Semantic Technologies in Learning Environments

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Invited talk delivered in the scope of an open online course: Introduction to Learning and Knowledge Analytics Details about the course, and the recorded presentation can be found at http://www.learninganalytics.net/?page_id=71

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<ul><li><p>Semantic Technologies in Learning Environments </p><p>Dragan GaeviAthabasca UniversityEmail: dgasevic@acm.org</p></li><li><p>The Social Web is here!</p><p>What now?</p></li><li><p>Topics to discuss morningSemantics as a big promiseLearning ecosystemsExamples of semantics in-useAuthoring and reuse of learning contentLearning analyticsOpen challenges</p></li><li><p>Part ISemantics as a Big Promise</p></li><li><p>Semantic WebTo create a universal medium for the exchange of data. to smoothly interconnect personal information management, enterprise application integration and the global sharing of commercial, scientific and cultural data. Semantic Web Activity Statement http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/Activity</p></li><li><p>Semantic WebKey characteristicsAnyone can say anything about anythingExplicit definition of the meaning</p></li><li><p>What is an ontology? Definition (Swartout and Tate, 1999)the basic structure or armature around which a knowledge base can be built</p></li><li><p>RDF</p><p> Unplugged</p><p> 1992</p><p>&lt; musician: Musician rdf:ID="urn:rdf:969914d5ca929194ea18787de32c665a-1"&gt;</p><p> Eric Clapton</p><p>Instrument</p><p>Admirer</p><p>records</p><p>attends</p><p>plays at</p><p>plays</p><p>Event</p><p>Album</p><p>Musician</p><p>musician:records</p><p>rdf:type</p><p>rdf:type</p></li><li><p>The Semantic Web is NOT opposite to the Social Web!</p></li><li><p>Semantic WebOntologies: Interconnecting applicationsShared domain conceptualizations </p></li><li><p>Linked Data</p></li><li><p>Linked DataSPARLQ end pointsThey enable data mash-ups </p></li><li><p>Part IIIPromises for Learning Environments</p></li><li><p>Learning Ecosystemshttp://www.w3.org/2006/Talks/1023-sb-W3CTechSemWeb/DataServicesWebAppMetro2.jpg</p></li><li><p>Learning EcosystemsAuthoringReusabilityPackagingEducatorsReusabilityAdaptivityEvolutionCollaboration with educators and students</p></li><li><p>Learning EcosystemsAuthoringReusabilityPackagingEducatorsFeedbackLearning and CollaboratingPersonalization Adaptivity Context-awareness Social interaction Learners</p></li><li><p>Learning EcosystemsAuthoringReusabilityPackagingLearning and CollaboratingCommunityPeer-ReviewPresentingAdministrationMobileEducatorsLearners</p></li><li><p>Important considerationsJulita Vassileva (U of Saskatchewan)Rule: hard/impossible to impose hard rulesGord McCalla (U of Saskatchewan)Ecological approach sharing experience</p></li><li><p>Personal Learning Information Management Connect presently isolated islands - not ecological!Students/EducatorsContentLORsLibrariesMultimediaReusePedagogyUser modelsAdaptivityEducational modelsCollaborationChatDiscussionServicesCommunityCourse, University, PortfolioEvidenceCompetenciesPeer-reviewCoursesPublishingPlatformsMobileDesktop </p><p>Domain toolsMashed up with education toolsDesktopEmailFirefoxAuthoringWordFrontpageReloadPrivacyPolicyIdentity</p></li><li><p>Part IIIaAuthoring and Reuse</p><p>How to reduce the number of clicks, improve precision and shorten the effort time?</p></li><li><p>Semantic DocumentsResources composed of data unitsUniquely identified by URIsAnnotated by concepts from ontologiesLinked to other data units via explicit links</p></li><li><p>Semantic Document ManagementSemantic Document AuthoringRDFizingAnnotationIndexingLinkingSemantic Document Search &amp; RetrievalSemantic Document Navigation</p><p>Nei Saa, Mehdi Jazyeri, Dragan Gasevic "Semantic Document Architecture for Desktop Document Integration and Management, the 22nd International Conference on Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering (SEKE), San Francisco, USA, 2010, In Press.</p></li><li><p>Semantic Documents Sharing </p><p>Social Networks around shared semantic documents Nei Saa, Jazayeri Mehdi, Lelli Francesco, and Gasevic Dragan, "Towards Efficient Document Content Sharing in Social Networks, 2nd International Workshop on Social Software Engineering and Applications, co-located with ESEC/FSE 2009.</p></li><li><p>SemanticDoc MS Office ToolsNei Saa, Jazayeri Mehdi, Gaevi Dragan, "Extending MS Office for sharing Document Content Units over the Semantic Web," 8th IEEE International Conference on Web Engineering (ICWE), Yorktown Heights, New York, USA, 2008.</p></li><li><p>SemanticDoc MS Office ToolsNei Saa, Jazayeri Mehdi, Gaevi Dragan, "Extending MS Office for sharing Document Content Units over the Semantic Web," 8th IEEE International Conference on Web Engineering (ICWE), Yorktown Heights, New York, USA, 2008.</p></li><li><p>SemanticDoc MS Office ToolsNei Saa, Jazayeri Mehdi, Gaevi Dragan, "Extending MS Office for sharing Document Content Units over the Semantic Web," 8th IEEE International Conference on Web Engineering (ICWE), Yorktown Heights, New York, USA, 2008.</p></li><li><p>SemanticDoc MS Office ToolsNei Saa, Jazayeri Mehdi, Gaevi Dragan, "Extending MS Office for sharing Document Content Units over the Semantic Web," 8th IEEE International Conference on Web Engineering (ICWE), Yorktown Heights, New York, USA, 2008.</p></li><li><p>SemanticDoc MS Office ToolsNei Saa, Jazayeri Mehdi, Gaevi Dragan, "Extending MS Office for sharing Document Content Units over the Semantic Web," 8th IEEE International Conference on Web Engineering (ICWE), Yorktown Heights, New York, USA, 2008.</p></li><li><p>SemanticDoc MS Office ToolsNei Saa, Jazayeri Mehdi, Gaevi Dragan, "Extending MS Office for sharing Document Content Units over the Semantic Web," 8th IEEE International Conference on Web Engineering (ICWE), Yorktown Heights, New York, USA, 2008.</p></li><li><p>Semantic Search Matters</p></li><li><p>Usability EvaluationUser effectiveness and efficiencyNei Saa, Gaevi Dragan, Jazayeri Mehdi, Monica Landoni, "Using Semantic Documents and Social Networking in Authoring Course Material: An Empirical Study," 10th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT), Tunisia, 2010 (Best paper award).</p></li><li><p>Usability EvaluationUser effectiveness and efficiencyNei Saa, Gaevi Dragan, Jazayeri Mehdi, Monica Landoni, "Using Semantic Documents and Social Networking in Authoring Course Material: An Empirical Study," 10th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT), Tunisia, 2010 (Best paper award).</p></li><li><p>Usability EvaluationUser effectiveness and efficiencyNumber of mouse clicks Nei Saa, Gaevi Dragan, Jazayeri Mehdi, Monica Landoni, "Using Semantic Documents and Social Networking in Authoring Course Material: An Empirical Study," 10th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT), Tunisia, 2010 (Best paper award).</p></li><li><p>Usability EvaluationUser effectiveness and efficiencyNumber of windows switchesNei Saa, Gaevi Dragan, Jazayeri Mehdi, Monica Landoni, "Using Semantic Documents and Social Networking in Authoring Course Material: An Empirical Study," 10th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT), Tunisia, 2010 (Best paper award).</p></li><li><p>Semantic DocumentsOpen-source project Project website: http://www.semanticdoc.orgSource code: http://sourceforge.net/projects/sdarch/ </p></li><li><p>Part IIIbContent Evolution</p><p>Feedback about effectiveness of used content and pedagogies</p></li><li><p>Context is Missing!http://www.w3.org/2006/Talks/1023-sb-W3CTechSemWeb/DataServicesWebAppMetro2.jpg</p></li><li><p>A crazy problem requires a crazy solution! (Griff Richards, 2005)</p></li><li><p>Learning Object Context Ontology: LOCOLearning contextLearner(s)Learner characteristicsLearning activityPrerequisites, learning objectives, available time, Learning object used/producedParts of objects and their pedagogical roleDomain conceptsJovanovi, J., Knight, C., Gaevi, D., Richards, G., "Learning Object Context on the Semantic Web," In Proc. 6th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, Kerkrade, The Netherlands, 2006 pp. 669-673 (Best paper award). </p></li><li><p>Learning Object Context Ontology: LOCOLearning contextLearner(s)Learner characteristicsLearning activityPrerequisites, learning objectives, available time, Learning object used/producedParts of objects and their pedagogical roleDomain conceptsJovanovi, J., Knight, C., Gaevi, D., Richards, G., "Learning Object Context on the Semantic Web," 6th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, Kerkrade, The Netherlands, 2006 pp. 669-673 (Best paper award). </p></li><li><p>LOCO-AnalystLOCO-Analyst and iHelp Courses http://www.jelenajovanovic.net/LOCO-Analyst/</p></li><li><p>LOCO-Analyst</p></li><li><p>LOCO-Analyst</p></li><li><p>LOCO-Analyst</p></li><li><p>LOCO-Analyst</p></li><li><p>OATS: Open Annotation &amp; Tagging System OATS with Moodle</p></li><li><p>Education Social Semantic WebCombining Social and Semantic Web aspectsOAST and LOCO-Analyst</p></li><li><p>Student comprehension in LOCO-Analyst</p></li><li><p>Evaluation of LOCO-AnalystTwo evaluationsIn 2006 Instructions provided and asked to try the toolParticipants: 18 (14 male, 4 female)Experience: 3.09 (SD=2.2)In 2009Video clips demonstrating the toolParticipants: 22 (17 male, 5 female)Experience: 6.45 (SD=5.58)</p></li><li><p>Evaluation of LOCO-AnalystInsights into the activities</p><p>No statistical improvement over the previous version =&gt;Better feedback about interactions between students is needed</p></li><li><p>Evaluation of LOCO-AnalystUser interface </p><p>Significant preference for the improved tool version (t(38)=2.20, p &lt; 0.05)No statistically significant increase of intuitiveness and information overload</p></li><li><p>Evaluation of LOCO-AnalystPredictors of the perceived utilityinformation about interactions of studentssocial networking students comprehension of contentcollaborative taggingintuitiveness &amp; ease-to-understand of the presentation of the above two</p></li><li><p>Evaluation of LOCO-AnalystPredictors of user interface perceived value students interaction with individual lessonsIndividual learning granularity levelstudents activities in discussion forums and chat roomssocial activitiesstudents comprehension of studied topicscollaborative tagging</p></li><li><p>Part IV Open Challenges</p></li><li><p>ChallengesOntology developmentSimilar to databases someone needs to developSome ontology development lessons learnedLightweight ontologies: Little semantics goes a long wayLinked with other ontologies Friend of a FriendSemantically-interlinked Online Communities</p></li><li><p>ChallengesPeer, expert and user retrievalNetworks and data are lockedList of friends is not enoughInteraction history also neededOnline presence</p></li><li><p>ChallengesAnalytics for studentsPersonal planning social organizationalExperience sharingAnalytics for organizationalLearn. organizations and organization learn.Learning ecosystems</p></li><li><p>Stay tuned</p><p>http://intelleo.eu</p><p>Much more underway </p></li><li><p>Personal learning information management More Meaningful personalized interactive social collaborativeubiquitous Learningecosystems</p></li><li><p>Thank you! </p><p>***************Learning Object Context as is a kind of LO metadata (we also call it context-awareness metadata) that captures all the information that characterizes the specific situations (contexts) in which certain LO has been used.A (specific) learning situation is determined by the learning activity, the learning content, and the learner(s) involved.Aimed at capturing diverse kinds of learning situations typical for modern e-Learning environments</p><p>In a nutshell, context, as defined here, is about a student (or a group of students) interacting with a learning content by performing certain activity with a particular purpose in mind. </p><p>*Learning Object Context as is a kind of LO metadata (we also call it context-awareness metadata) that captures all the information that characterizes the specific situations (contexts) in which certain LO has been used.A (specific) learning situation is determined by the learning activity, the learning content, and the learner(s) involved.Aimed at capturing diverse kinds of learning situations typical for modern e-Learning environments</p><p>In a nutshell, context, as defined here, is about a student (or a group of students) interacting with a learning content by performing certain activity with a particular purpose in mind. </p><p>implemented as an extension of the well-known open-source Reload Content Packaging Editor this design decision ensured that instructors effectively use the same tool for creating LOs, receiving and viewing automatically generated feedback about their use, and modifying the LOs accordingly. The main goal was to enable easier and wider acceptance of LOCO-Analyst. implemented as an extension of the well-known open-source Reload Content Packaging Editor this design decision ensured that instructors effectively use the same tool for creating LOs, receiving and viewing automatically generated feedback about their use, and modifying the LOs accordingly. The main goal was to enable easier and wider acceptance of LOCO-Analyst. implemented as an extension of the well-known open-source Reload Content Packaging Editor this design decision ensured that instructors effectively use the same tool for creating LOs, receiving and viewing automatically generated feedback about their use, and modifying the LOs accordingly. The main goal was to enable easier and wider acceptance of LOCO-Analyst. implemented as an extension of the well-known open-source Reload Content Packaging Editor this design decision ensured that instructors effectively use the same tool for creating LOs, receiving and viewing automatically generated feedback about their use, and modifying the LOs accordingly. The main goal was to enable easier and wider acceptance of LOCO-Analyst. </p></li></ul>