Standards for Smart Learning Environments

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Standards for Smart Learning Environments towards a development framework

Tore HoelOslo and Akershus University College of Applied SciencesNorway

Lecture at Beijing Normal University2016-11-21

Who is this guy?StandardsOpen EducationalResources (OER)ICT in educationEU & NordicprojectsLearning AnalyticsInteroperability

Communication &Information Management

Understanding SmartTo define Smart Learning as the counterpoint to Stupid Learning is not so smart!A is, what B is not: Mathematically, this gives an indefinite space of A you will never be able to know what the boundaries of A areWe have the same problem defining Scope when developing standards!SmartStupid


Grounding new theoriesFlat vs DeepAssociative vs Grounded2D vs 3D

Smart should be grounded So should also our standards work!What is the implied theoretical and empirical model behind Smart Learning Environments?

What theoretical and empirical model of learning technologies should inform LET standardisation?

Smart as in the JournalLaunched in 2014

The aim of the journal is to help various stakeholders of smart learning environments better understand each other's role in the overall process of education and how they may support each other.

Conceptualizing the fieldZhi-Ting ZhuJonathan Michael SpectorGwo-Jen HwangRob Koper

Zhu Zhi-TingFor learners: Smart refers to wisdom and intelligenceAbility to think quickly and cleverlyFor educational environment, smart refers to engaging, intelligent and scalable.Collective intelligence

The essence of smarter education is to construct technology-infused environments and create finer ecology of pedagogies, so that higher achievements of teaching, better experiences of learning and personalized learning services could be enabled, and thus talents of wisdom who have better value orientation, higher thinking quality, stronger doing ability and deeper potentiality of creating could be fostered. ( Zhu Zhiting, 2012)

A preliminary definition of Smarter Education as proposed


2012.12The true essence of smart education is making intelligent teaching and learning methods accessible to teachers and students by establishing smart environment via intelligent technology, which was impossible previously, with the aim of training talented people with proper value orientation, brilliant thinking skills and strong implementation capability with more efficiency and less efforts.

Zhu: 10 key features of SLELocation-AwareContext-AwareSocially AwareInteroperabilitySeamless ConnectionAdaptabilityUbiquitousWhole RecordNatural InteractionHigh Engagement

Mike SpectorNecessary characteristicsIn a general sense, a smart learning environment is one that is effective, efficient and engaging

Hwang Gwo-JenMinimally, a SLE should becontext-awareadaptivepersonalized

Rob KoperSmart learning environments (SLEs) are physical environments that are enriched with digital, context-aware and adaptive devices, to promote better and faster learning.Human Learning Interface: set of interaction mechanisms that humans expose to the outside world, and that can be used to control, stimulate and facilitate their learning processes.

Educational Modelling LanguageBased on a Pedagogical meta modelempirist (behaviourist)rationalist (cognitivist and contructivist)pragmatist-sociohistoric (situationalist)

EML Unit of Study model (Koper & Manderveld 2004).Where Koper is coming from

Koper: 5 Human Learning InterfacesCognition: Representations!What behaviours and learning processes can be represented?

1. Learning to represent new situations and events in the world and know how to act and react. This is facilitated through the identification HLI.2. Learning to represent the social norms, values, customs and ideologies of social institutions and learning the skills and habits that enables you to behave within the social institutions, including the dissemination of norms and values to others. Social institutions include: family, peer groups, religion, economic system, language and legal system. social situations and events given. This is facilitated through the socialization HLI.3. Learning to represent new sequences of behavior in order to create something. This is facilitated through the creation HLI.4. Learning to represent knowledge and actions faster and better, including the representation of performance targets or future incentives for any of the previously mentioned behaviors. This is facilitated through the practice HLI.5. Learning to create representations of representations and to change the initial representations and behaviors. This is facilitated through the reflection HLI.

Koper: Conditions for effective SLEsDigital devices added to physical worldSupport for core HLIs: identification, socialisation and creationSupport for meta HLI: practice and reflectionAdaption based on location, context, preferences, physical & mental condition, cultureIntervention: questions, tasks, information, resources, conditioningSpecify and communicate learning objectivesNo friction

SLEs are physical environments that are improved to promote better and faster learning by enriching the environment with context-aware and adaptive digital devices that, together with the existing constituents of the physical environment, provide the situations, events, interventions and observations needed to stimulate a person to learn to know and deal with situations (identification), to socialize with the group, to create artefacts, and to practice and reflect.Koper: Definition of Smart LE

Testing the framework

SLE framework (Koper 2014)

Where do Zhu, Spector, Hwang requirements fit?Location-AwareContext-AwareSocially AwareInteroperabilitySeamless ConnectionAdaptabilityUbiquitousWhole RecordNatural InteractionHigh EngagementScalableFlexiblePersonalizedConversationalReflectiveInnovative

What about Learning Cell (Yu Shengquan)?Learning cell will be adapted to ubiquitous learning and informal learning environment, and has some basic characteristics including utilizing collective wisdom, sustaining evolvement, generative information sharing, distributed runtime resource sharing, social network sharing, intelligent resources, etc.

Developing standardsfor SLEs

The standard setting experts of ISO/IEC JTC1/SC36

Standards bureaucratsResearchers - University

SC36 structure todayWG 1Vocabulary WG 2Collaborative and intelligent technology WG 3Learner information WG 4Management and delivery WG 5Quality assurance and descriptive frameworks WG 6Platform, Services, and Specification Integration WG 7ITLET - Culture, language and individual needs WG 8Learning Analytics Interoperability

ISO/IEC JTC1/SC36 SC36 has published metadata standards, mainly related to description of learning content and content delivery systems, competency structures, quality metrics, and accessibility.

New work items in SC36Digital BadgesSmart Learning Environment Smart ClassroomEnvironments and resources for augmented reality and virtual realityMOOCSStudy group on a higher level within ISO on blockchain (electronic distributed ledger) technologies A working group wanted input on collaborative learning communication with social mediaWork on privacy and data protection in the context of learning analytics

Should SC36 be restructured according to a Smart Learning Environment Framework?

ProSLE is the most modern and most general framework being discussedComprehensive, extensiveCould be robust - if done rightChange working process to include the whole committee work more across work groupsToo fuzzy, the boundaries are unclearPeople issuesExisting projects must go onLegacy work on published standardsCon

How would standards development according to Kopers SLE framework look like?

Physical EnvironmentsCCNU project on developing metrics for describing Learning Space

Situations and EventsCurricula standardsCompetency frameworksVocabulary for contexts (LA activity specifications - xAPI)Nomadicity and Mobile Learning

InterventionsWhat types of interventions?Question managementTask managementProvisioning of learning resourcesConditioning of learning environment What digital support for pedagogical interventions?

Digital DevicesLearning Technology Architecture Types of devicesMOOCsAugmented and virtual reality tools

ObservationsAll aspects of learning analyticsMeticsActivity stream formatsCollectionStoringAnalysingAssessments and tests

Context-AwarenessNeed for vocabularies describing contexts

AdaptivenessSupport for setting up learning instances based on observations

IdentificationCompetency descriptionsLearning targetsTasksProblem descriptions

SocializationSocial learning supportPeer learningGroup learningRole Negotiation

CreationSupport for all types of externalisation of learning activities

PracticeStorage and retrievalPerformance targetsSelf-monitoring systemsDrill & practiceSerious games

ReflectionCreate and present representations of representations

And how should it be tested?vocabularycollaborative techintelligent technologylearner informationmanagement & deliveryqualityservice integrationaccessibility analyticswisdomquick thinkingcleverengagingat scaleLocation-AwareContext-AwareSocially AwareInteroperabilitySeamless ConnectionAdaptabilityUbiquitousWhole RecordNatural InteractionHigh Engagementpersonalisedadaptiveconversationalreflectiveinnovativelearning statusevaluationcontentsupportknowledge basetestsportfolios

ConclusionsSmart learning, smart education, smart learning environments, etc. need to be grounded in a verified theoryWe need a coherent framework model of Smart


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