This set of slides has been designed to introduce teaching and support staff to different models of reflection.
- 1. ReflectionReflection What is reflection?What is reflection? Is it important? Why?Is it important? Why? When & how was the lastWhen & how was the last time you reflected ontime you reflected on something?something?
2. The reflective processThe reflective process What do you think the reflectiveWhat do you think the reflective process involves?process involves? Can you pinpoint any stages withinCan you pinpoint any stages within the process?the process? 3. Kolb's Learning Cycle (1984) 4. Models of reflection:Models of reflection: Seem to be based around the one ideaSeem to be based around the one idea ofof looking at something,looking at something, thinking about why it is as it is, andthinking about why it is as it is, and deciding what to do next time.deciding what to do next time. The models oftenThe models often Have a cyclical approachHave a cyclical approach Ask questionsAsk questions 5. Schn (1987) distinguished between two typesSchn (1987) distinguished between two types of reflection:of reflection: Reflection-on-actionReflection-on-action is the process ofis the process of looking back at an event and analysing itlooking back at an event and analysing it to make explicit the knowledge whichto make explicit the knowledge which guided action.guided action. Reflection-in-actionReflection-in-action is the process ofis the process of thinking about and altering action duringthinking about and altering action during an episode. This process is usuallyan episode. This process is usually employed when faced with an unexpectedemployed when faced with an unexpected event.event. 6. Meichenbaum (1995, cited in Kinsella, 2006, p279),Meichenbaum (1995, cited in Kinsella, 2006, p279), describes the constructivist perspective as:describes the constructivist perspective as: founded on the idea that humans actively construct their personal realities and create their own representational models of the world So what does this mean for teachers? 7. Schn (1987, cited in Kinsella, 2006, p284) writes of professional practitioners: Through countless acts of attention and inattention, naming, sensemaking, boundary setting, and control, they make and maintain the worlds matched to their professional knowledge and know-how. They are in transaction with their practice worlds, framing the problems that arise in practice situations and shaping the situations to fit the frames, framing their roles and constructing practice situations to make their role-frames operational. They have, in short, particular, professional ways of seeing their world and a way of constructing and maintaining the world as they see it. When practitioners respond to the indeterminate zones of practice by holding a reflective conversation with the materials of their situations, they remake a part of their practice world and thereby reveal the usually tacit processes of worldmaking that underlie all of their practice. (Schn, 1987, p. 36) 8. Schn notes that debates in professional practice often involve conflicting frames in which practitioners pay attention to different facts and make different sense of the facts they notice. Through acts of naming and framing, the practitioner selects things for attention and organizes them, guided by an appreciation of the situation that gives it coherence and sets a direction for action In this way the worlds of professional practice are made and remade. (Kinsella, 2006) 9. Because the unique case falls outside the categories of existing theory or technique, the practitioner cannot treat it as an instrumental problem to be solved by applying one of the rules in her store of professional knowledge. The case is not in the book. If she is to deal with it competently, she must do so by a kind of improvisation, inventing and testing in the situation strategies of her own devising. (Schn, 1987, cited in Kinsella, 2006) Individual practitioners are seen as constructing viable worlds of their own making. 10. ModelsModels Gibbs, 1998Gibbs, 1998 RaceRace Reflection continuumReflection continuum Johns model, 1992Johns model, 1992 Carpers model, 1992Carpers model, 1992 The Johari Window (Luft and Ingham,The Johari Window (Luft and Ingham, 1955)1955) Driscolls model of reflection, 1994Driscolls model of reflection, 1994 Atkins and Murphy, 1994Atkins and Murphy, 1994 11. Kolb's Learning Cycle (1984) (Kolb 1984) 12. Races model Active Experimentation Concrete Experience Reflective Observation Abstract Conceptualisation Feelings? Emotions? People? Communication? Judgments? Desire? Engagement? 13. Gibbs Reflective Cycle: Action plan If it arose again what would you do? Description What happened? Feelings What were you thinking and feeling? Evaluation What was good and bad about the experience? Analysis What sense can you make? Conclusion What else could you have done? 14. Carpers model for reflecting onCarpers model for reflecting on being a mentor:being a mentor: Empirical knowledgeEmpirical knowledge scientific, concrete Aesthetic knowledgeAesthetic knowledge -- the art of what we do, our own experiences Personal KnowledgePersonal Knowledge -- self awareness Ethical knowledgeEthical knowledge -- moral knowledge 15. The Johari window: 16. Having an experience in clinical practice Purposefully reflecting on selected aspects of that experience occurring in clinical practice So What? An analysis of the event Discovering what learning arises from the process of reflection NOW WHAT? Proposed actions following the event Actioning the new learning from that experience in clinical practice WHAT? A description of the event Driscolls model of reflection (1994) 17. Atkins and Murphy's model of reflection (1994) 18. Further reading Bolton,G.(2005)Reflective Practice Writing and Professional Development,2ndedn,London:Sage Publications. Ghaye,A.andGhaye,K.(1998)Teaching and Learning through Critical Reflective Practice,London:DavidFulton PublishersLtd. Moon,J.(2004)A Handbook of Reflective and Experiential Learning: Theory and Practice,London: RoutledgeFalmer Robson,J.(2006)Teacher Professionalism in Further and Higher Education, London:Routledge