This presentation is on research methodology for project work for undergraduate students . It consist of two part , first part speaks about the overall research methodology for research and second part is based on the guidelines issues by Goa University in the project manual for final year undergraduate students.
1.Research Methodology In SOCIAL SCIENCES (For Undergraduate Students)Presented by Dr. Sanjay PS Dessai Associate Professor of Commerce VVMs Shree Damodar College, Margao, Goa. & Dr. B.P. Sarath Chandran Associate Professor of Economics VVMs Shree Damodar College, Margao, Goa. email@example.com & firstname.lastname@example.org
2. Part A What is Research? Research means the systematic enquiry to find out the truth. It involves systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of data to answer a certain question or solve a problem. The research process involves four important stages: planning collection of data analysis Reporting11email@example.com & firstname.lastname@example.org 3. Steps involved in research Selection of Study Area Identification of the topic Tentative research question Refined research question after literature survey Research hypotheses, goals and objectives Study design Population and Sampling Selection of Variables to study the objectives Research tools to be used in the study Pilot study Work plan Collection of data Data Analysis Interpretation Reporting email@example.com & 11/1/2013 firstname.lastname@example.org 4. Research Area and Research Topic Identification of the area (Ex: finance, economics, marketing, entrepreneurship etc.) Look out for problems/issues in that area that can be studied. Curious problem or a pressing issue can also be studied Topics should be narrowly focused and carefully defined email@example.com & firstname.lastname@example.org 5. Sources of research topic Theories Personal/professional questions Replication Library search Sponsoring agencies Issues confronting the society Problems that urgent solutions are email@example.com & firstname.lastname@example.org 6. How to refine research question Who? What? When? Where? Why? Research topic can come , personal experience theory observations contemporary issues engagement with the email@example.com & firstname.lastname@example.org 7. Objectives Objectives are the clear statements indicating what the researcher wanted to answer at the end of the study. The research problem becomes the broad objective of the study This is can be divided in to specific objectives At the end of the study, the researcher should be able to satisfactorily answer the objectives of the study. email@example.com & firstname.lastname@example.org 8. Hypothesis Hypothesis is a tentative statement to be tested positive or negative. When relationship between variables are not known, it is better to formulate the hypothesis and to be tested. Null Hypothesis (H0): There is no perceptible difference in the variables being studied. Alternate Hypothesis (H1): Opposite of null hypothesis. There is perceptible differences in the variables being studied. email@example.com & firstname.lastname@example.org 9. Research Design Research design basically answers the following questions (i) What is the study about? (ii) Why is the study being made? (iii) Where will the study be carried out? (iv) What type of data is required? (v) Where can the required data be found? (vi) What periods of time will the study include? (vii) What will be the sample design? (viii) What techniques of data collection will be used? (ix) How will the data be analyzed? (x) In what style will the report be prepared? email@example.com & firstname.lastname@example.org 10. Population and Sampling Sampling is the process of selection of a number of units from a defined study population.The process of sampling 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.Identification of study population Determination of sampling population Definition of the sampling unit Choice of sampling method Estimation of the sample email@example.com & firstname.lastname@example.org 11. Variables Variable: a characteristic or phenomenon that may take on different values; variables must vary! There may be different characteristics affecting the outcome we are studying Variables are generally classified as Dependent and Independent Dependent Variable (DV): an outcome of interest that is observed and measured by the researcher; hypothesised to be affected by the independent variable Independent Variable (IV): the controlled variable in a study; hypothesised to have an effect on the dependent variable email@example.com & firstname.lastname@example.org 12. Research Tools 11/1/2013Experiments Observations Surveys Questionnaire Interviews Standardized email@example.com & firstname.lastname@example.org 13. Pilot Survey A small scale survey carried out prior to the main survey to improve the efficiency of the main survey. To test whether questions are giving you the type of answers you want. to modify questions to get better response pilot test help to work out solutions to the problems encountered for better response. email@example.com & firstname.lastname@example.org 14. Work Plan Work plan is important for the timely completion of the research. The research process is divided in to various stages and a time frame is given. By following the time frame the researcher is able to evaluate the progress of the study and make the necessary changes if required. Work plan should not be rigid and it should be able to incorporate the changes required. email@example.com & firstname.lastname@example.org 15. Collection of Data Data Collection is an important aspect of any type of research study. Inaccurate data collection can impact the results of a study and ultimately lead to invalid results. Data Collected can be Qualitative Quantitative11email@example.com & firstname.lastname@example.org 16. Data Analysis When selecting the tools of data analysis, a researcher should make sure that the assumptions related to the technique are satisfied. Descriptive Analysis percentage, ratio, proportions etc. Qualitative Data Analysis Statistical Data Analysis Descriptive Statistics Regression Analysis Economic Modeling Statistical software's such as SPSS, EVIEWS, STATA, Gretel etc. are used for data analysis. email@example.com & firstname.lastname@example.org 17. Interpretation Interpretation transforms the data collected into credible evidence of outcome. This includes the following steps: Organising the data for analysis (data preparation) Describing the data Interpreting the data Where quantitative data have been collected, statistical analysis can: help measure the degree of change that has taken place allow an assessment to be made about the consistency of data Where qualitative data have been collected, interpretation is more difficult. Here, it is important to group similar responses into categories and identify common patterns that can help derive meaning from what may seem unrelated and diffuse responses. email@example.com & firstname.lastname@example.org 18. Reporting A report is a presentation of facts and findings, usually as a basis for recommendations. Written for a specific readership, and probably intended to be kept as a record. Report is written to be read by the intended email@example.com & firstname.lastname@example.org 19. Structure of a Report Title of the Report Introduction Background Statement of the problem Importance Research gap Objectives Methodology of the study Limitations of the study/Challenges Chapter Structure Review of the Literature Profile of the Study Units Analysis of data Summary, Suggestions and scope for future research email@example.com & firstname.lastname@example.org 20. Part B Project requirements for undergraduate students of Goa University based on project manual of Goa email@example.com & firstname.lastname@example.org 21. Preliminaries Title page Declaration certificate Certificate signed by supervisor Acknowledgement / preface Table of contents Numbering of email@example.com & firstname.lastname@example.org 22. Table of contents The chapter title References / bibliography Appendices Annexures11email@example.com & firstname.lastname@example.org 23. Introductory chapter Includes 1. Introduction 2. Objectives of the study 3. Scope 4. Statement of the problem/ Hypothesis 5. Methodology 6. Chapter scheme and 7. limitations if any email@example.com & firstname.lastname@example.org 24. End matter Reference notes Bibliography- proper citation Style and format important Alphabetical order (Name of the author, date of publication, title, place of publication and name of the publisher)email@example.com & firstname.lastname@example.org 25. General guidelines Written in English Handwritten or typed Pages not to exceed 60 pages (40-60) A4 Size paper Font size 12 Margins top, bottom and right 1 and left margin 1.2 or 1.4 inches In case of maps drawings no restriction on paper size email@example.com & firstname.lastname@example.org 26. General guidelines Should be typed only on one side of the paper Spacing 1.5 or double spacing All pages should be numbered except title page Arabic numerals for the preliminarily pages and for all subsequent pages Numerals. Hard bound 2 copies to be submitted Second copy may be photo copy email@example.com & firstname.lastname@example.org 27. Marks Internal examiner marks( 50 marks) 1. Report -20 2. Field / Library work / Practical work - 20 3. For attendance - 05 4. Maintenance of records / Diary- 05 External examiners (50 marks) Project Report - 25 Viva- voce - 25 email@example.com & firstname.lastname@example.org 28. Final summary Cover Title page Acknowledgements Abstract Contents page List of figures or illustrations Main body Introd