Principles of photography I

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  1. 1.
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  2. 2. Principlesof Photography I
  3. 3. S ettings & Symbols
    • Every camera is different.Finding the owners manual for your camera will give the most specific information about your camera.This section of the class is intended to introduce you to common symbols and settings.
    1 LCD Screen from Minolta Dimage 5
  4. 4. S ettings & Symbols 2 Shutter Speed Battery Life Exposure Mode White Balance Red EyeReduction Drive Mode ManualFocus Image Size Pictures Remaining Sensitivity Flash Setting Color Setting Contrast Setting Exposure Setting Subject Setting Subject Icons This type of screen is often found on the top or back of a camera.
  5. 5. S ettings & Symbols 3 Shutter Speed Battery Life Exposure Mode White Balance Red EyeReduction Drive Mode Manual Focus Image Size Pictures Remaining Sensitivity Flash Setting Color Setting Contrast Setting Exposure Setting Subject Setting Subject Icons The shutter speed determines how crisp or blurred an image is.The higher the number, the faster and more clean the photo.Nighttime photos will need slower shutter speeds to allow more light.
  6. 6. S ettings & Symbols 3 Shutter Speed The shutter speed determines how crisp or blurred an image is.The higher the number, the faster and more clean the photo.Nighttime photos will need slower shutter speeds to allow more light. A slow shutter speed was used to make the background blurred while following the cyclist.A high shutter speed was used to stop the water splash in mid air.Well placed lights make this possible.
  7. 7. S ettings & Symbols 4 Shutter Speed Battery Life Exposure Mode White Balance Red Eye Reduction Drive Mode Manual Focus Image Size Pictures Remaining Sensitivity Flash Setting Color Setting Contrast Setting Exposure Setting Subject Setting Subject Icons This indicates the amount of battery power remaining.Using a flash will use up battery power quickly.You may also want to check your camera for power saving settings like automatic shutdown when the camera has been left on.
  8. 8. S ettings & Symbols 5 Shutter Speed Battery Life Exposure Mode White Balance Red Eye Reduction Drive Mode Manual Focus Image Size Pictures Remaining Sensitivity Flash Setting Color Setting Contrast Setting Exposure Setting Subject Setting Subject Icons Exposure control can be selected for Programmed ( Automatic (the camera averages all settings) Shutter speed, or Manual (the photographer provides all settings).Each of these produce a different effect on your photo.
  9. 9. S ettings & Symbols 6 Shutter Speed Battery Life Exposure Mode White Balance Red Eye Reduction Drive Mode Manual Focus Image Size Pictures Remaining Sensitivity Flash Setting Color Setting Contrast Setting Exposure Setting Subject Setting Subject Icons The light from thesun ,clouds ,incandescent (standard home light bulbs) ,fluorescent , and tungsten (commonly used in photo studios) all affect the colors in your photographs.White balance settings balance those affects so that your colors are more true.
  10. 10.
    • The sun offers all colors of the rainbow, but the tones are different depending on the time of day.
    S ettings & Symbols 6 A sunset offers the warm reds, yellows, and finally the pinks and violets.
  11. 11.
    • Clouds absorb the slower (yellow and red) light waves.This gives a blue tone to your photos.
    S ettings & Symbols 6 This can be adjusted to give a natural coloring by adjusting the white balance.
  12. 12.
    • Incandescent lights give a yellow or brown tone to your photo.
    S ettings & Symbols 6
  13. 13.
    • Fluorescent lights give a dull green tint to your photos.
    S ettings & Symbols 6 Changing poorly colored photos to black & white may save an otherwise good picture.
  14. 14. S ettings & Symbols 7 Shutter Speed Battery Life Exposure Mode White Balance Red EyeReduction Drive Mode Manual Focus Image Size Pictures Remaining Sensitivity Flash Setting Color Setting Contrast Setting Exposure Setting Subject Setting Subject Icons This makes the flash fire off several times before the main flash fires.This makes the pupils constrict and reduces red glare coming from the back of the eye in low light settings when a flash is used.With red eye reduction Without red eye reduction
  15. 15. S ettings & Symbols 8 Shutter Speed Battery Life Exposure Mode White Balance Red Eye Reduction Drive Mode Manual Focus Image Size Pictures Remaining Sensitivity Flash Setting Color Setting Contrast Setting Exposure Setting Subject Setting Subject Icons This allows the camera to be set on a timer or to take several pictures in a row as long as the shutter button is being held down.
  16. 16. S ettings & Symbols 9 Shutter Speed Battery Life Exposure Mode White Balance Red Eye Reduction Drive Mode ManualFocus Image Size Pictures Remaining Sensitivity Flash Setting Color Setting Contrast Setting Exposure Setting Subject Setting Subject Icons Most automatic cameras do not allow manual focus, but if you can, this is good for close ups of flowers, bugs, or other photos with a shallow depth of field.
  17. 17. S ettings & Symbols 10 Shutter Speed Battery Life Exposure Mode White Balance Red Eye Reduction Drive Mode Manual Focus Image Size Pictures Remaining Sensitivity Flash Setting Color Setting Contrast Setting Exposure Setting Subject Setting Subject Icons This sets the size of the photo file saved onto your memory card.The larger the size, the better quality picture you will produce.Smaller file sizes are better for uses like email and websites.
  18. 18. S ettings & Symbols 11 Shutter Speed Battery Life Exposure Mode White Balance Red Eye Reduction Drive Mode Manual Focus Image Size Pictures Remaining Sensitivity Flash Setting Color Setting Contrast Setting Exposure Setting Subject Setting Subject Icons Memory cards have a limit on the number of pictures they can save.Changing the settings to smaller image size will allow more photos, but also sacrifice quality.
  19. 19. S ettings & Symbols 12 Shutter Speed Battery Life Exposure Mode White Balance Red Eye Reduction Drive Mode Manual Focus Image Size Pictures Remaining Sensitivity Flash Setting Color Setting Contrast Setting Exposure Setting Subject Setting Subject Icons The ISO establishes the cameras sensitivity to light.Low numbers are good for brightly lit and very clear images.Higher numbers are used in low light and fast motion settings, but often increases fuzziness called camera noise.
  20. 20. S ettings & Symbols 13 Shutter Speed Battery Life Exposure Mode White Balance Red Eye Reduction Drive Mode Manual Focus Image Size Pictures Remaining Sensitivity FlashSetting Color Setting Contrast Setting Exposure Setting Subject Setting Subject Icons
  21. 21. S ettings & Symbols 14 Shutter Speed Battery Life Exposure Mode White Balance Red Eye Reduction Drive Mode Manual Focus Image Size Pictures Remaining Sensitivity Flash Setting Color Setting Contrast Setting Exposure Setting Subject Setting Subject Icons Color settings allow a choice of black & white photos,sepia (old fashioned brown tone), negative, and more.
  22. 22. S ettings & Symbols 15 Shutter Speed Battery Life Exposure Mode White Balance Red Eye Reduction Drive Mode Manual Focus Image Size Pictures Remaining Sensitivity Flash Setting Color Setting Contrast Setting Exposure Setting Subject Setting Subject Icons The contrast setting can improve dull or gray settings that come from over cast or some indoor photos.Like all of these settings, this must be established before the photo is taken.
  23. 23. S ettings & Symbols 16 Shutter Speed Battery Life Exposure Mode White Balance Red Eye Reduction Drive Mode Manual Focus Image Size Pictures Remaining Sensitivity Flash Setting Color Setting Contrast Setting Exposure Setting Subject Setting Subject Icons This helps to darken bright sunlight or lighten dark scenes.Brightening dark scenes may produce photos that are washed out.This can be adjusted by using the contrast setting.
  24. 24. S ettings & Symbols 16 Exposure Setting Subject Icons This helps to darken bright sunlight or lighten dark scenes.Brightening dark scenes may produce photos that are washed out.This can be adjusted by using the contrast setting.This photo is underexposed because the camera adjusted for the light behind him.This photo is washed out and over exposed. The exposure setting is determined by the size of the camerasaperture(hole that lets the light in).
  25. 25. S ettings & Symbols 17 Shutter Speed Battery Life Exposure Mode White Balance Red Eye Reduction Drive Mode Manual Focus Image Size Pictures Remaining Sensitivity Flash Setting Color Setting Contrast Setting Exposure Setting Subject Setting Subject Icons Identifies which automatic subject setting is selected.
  26. 26. S ettings & Symbols 18 Shutter Speed Battery Life Exposure Mode White Balance Red Eye Reduction Drive Mode Manual Focus Image Size Pictures Remaining Sensitivity Flash Setting Color Setting Contrast Setting Exposure Setting Subject Setting Subject Icons
    • This automatically sets exposure and shutter speed for a variety of scenes: portrait, sports, sunset, night portrait, and text.
  27. 27. S ettings & Symbols 19 Section Summary Before going heavy on photo taking, review your owner manual and your camera.Using the tools it comes with will make you a more skilled photographer and make this class go smoother.
  28. 28. W hat the Arts Teach
    • The arts teach us how to make judgments about quality and aesthetics.
    • Unlike many classes where correct
    1 Untitled - Stefano Rossi answers and strict rules apply, the arts encourage the learner to make judgments about the art.
  29. 29. I ntroduction
    • The study of Principles can cause disappointment as a photographer feels required to control pictures too much. Putting too much effort into precisely duplicating limited definitions creates stiff images.
    • With this caution, remember that therearecriteria.Being comfortable using these Principles will help create superior images.This should be your goal.Use the information in this class to create powerful photos.
    Glen Canyon- Ryan Archibald 2
  30. 30. I ntroduction
    • There are many Principles of photography.This class allows work in five specific Principles.
    • Realism
    • Expressionism
    • Emphasis
    • Movement
    • Balance
    Dock Construction- Bob Brawdy 3
  31. 31. I ntroduction
    • One goal of this class is for students to make their photos, not take their photos.This approach takes planning and mental preparation to capture that one brief moment.
    Ansel Adams, 1920 4 Photographer at Work Max Lyons
  32. 32. R ealism
    • Vocabulary
    • Realism - an effort to display things as they really are.It is a reaction to romanticism which tries to show an image of perfection.
    • Naturalism - Related to realism, this includes nature or nature themes and limiting of human involvement.
    • Idealism - the effort to portray the world in perfection through art.This is the opposite to realism.
    5
  33. 33. R ealism
    • The face is the primary source of emotion in a shot and that emotion is what makes or breaks a photo.
    • Shots of a persons back limits the photos message. Try to move to an angle where you can see part of their face.
    The Duel Angga Bhaskara 6
  34. 34. R ealism
    • Because realism shows things as they really are, the use of a flash is not permitted for realism photographs.The flash can be turned off on most cameras by using the no flash setting identified by this symbol:
    Its A Hard Life - Darylann Turner 7 Notice the uneven lighting that happens when a flash is used.
  35. 35. R ealism
    • Allowing the subjects to be aware of your picture taking destroys the Realism.They now become only actors.
    Sweet Happiness Alexandra Aaron 8 3 Michelle Frimodt Car #2 Darylann Turner
  36. 36. R ealism
    • Naturalism is a form of realism that celebrates nature.
    • In its extreme forms, naturalism removes any human influence from the image. This means things like: no roads, no telephone wires, no people in the background, etc.
    Mountain Goat on Mt Stuart- Ron Carlson 9
  37. 37. R ealism
    • Although there is an effort to focus on nature, naturalism can still include a theme of how people are affected by nature and vice versa.
    Center of Town, Woodstock Vermont- Marion Post-Wolcott 10
  38. 38. R ealism
    • Detail is the heart of realism - Clive Bell
    Cash Hollow, TN 2004 - Mike Smith Escuela Mazahura - Mariana Yampolsky 11
  39. 39. R ealism Amanda Lilly Delaware dancing- Lyntha Eiler Bride - David Lloyd Click on the picture below that you think represents realism. 12
  40. 40. R ealism Click Here To Continue Correct! The girl is shown in a natural setting.No one is calling to her to, Smile or, Say cheese. Put a +1 at the top of your paper. 13
  41. 41. R ealism Click Here To Continue The bride is beautiful, but it is definitely aimed at being perfect.This image is based on idealism.The flowers are held perfectly, the makeup is all in place, and a fill-flash was used to help the lighting. The photo of the girl is the one with realism. 13
  42. 42. R ealism
    • Principle Summary
    • In an effort to show things as they really are, the photographer should be careful not to manipulate the images by interactions with the subject or through camera technology.
    14 The Centurion Mike Carlson
  43. 43. R ealism
    • Common Problems
    • Not seeing the face of the photo subjects.
    15
  44. 44. W hat the Arts Teach
    • The arts teach us that problems can have more than one solution.
    • Art allows for thousands of
    1 Untitled - Stefano Rossi variables and even more solutions.Training the creative mind is too often undervalued in the mainstream subjects.
  45. 45. E xpressionism
    • Vocabulary
    • Expressionism images altered from their natural appearance so they have been simplified to their basic contours/forms.
    • Contrast the difference in a lighting scale between the dark and light.
    • Abstract a style of art that refers to various types of 20th-century avant-garde art.
    2
  46. 46. E xpressionism
    • This photo uses texture and strong geometric shapes.
    • Using strong contrast background allows with shapes to stand out instead what it really is.
    Solar Geometries Mike Carlson 3
  47. 47. E xpressionism
    • Most of the meaning comes from the person viewing it.Think of your photograph as an emotion and you will be very close to capturing the idea of expressionism.
    Untitled - Mike Carlson 4
  48. 48. E xpressionism
    • It is ourvisionthat creates the expressionist image.
    • No longer are we paying attention to the visual facts, but now it is the emotional and psychic values that become important.
    I Can Dance - Sundero Atomic Level Mike Carlson 5
  49. 49. E xpressionism
    • One test for expressionism is when someone looks at your photo and says, Whats that!?!This tells you that you have gotten beyond what the actual object is and are working in emotions.
    Untitled - Mike Carlson 6
  50. 50. E xpressionism Observer - Travis Klug Untitled Travis Klug Click on the picture below that you think represents expressionism. 7
  51. 51. E xpressionism Clic...