow [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.astronomy.org/StarWatch/August/index-8-02.html

Brisbane Catholic Education. (1998). The Iceberg model of culture [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.asiaeducation.edu.au/for_teachers/professional_learning/intercultural_competencies/developing_intercultural_understanding/diu_resources/resource_2_iceberg_model.html

Bronfenbrenners Ecological Systems Theory [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://impactofspecialneeds.weebly.com/bronfenbrennerrsquos-ecological-systems-theory.html

Calvet, E. (2011, November 24). Reflective practice in primary education [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://cockroachesladybugs.blogspot.com.au/2011/11/reflective-practice-in-primary.html

Children of the world [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.dreamstime.com/royalty-free-stock-photos-children-world-image11407378

Children playing with a sandpit [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.hallfieldschool.co.uk/pre-prep/early-years/reception

Churchill, R., Ferguson, P., Godinho, S., Johnson, N.F., Keddie, A., Letts, W., Vick, M. (2011). Teaching making a difference. Milton, QLD: John Wiley & Sons.

Curtis, D., & Carter, M. (2003). Designs for living and learning: Transforming Early Childhood Environments. St Paul: Redleaf Press.

Curtis, D., & Carter, M. (2008). Learning together with young children: A curriculum framework for reflective teachers. St Paul: Redleaf Press.

Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations (DEEWR). (2009). Belonging, Being, Becoming: The Early Years Learning Framework. Retrieved from http://education.gov.au/early-years-learning-framework

Double Rainbow [Image]. (2010). Retrieved from http://photoshd.wordpress.com/2010/11/20/double-rainbow/

Early Childhood Australia (ECA). (2014). Connecting children, families and learning. Retrieved April 14, 2014, from http://www.earlychildhoodaustralia.org.au/every_child_magazine/every_child_index/editorial_connecting_children_families_and_learning.html

Edward T. Halls cultural iceberg model. (2010). Retrieved April 15, 2014, from http://region10.acui.org/region/10/conference/2011/presentations/Hall's%20Iceberg%20Model%20handout.pdf

Evers, J. (n.d.). Rainbow. In National geographic online encyclopaedia. Retrieved April 14, 2014, from http://education.nationalgeographic.com/education/encyclopedia/rainbow/?ar_a=1

Fleer, M., & Williams-Kennedy, D. (2002). Building bridges: Literacy development in young Indigenous children. Canberra: Australia Early Childhood Association.

Fleer, M., Edwards, S., Hammer, M., Kennedy, A., Ridgway, A., Robbins, J., & Surman, L. (2006). Early childhood learning communities: Sociocultural research in practice. Frenchs Forest: Pearson Education.

Fleer, M. (2013). Play in the early years. Port Melbourne, VIC: Cambridge University Press.

Geoghegan, D. (2014). EDE4103 Module 1: What makes a good teacher? Retrieved March 20, 2014, from http://usqstudydesk.usq.edu.au/m2/mod/page/view.php?id=178679

Harrison, N. (2011). Relationship to place: Positioning Aboriginal knowledge and perspectives in classroom pedagogies. Critical studies in education, 52(1), 65-76. doi: 10.1080/17508487.2011.536513

Impressive rainbow over the dollmites in Italy [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://cdn.theatlantic.com/static/infocus/ngpc112713/n15_18230434.jpg

Katzenmeyer, M., & Moller, G. (2001). Awakening the sleeping giant: helping teachers develop as leaders (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press.

Kids matter early childhood. (n.d.). Building partnerships between families and early childhood staff [Fact sheet]. Retrieved April 14, 2014, from https://www.kidsmatter.edu.au/sites/default/files/public/KMEC_C4_201205_03_building-partnerships.pdf

Larrivee, B. (2008). Development of a tool to assess teachers level of reflective practice. Reflective practice, 9(3), 341-60.

Leadership in the classroom [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://fortresslearning.com.au/2011/10/leadership-in-the-classroom-a-new-role-for-teachers/

Learning From Mom Boosts Low-Income Kids School Readiness [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.redorbit.com/news/education/2066689/learning_from_mom_boosts_lowincome_kids_school_readiness/#4yrvsVCYiMBTQCRz.99

Lunar Rainbows [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://listverse.com/2012/12/20/10-beautiful-types-of-rainbows/

MacNaughton, G., & Williams, G. (2009). Techniques for teaching young children: Choices for theory and practice (3rd ed.). Frenchs Forest, NSW: Pearson Education.

Mifsud, T. (n.d.). 30 epic example of inspirational classroom dcor [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.pinterest.com/pin/231724343301654906/

Mifsud, T. (n.d.). Peachtree Presbyterian Preschool classroom environment [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.pinterest.com/pin/231724343301711745/

Mifsud, T. (n.d.). The cutest little classroom I ever did see [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.pinterest.com/pin/231724343301335367/

Moni, K.B., & Hay, I. (2012). Secondary school and beyond. In Ashman, A & Elkins, J (Eds.), Education for inclusion and diversity (pp. 325-362). Frenchs Forest: Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd.

Noble, K. (2010a). EDE3103 Module 2: Play as an integrative device through multi-symbolic representation [PowerPoint Presentation]. Retrieved from http://usqstudydesk.usq.edu.au/m2/course/view.php?id=4201

Noble, K. (2010b). EDE3103 Module 3: Scaffolding and interpreting play in context [PowerPoint Presentation]. Retrieved from http://usqstudydesk.usq.edu.au/m2/course/view.php?id=4201

Noble, K. (2010c). EDE 3103 Module 5: Changing role of the teacher in contemporary early childhood contexts [PowerPoint Presentation]. Retrieved from http://usqstudydesk.usq.edu.au/m2/course/view.php?id=4201

Online learning community [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.thelearningcommunity.org.uk/

Parent involvement [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://goletafamilyschool.com/about/parent-involvement/

Parents helping their children with homework [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.dreamstime.com/stock-photos-parents-helping-children-homework-kitchen-pointing-to-textbook-leaning-over-shoulder-image35613943

Primary learning styles of young children [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://mothergoosetimeblog.com/category/activities-by-theme/reflections/individualized-instruction/

Queensland Studies Authority (QSA). (2006). Early Years Curriculum Guidelines (EYCG). Retrieved April 15, 2014, from http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au/downloads/p_10/ey_cg_06.pdf

Queensland Studies Authority. (2010). Queensland kindergarten learning guidelines (QKLG). Retrieved from http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au/downloads/p_10/qklg.pdf

Rainbow [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://gicleeprepress.blogspot.com.au/2010/11/how-wide-is-your-rainbow.html

Reflecting on our practice [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.learner.org/workshops/connectarts68/program8/

Reggio Kids. (2014). The hundred languages of children. Retrieved April 19, 2014, from http://www.reggiokids.com/the_hundred_languages_of_children.html

Rocks, S. (2010). Double rainbow [Image]. Retrieved from http://scienceblogs.com/startswithabang/2012/08/14/how-many-colors-are-really-in-a-rainbow/

Rogers, C. (2002). Defining Reflection: Another Look at John Dewey and Reflective Thinking. Teachers College Record Volume 104 Number 4, 2002, p. 842-866 . Retrieved from http://www.jcu.edu/education/ed100/Rodgers,%20C.%20(2002).%20Defining%20Reflection%20Another%20Look%20at%20John%20Dewey%20and%20Reflective%20Thinking.%20Teachers%20College%20Record,%20104(4),%20842-866..pdf

Rogoff, B. (2003). The cultural nature of human development. Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press.

Saffas, A.G. (n.d.). Upside down rainbow [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.neatorama.com/2007/02/24/an-upside-down-rainbow/#!DX8xc

Saskatchewan Ministry of education. (n.d.). Playhouse and pathways for childrens outdoor enjoyment [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.education.gov.sk.ca/Default.aspx?DN=4de38060-953f-4922-9b9b-1d3bec94400d

Science kids. (2013). Rainbow facts for kids. Retrieved April 14, 2014, from http://www.sciencekids.co.nz/sciencefacts/weather/rainbows.html

Sigelman, C., Rider, E., & De George-Walker, L. (2013). Life Span Human Development (Australian and New Zealand Edition). South Melbourne, VIC: Cengage Learning Australia Pty Ltd.

Simulated Early Learning Centre [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.holmesglen.edu.au/showcase/facilities/simulated_early_learning_centre

Stacey, S. (2009). Emergent curriculum in early childhood settings: From theory to practice. St Paul: Redleaf Press.

Stiryanova. (n.d.). Two girls standing in grass, and looking at rainbow on sky [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.gettyimages.com.au/detail/photo/girls-looking-at-rainbow-royalty-free-image/145027605

Studio portrait of John Dewey [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/160445/John-Dewey

The cost of play schemes for children this summer is going up[Image]. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/8631022/Working-parents-face-summer-play-scheme-price-hikes.html

The Reggio Emilia approach [Image]. (2011). Retrieved from http://austingreenschool.blogspot.com.au/2011/09/reggio-emilia-appraoch-conerstone-to.html

Tips for engaging multiple learning styles [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://blogs.faithlafayette.org/faithkids/tips-for-engaging-multiple-learning-styles/

Understanding Your Student's Learning Style: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.connectionsacademy.com/blog/posts/2013-01-18/Understanding-Your-Student-s-Learning-Style-The-Theory-of-Multiple-Intelligences.aspx

Weather Wiz Kids. (2013). Optical Illusions. Retrieved April 14, 2014, from http://weatherwizkids.com/weather-optical-illusions.htm

Where do you look for a rainbow [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.totallifecounseling.com/2011/08/tips-for-changing-schools-and-social-adjustment-back-to-school/

30Reference ListParents helping their children with homework [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.dreamstime.com/stock-photos-parents-helping-children-homework-kitchen-pointing-to-textbook-leaning-over-shoulder-image35613943Primary learning styles of young children [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://mothergoosetimeblog.com/category/activities-by-theme/reflections/individualized-instruction/Queensland Studies Authority (QSA). (2006). Early Years Curriculum Guidelines (EYCG). Retrieved April 15, 2014, from http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au/downloads/p_10/ey_cg_06.pdfQueensland Studies Authority. (2010). Queensland kindergarten learning guidelines (QKLG). Retrieved from http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au/downloads/p_10/qklg.pdfRainbow [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://gicleeprepress.blogspot.com.au/2010/11/how-wide-is-your-rainbow.htmlReflecting on our practice [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.learner.org/workshops/connectarts68/program8/Reggio Kids. (2014). The hundred languages of children. Retrieved April 19, 2014, from http://www.reggiokids.com/the_hundred_languages_of_children.htmlRocks, S. (2010). Double rainbow [Image]. Retrieved from http://scienceblogs.com/startswithabang/2012/08/14/how-many-colors-are-really-in-a-rainbow/

A bibliography of Dr Maria Montessori [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://montessori.org.au/montessori/biography.htm

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Ashman, A., & Merrotsy,P. (2012). Learners and environments. In Ashman, A & Elkins, J (Eds.), Education for inclusion and diversity (pp. 63-98). Frenchs Forest: Pearson Education.

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