Review for Final Exam

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Page 1: Review for Final Exam


Page 2: Review for Final Exam

MUSIC VOCABULARY• Staff: five horizontal lines and four spaces where music notation is

placed.• Bar lines: separates the staff into measures.• Clefs: is a musical symbol used to indicate the pitch of written

notes.• This symbol is the treble clef which is placed on the staff– For high or treble voices or instruments.

• This symbol is the bass clef which is placed on the staff– For low or bass voices or instruments.• Interval: the distances between two pitches.• Diatonic: using only the seven tones of a standard scale.• Chromatic: the sharpening or flattening of notes on a scale.• Enharmonic: tones that are identical in pitch but written

differently (example: A sharp is also B flat).

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MUSIC VOCABULARY• Chord: three or more notes played together.• Tetrachord: a series of four diatonic tones that make the interval

of a perfect fourth.• Note: the symbol that represents a pitch on a staff.• Pitch: the frequency of a note.• Rhythm: the steady pulse of music.• Time Signature: the number of beats in each measure.• Tempo: the speed at which the music is performed.• Dynamics: the loudness or softness of the music.• Phrase: a complete melodic idea.• Form: the shape and organization of a piece of music.• Timbre: the quality of a tone.• Texture: results from the way that melodies and harmonies are

used and combined.

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MUSIC VOCABULARYMonophonic: the texture of a single, melodic line. Example: Gregorian chants

Polyphonic: the texture of more than one melodic line. Example: madrigals & motets

Homophonic: the texture in which two or more parts are moving together in harmony. Example: Renaissance Masses by Palestrina

A capella: singing without accompaniment. Example: Gregorian chants & madrigals.

Melismatic: singing many notes per syllable in words.

Syllabic: singing one note per syllable in words.

Theme: a short melody.

Variation: means to disguise or change.

Theme & Variation: a musical form that presents a theme and then changes it slightly many times over. Example: Mozart’s Theme & Variations of Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star.

Sonata form: created during the Classical Period of music; has an A-B-A structure. Example: Beethoven’s Moonlight Sonata

Fugue: a form where a short melody or phrase is introduced by one part of the music and then developed in other parts. Example: Bach’s Toccata & Fugue in D minor

Concerto: a music composition in three movements for solo instrument & orchestra.

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Instruments:• Lyre : stringed instrument with a small U-shaped harp with strings fixed to a

cross-bar.• Aulos: a single or double reed pipe.• Kithara: 3 to 12 stringed instrument with a wooden soundboard & box-

shaped body from which extend two hollow arms connected by a crossbar.

Philosophy of “ethos” – Greek word meaning disposition or character; applied to music – the type of music you like determines your ethos.One’s moral character The word “ethical” is derived from ethos.

Greek philosophers views on music:

• Aristotle: music arouses passions in the listener, therefore stimulating• undesirable attitudes must be avoided – impacts your “ethos”.• Plato: music is important in education.• Phythagorus: discovered how to tune a string & the ratio of intervals.

Muses: nine sister goddesses that Greeks believed inspired creativity in people.

Listening: Epitah of Seikilos

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MUSIC IN THE MIDDLE AGES (MEDIEVAL ERA – Fall of the Roman Empire to 1450)

• Catholic Church: main source of laws, power and money therefore most music created during this time was sacred music for the church.

• Gregorian chant, plainchant or chant: a sacred, monophonic vocal form made of a single, melodic line that is sung a capella in Latin. The chanting is usually syllabic or melismatic, based on the church modal scales and was used in Catholic Church services and monasteries.

• Liturgy: services or ceremonies of the Catholic Church.– Mass

• Proper of the Mass: Introit, Gradual, Alleluia, Offertory• Ordinary of the Mass: Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei

– Office• hours of prayer• Used in monasteries (for monks) and convents (for nuns)

Listening: “Laudate Deum” (a Gregorian chant sung a capella and is melismatic in style.)

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MUSIC IN THE MIDDLE AGES• Secular music: music that is NOT sacred; for the people. – Roving minstrels who performed secular music and wrote

poetry in their own language (vernacular) during this time were:• Troubadours & Trouveres (France)• Minnesingers (Germany)• Goliards (ALL)….the group that wrote baudy poetry in

Latin, usually defrocked monks; the Latin lyrics of the Carmina Burana comes from this group.• Cantigas (Spain)….these songs are usually SACRED.

• Organum: early form of polyphony….more than one melodic line…started as parallel organum (2 melodies moving together)

Organum began in Paris….in the Cathedral of Notre DameEarly composer of organum: Machaut

Example of paralell organum: “Alleluia Justus et Palma”

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MUSIC IN THE MIDDLE AGES• Ars Nova: (new art) a musical style which flourished in France and

the Burgundian Low Countries in the Late Middle Ages.• Cantus firmus: an existing melody used as the basis for a polyphonic

composition. Used in polyphonic Mass cycles.• Polyphonic Mass Cycles: combining all parts of the of the Mass-

Kyrie, Gloria, etc.- together as one unified composition. • Motet: a short piece of sacred choral music, typically polyphonic and

unaccompanied (sung a capella). Example: La Messe De Nostre Dame: Kyrie by Machaut.

• Madrigal: a secular song for two or three unaccompanied voices, developed in Italy during the late 13th and early 14th centuries (late Middle Ages!) Added another voice part during the Renaissance (4).

• Canon: a piece of music in which two or more voices (or instrumental parts) sing or play the same music starting at different time. Example: “Sumer is Icumen In”

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MUSIC IN THE MIDDLE AGES• Composers of the Middle Ages– Guillaume Machaut– Josquin des Prez– Jean de Ockeghem– John Dunstable

• Instruments of the Middle Ages:recorder lute drum harpshawm sackbut serpent hurdy-gurdybagpipe horn cymbals viol

• Secular song forms of the Middle Ages:madrigal chanson virelai balladerondeau ballata caccia canon

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MUSIC IN THE RENAISSANCE (1450-1600)• Renaissance: means “rebirth”.• Florence, Italy: Birthplace of the Renaissance• Medici: Powerful, wealthy family who ruled Florence and were

patrons of great Renaissance artists and musicians.• Madrigal: A polyphonic song using a vernacular text and written

for four to six voices, developed in Italy in the 16th century and popular in England in the 16th and early 17th centuries. Example: “Fair Phyllis”.

• Word painting: Musical depiction of words in text. Using the device of word painting, the music tries to imitate the emotion, action, or natural sounds as described in the text. Example: “Fair Phyllis” – up and down section of madrigal when the music goes up and down!

• Through-composed: having different music for each verse: a through-composed song.

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• Tablature: any of various systems of music notation using letters, numbers, or other signs to indicate the strings, frets, keys, etc., to be played.

• Lute: A stringed instrument having a body shaped like a pear sliced lengthwise and a neck with a fretted fingerboard that is usually bent just below the tuning pegs.

• Villancico: a Spanish part-song resembling the madrigal.• Consort: a set of musical instruments of the same family..i.e. viols• Lute song: a generic form of music in the late Renaissance and very early

Baroque eras, generally consisting of a singer accompanying himself on a lute.

• Reformation: the 16th-century religious movement that led to the establishment of the Protestant churches; begun by Martin Luther.

• Chorale: a hymn tune, especially. in the Lutheran service, with a simple melody and rhythm in four-part harmony. Example: “A Mighty Fortress is Our God” by Martin Luther.

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• COMPOSERS– Palestrina (Masses)– Josquin des Prez– Du Fay– Peri (first Opera)– Monteverdi (developed opera)– De Lassus– Byrd (English madrigals)– Dowland (lute songs)– Martin Luther (chorales)

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• Affectations: states of mind, such as sadness or joy, etc.• Concerto: composition for solo instrument plus orchestra.• Opera: drama with continuous music, staged with scenery, costumes, soloists,

chorus, orchestra and plenty of action.• Pastoral drama: play in verse with incidental music and song; source for early

opera.• Oratorio: a large-scale musical work for orchestra and voices, typically a

narrative on a religious theme, performed without the use of costumes, scenery, or action. Well-known examples include Bach's Christmas Oratorio and Handel's Messiah.

• Monody: the musical texture of solo singing accompanied by one or more instruments.

• Basso continuo: system of notation where an instrumental bass line is written for one or more players of keyboard, lute, or viol carry a melodic bass line.

• Continuo instruments: instruments used to realize basso continuo, such as keyboard, organ or lute.

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• Tonality: the system by which a piece of music is organized around a tonic note, chord and key.

• Aria: Lyrical monologue in an opera or other vocal works.• Libretto: literary text for an opera.• Recitative: a type of vocal singing that is similar to speech.• Intermedio: musical interlude between or after the acts of a comdey or tragedy.• Florentine Camerata: a group of humanists, musicians, poets and intellectuals

who gathered to discuss and guide trends in music and drama in Florence, Italy.• Cantata: a medium-length narrative piece of music for voices with instrumental

accompaniment, typically with solos, chorus, and orchestra• Counterpoint: the art or technique of setting, writing, or playing a melody or

melodies in conjunction with another, according to fixed rules.• Fugue: a contrapuntal composition in which a short melody or phrase is

introduced by one part and successively taken up by others and developed by interweaving the parts.

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• Musical Forms Composers:– Concerto J.S. Bach– Symphony Monteverdi– String quartets Peri– String quintets Vivaldi– Fugue Handel– Opera– Cantata– Oratorio

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• Requiem: a religious ceremony, usually a Mass performed for the dead

• Piano concerto: a concerto written for a piano accompanied by an orchestra or other large ensemble.

• Cadenza: a virtuoso solo passage inserted into a movement in a concerto or other work, typically near the end.

• Emfindsam style: ( German: “sensitive style”) important movement occurring in northern German instrumental music during the mid-18th century and characterized by an emphasis upon the expression of a variety of deeply felt emotions within a musical work.

• Keyboard sonata: A composition for one or more solo instruments, one of which is usually a keyboard instrument, usually consisting of three or four independent movements

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• Symphonic form: an elaborate instrumental composition in three or more movements, similar in form to a sonata but written for an orchestra and usually of far grander proportions. In the Classical Period, this form is:– First Movement: Allegro tempo (fast)• Exposition (theme)• Development• Recapitulation

– Second Movement: Adagio tempo (slow)• Minuet and TrioThird Movement: Presto tempo (faster)

Sonata form: A-B-A : closes symphonic work

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• Improvisation: To improvise means to make something up on the spot, or figure it out as you go.

• Concerto: a musical composition for a solo instrument or instruments accompanied by an orchestra, esp. one conceived on a relatively large scale.

• Chamber music: instrumental music played by a small ensemble, with one player to a part, the most important form being the string quartet which developed in the 18th century

• String quartet:a chamber music ensemble consisting of first and second violins, viola, and cello.

• Strum und Drang: (storm and stress) a literary and artistic movement in Germany in the late 18th century, influenced by Jean-Jacques Rousseau and characterized by the expression of emotional unrest and a rejection of neoclassical literary norms; turbulent emotion or stress.

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• Major Composers:– Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (wrote in every style,

form and for all insturments)

– Franz Josef Haydn (developed the symphonic form)

– Ludwig von Beethoven (Symphonies 1-3)

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• Romantic: Term applied to music of the nineteenth century. Romantic music had looser and more extended FORMS, greater experimentation with HARMONY and TEXTURE, richly expressive and memorable MELODIES, improved musical instruments, an interest in musical NATIONALISM, and a view of music as a moral force, in which there was a link between the artists' inner lives and the world around them.

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• Art song: a song written to be sung in recital, typically with piano accompaniment and often set to a poem.

• Song cycle: a set of related songs, often on a romantic theme, intended to form a single musical entity

• Lieder: a type of German song, esp. of the Romantic period, typically for solo voice with piano accompaniment.

• Ballad:a poem or song narrating a story in short stanzas. Traditional ballads are typically of unknown authorship, having been passed on orally from one generation to the next as part of the folk culture.

• Grand opera: A serious or tragic opera for which the entire text is set to music. 2. A lavishly produced opera.

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• Singspiel: a form of German light opera, typically with spoken dialogue, popular esp. in the late 18th century.

• Program Music: music that is intended to evoke images or convey the impression of events. Music that is a story.

• Symphonic poem: a musical composition for symphony orchestra, usually in one movement and based on a literary, historical, or other nonmusical subject.

• Ballet: an artistic dance form performed to music using precise and highly formalized set steps and gestures. Classical ballet, which originated in Renaissance Italy and established its present form during the 19th century, is characterized by light, graceful, fluid movements and the use of pointe shoes.

• Lullaby: a quiet, gentle song sung to send a child to sleep.

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• Composers:– Beethoven Brahms– Schubert Verdi– Schumann (Robert & Clara) Puccini– Chopin Wagner– Berlioz Mahler– Liszt Tchaikovsky– Smetana– Dvorak– Mendelsohnn