PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF RADISH
Presented by :Sachin G E1st M.Sc.(horticulture)Vegetable Science dept.College of horticulture andForestry,Jalawar
Botonical name : Raphanus sativusFamily : BrassicaseaeChromosome number : 2n=2x=18Origin : Europe Pungency due to : isothiocyanates
Radish rootsAmount per 100grams (raw)Calories17KcalFiber2gVitamin C15mgCalcium35mgPhosphorous22mg
Radish LeavesAmount per 100grams (raw)Calories41KcalProtein3.8gFiber1gVitamin C81mgBeta carotene5295 microgramsCalcium400mgPhosphorous59mg
Habitat terrestrial, wetlandFlower petal color - blue to purple, pink to red whiteLeaf type - the leaves arecompound(made up of two or more discrete leaflets)Leaf arrangement - alternate: there is one leaf pernodealong with the stemFlower symmetry- there are four petals, sepals, ortepalsin the flower and Stamennumber 6Fruit type (general) - the fruit is dry but does not split open when ripeFruit length-10250 mm
Radish leafRadish flowerRadish seedsRadish pods
Among the root crops carrot and radish are the important crops grown in the country. Radish is a popular vegetable in both tropical and temperature regions.Radish is a good source of vitamin C contains 15 40 mg per 100g of edible portion and supplies varieties of mineral. The leaves of radish are a good source of extraction of proteins on a commercial scale.Importance of radish
Radish is grown for its tender tuberous roots which are eaten raw salad or cooked as vegetable.The leaves of radish are also cooked as vegetable. Root, leaves, flower and pods are active against gram- positive bacteria. The roots are said to be useful in ruminary complaints and piles. Radish is annual or biennial depending on purpose for which it is sown.Cont
Radish is best adapted to cool or moderate climate.Tropical varieties can adopt high temperature but to develop good flavor texture lower temperature between 15- 25 C is required20 and 23C optimum temperature is required.climate
Sandy loamy soils with high organic matter content are highly suited for radish cultivation. The highest yield can be obtained at a soil pH of 5.5 to 6.8. Roots of best size and flavour soil
HillsWhite Icicle, Scarlet globe, Rapid Red White TippedPlainsCo 1, Pusa Rashmi, Pusa Chetki, Pusa Desi, Japanese White and Arka Nishant are popular varieties.
The crop is sown during winter from September to January in the plains from 1 September to 1 December and in the hills from June September. In the mild climate of peninsular India, radish can be grown almost all the year round except few summer months. The best sowing time in South India is from April to June.Sowing season
The seeds of tropical varieties are sown at a spacing of 45 x 8 cm while a spacing of 20-30 x 8 cm is recommended for temperate varieties.The seed rate of 10-12 kg/ha is recommendedSeeds treated with 2-3 gms bavistin per kg of seedsSeed ratespacing
The land should be thoroughly ploughed so that the clods do not interfere with the root development. Well decomposed FYM (15-20 t/ha) is mixed at the time of land preparation. Application of fresh undecomposed FYM should be avoided as it leads to forking of the fleshy roots. Land Preparation
For regular supply of fresh and tender roots, the sowing should be staggered and done at 15 or 20 days interval. Radish is a usually grown on ridge to facilitate good root development. Method of Planting :
Fertilizer applicationApply FYM at 25 t/ha and 25 kg N, 100 kg P and 50 kg K/ha as basal dressing and 25 kg N/ha after 30 days.FertigationFertigation requirement :50:100:50kg of NPK / ha. Apply once in three days
Weeding and thinningWeeding and hoeing can be done as and when necessary. at the second weeding, thinning of densely sown plants should be done.
Irrigation is done once in a week
Radishes will be ready to harvest quite rapidly, as three weeks after planting for somevarieties.Do not leave in the ground long after mature stage, their condition will deterioratequickly.Cut the tops off short, wash the radishes and dry them thoroughly. Store in plastic bags in therefrigerator.Radish greens can be stored separately for up to three days.Harvest/Storage
YieldAbout 20 30 t/ha in 45 60 days can be obtained.
Common Pests and Diseases
Scab : Streptomyces scabiesSymptomsBrown-yellow circular lesions on roots; sunken, cracked lesions which may be irregular in shape and coalesceManagementrotate crops to non-host for four years, maintain a high level of soil moistureavoid increasing soil pH through soil amendment use of sulfur application
Alternaria blight :Alternariaspp.SymptomsYellow, dark brown or black circular spots on leaves with concentric rings on leaves, petioles, stems and/or flowers; center of lesions may dry and drop outManagementPlant only certified, disease-free seed; treat seeds with hot water prior to planting; rotate crops to non-brassica species; irrigate plants in morning to allow sufficient time to dry out during the day;
Black rootAphanomyces raphariSymptomsSmall black-blue areas on roots which expand and girdle taproot; roots become constricted at site of lesions; black discoloration extends into rootaManagementPlant resistant radish varieties used ,rotate crops with non-brassica species
Wirestem (Damping-off)Rhizoctonia solaniSymptomsDeath of seedlings after germination; brown-red or black rot girdling stem; seedling may remain upright but stem is constricted and twisted (wirestem)ManagementPlant pathogen-free seed or transplants that have been produced in sterilized soil; apply fungicide to seed to kill off any fungi; shallow plant seeds or delay planting until soil warms
Clubroot Plasmodiophora brassicaeSymptomsSlow growing, stunted plants; yellowish leaves which wilt during day and rejuvenate in part at night; swollen, distorted roots; extensive gall formationCommentsCan be difficult to distinguish from nematode damage; fungus can survive in soil for periods in excess of 10 years; can be spread by movement of contaminated soil and irrigation water to uninfected areasManagementOnce the pathogen is present in the soil it can survive for many years, elimination of the pathogen is economically unfeasible; rotating crops generally does not provide effective control; plant only certified seed and avoid field grown transplants unless produced in a fumigated bed; applying lime to the soil can reduce fungus sporulation
White rust Albugo candidaSymptomsWhite pustules on cotyledons, leaves, stems and/or flowers which coalesce to form large areas of infection; leaves may roll and thickenCommentsFungus can survive for long periods of time in dry conditions; disease spread by windManagementRotate crops; plant only disease-free seed; apply appropriate fungicide if disease becomes a problem
Aphids Myzus persicae, Brevicoryne The pest attacks both the seedlings as well as the mature crop. The nymphs and adults suck the cell sap. affected parts become discolored and malformed. high humidity favours rapid multiplication of this pest. The aphids are mostly observed on the lower surface of the leaves.Control Spraying of Monocrotophos (0.05%) or Malathion (0.1%) at 10-15 days interval contains aphid population effectively. To prevent recurrence of the pest granular insecticides like Phorate @ 1.0 kg a.i./ha should be applied to soil.PESTS
Mustard Sawfly Athalia proxima It is a serious pest of radish. the pest attack is observed in the vegetative and flowering stage of the crop. the adult female lays eggs inside the leaf tissue. the grubs after hatching from the eggs feed on the leaves by making small holes. Control: Hand picking of larvae when the area involved is small, or spraying with Malathion 50 EC (1ml/litre of water) twice at an interval of 10 days is recommended.