Open Source Innovation - The "big bang" of Open X

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First given at Hanyang University, on Wed. November 26, 2014


1. Open Source Innovation The big bang of Open X Jean-Franois OMHOVER Assistant Professor Arts et Mtiers ParisTech Jan. 2015, v1.7-EN, available at These slides are protected under the license Attribution- NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). contact : 2. Introduction Innovation = accepted by the market ! GNU / Linux 2J.F. Omhover, Arts et Mtiers ParisTech, market shares of Linux-based OS by IT sectors [Linux/Wikipedia, 2013] 3. Open Hardware Open Source Vehicle J.F. Omhover, Arts et Mtiers ParisTech 3 4. J.F. Omhover, Arts et Mtiers ParisTech 4 OPEN SOURCE INNOVATION CONCEPTS PLATFORMS SOFTWARE INNOVATION BUSINESS MODELS SHARING HACKING OPEN SOURCE GOVERNANCE INFRASTRUCTURES COMMUNAUTIES CONTRIBUTION PARTICIPATION CONTENT PROPERTY LICENSES FREEDOM PROTECTION 5. PLATFORMS ECOSYSTEMS OF INTERDEPENDANT INNOVATORS Chapter I 5J.F. Omhover, Arts et Mtiers ParisTech 6. Platforms 1950-1970: vertical structure [Ong 2004] Processors, OS, peripherals, applications IBM only responsible to develop the applications for its clients, understanding and answering their needs Difficulty to change your supplier 1980s: Personal Computer A processor in a box Open to programming, to amateurs Become a generic tool, a generative tool [Zittrain 2008] From full integration, to fragmentation Hardware / Software 6J.F. Omhover, Arts et Mtiers ParisTech I/c I/b Nobody gets fired for buying IBM I/a 7. Platforms Hardware / Software Ong, C.A., 2004. (Re-) integration dynamics of the PC platform. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. [link] 7J.F. Omhover, Arts et Mtiers ParisTech 8. Plateformes numriques Communication I/e 8J.F. Omhover, Arts et Mtiers ParisTech I/d I/f I/e - Compuserve Interface, by [lien] 9. Plateformes numriques Communication 9J.F. Omhover, Arts et Mtiers ParisTech I/f Mosaic navigator I/e I/d I/f 10. Platforms Technologies, Products or Services Definition [Gawer 2000] [Cusumano 2010] Set of building blocks Foundation for a set of firms/individuals Develop other Techno / Products / Services Interdependant manner Strategic and Industrial opportunity [Gawer 2009] Increases the intensity and diversity of innovation Increases the size of the cake (not only ones share) Network effect, users and complementors Towards a definition for these business interdependent, innovation eco-systems Plateforms ? 10J.F. Omhover, Arts et Mtiers ParisTech 11. CODE IT (AND SHARE IT) YOURSELF SHARING CODE, AND THE STRUGGLE ON PROPERTY Chapter II 11J.F. Omhover, Arts et Mtiers ParisTech "The software industry is built on intellectual property. You own your technology, and if you get it widely disseminated you can coerce your user base into buying new releases. We give up that control -- and those profits -- but that is exactly what is going to drive our success, because that is what's best for the user. (R. Young, Red Hat in 1998, quoted in [Harmon 1998]) 12. Code It (and Share It) Yourself Sharing as a way to distribute effort the Share initiative [Shell, 1959] Born in Aug. 1955, for the users of the IBM 704 Cooperation between organisations Standards for programming langages Sharing commun routines Motivations for sharing [Grier 2007] Surplus of skills that the network can benefit from Share expertise, learning Since the beginning of the computing era, sharing was perceived as important for product acceptance SHARE, 1955 12J.F. Omhover, Arts et Mtiers ParisTech 13. Code It (and Share It) Yourself Origins [Stallman, 2010] 70s : Community of developers/researchers around the Digital/PDP platform, production of code/source shared among researchers 80s : Progressive closure/locking of the architecture, the operating system, and increasing cost of licenses Objective Full operating system, unix-like Text editors, compilators, shell Based on unix, compatible with it Hyper-collaboration for the design of an open operating system GNU 13J.F. Omhover, Arts et Mtiers ParisTech Richard Stallman 14. Introduction Linux 14J.F. Omhover, Arts et Mtiers ParisTech, Linus TorvaldsO/b The birth of a project 15. Introduction GNU / Linux 15J.F. Omhover, Arts et Mtiers ParisTech, Richard Stallman Linus TorvaldsO/b 16. Code It (and Share It) Yourself Technical Infrastructure [Fogel, 2005] Website, mailing list, version control, bug tracking, real-time chat Social Infrastructure [Klang, 2005] FORKABILITY : Anybody can take the code, launch a new project BENEVOLENT DICTATOR : regulating the project under the pressure of the community Consensus, votes, tracability VS versioning Protection framework [Le Crosnier, 2009] Emergence of the licenses for Free Software, GNUPL "well-run open source projects are parliamentary procedure on steroids" [Fogel 2005] Infrastructures F/OSS 16J.F. Omhover, Arts et Mtiers ParisTech 14/a 13/a 17. Code It (and Share It) Yourself Complexity of the motivations : economical, social and political [Pink 2010] Extrinsic Motivations Career, learning, self-advancement, peer recognition, reputation, rewards, opportunities Intrinsic Motivations Belonging to a community, altruism, political and social motives, hedonic motivation, playing, fun, pleasure to create Rises many research questions [Hertel 2003] [Li 2006] [Oreg 2008] [Bitzer 2007] [Baytiyeh 2010] Toward economic, social, individual and collective models Difficulty for the analysis : the diversity of community, of organisations Individual Motivations 17J.F. Omhover, Arts et Mtiers ParisTech, Sept. 2011 [Baytiyeh 2010] [Pink 2010] How can it work socially ? "Every good work of software starts by scratching a developers personal itch. [...] too often software developers spend their days grinding away for pay at programs they neither need nor love. [Raymond 2001] 18. DYNAMICS OF COMMUNITIES PRODUCTION, TRANSMISSION, AND PARTICIPATION AROUND CONTENT Chapter III 18J.F. Omhover, Arts et Mtiers ParisTech III/a 19. Dynamics of communities A dynamic similar to F/OSS Strong intrinsic motivations Highly distributed functioning (and free) A similar technical infrastructure ( web 2.0 ) Legal protection of content Versioning ? (does a city have versions ?) For profit / Non profit ? [Kazman 2009] Youtube, Facebook, MySpace, Blogger Mechanical turk, CrowdFunding (ex : KickStarter) With the standardisation of the publication technologies, its now possible to produce content in the crowd, like we did with code Crowdsourcing 19J.F. Omhover, Arts et Mtiers ParisTech, Sept. 2011 III/b III/c 20. Dynamics of communities Crowdsourcing 20J.F. Omhover, Arts et Mtiers ParisTech III/b Help for Haiti, a tool for building a collective cartography of emergencies by collecting information in real time III/b III/c 21. Dynamics of communities Crowdsourcing 21J.F. Omhover, Arts et Mtiers ParisTech III/c Fold-It, a serious game for protein folding, cf [Khatib 2011] III/b III/c 22. Production in Community Crowdsourcing is the act of sourcing tasks traditionally performed by specific individuals to an undefined large group of people or community (crowd) through an open call." [Wikipedia EN, Jan. 2011] Crowdsourcing is a process that involves outsourcing tasks to a distributed group of people. This process can occur both online and offline. Crowdsourcing is different from an ordinary outsourcing since it is a task or problem that is outsourced to an undefined public rather than a specific body. [Wikipedia EN, Fev. 2013] Crowdsourcing is the process of obtaining needed services, ideas, or content by soliciting contributions from a large group of people, and especially from an online community, rather than from traditional employees or suppliers. [Wikipedia EN, Jan. 2015] Channeling the experts desire to solve a problem then freely share the answer with everyone [Van Ess, 2010] commons-based peer production [Kazman 2009] Crowdsourcing 22J.F. Omhover, Arts et Mtiers ParisTech, Sept. 2011 An appearing (and real) dynamic, difficult to encapsulate within a definition 19/a 19/b 19/c :o) 23. J.F. Omhover, Arts et Mtiers ParisTech 23 Dynamics of communities Modelization in layers The Metropolis Model, taken from [Kazman, 2009] 24. COLLECTIVE PROPERTY CAN WE PROTECT COLLECTIVE INNOVATION ? CAN WE MAKE SOME PROFIT FROM IT ? Chapter IV 24J.F. Omhover, Arts et Mtiers ParisTech IV/a 25. Collective Property The GNU manifesto GNU is not in the public domain. Everyone will be permitted to modify and redistribute GNU, but no distributor will be allowed to restrict its further redistribution. [GNU Manifesto, 1985] Free is ambiguous free beer or free speech ? Divergences in approaches Open source = development methodology Free software = an ethical point of view, the respect of the freedom of users [Stallman 2007] Copyleft : the only limit is freedom ! Free Software ? 25J.F. Omhover, Arts et Mtiers ParisTech Richard Stallman 26. Collective Property New models of intellectual property Paternity Commercial use (or not) Modification (or not) Share-Alike (transitivity) Creative Commons Aligned with the dynamic of innovation An innovation is based on others Interdependant building / design Sharing richness How to understand intellectual property in different communities ? Protection / Commons 26J.F. Omhover, Arts et Mtiers ParisTech 22/a 27. EXPANSION OF THE OPEN GALAXY PRODUCTION, DESIGN, EDUCATION, SCIENCE, GOVERNMENT Partie V 27J.F. Omhover, Arts et Mtiers ParisTech 28. Open Hardware The Arduino UNO board J.F. Omhover, Arts et Mtiers ParisTech 28 29. Open Hardware OpenMoko / Neo1973 CAD files J.F. Omhover, Arts et Mtiers ParisTech 29 30. Open Hardware Poppy the open source humanoid platform J.F. Omhover, Arts et Mtiers ParisTech 30 31. Open Hardware Open Source Vehicle J.F. Omhover, Arts et Mtiers ParisTech 31 32. Open Hardware OpenROV the submarine rover J.F. Omhover, Arts et Mtiers ParisTech 32 33. August 3rd 2013, 19:48 UTC Kounotori 4, Yoshinobu Launch Complex, Japan J.F. Omhover, Arts et Mtiers ParisTech 33 34. August 9th 2013, 18:38 UTC H-IIB Transfer Vehicle (HTV-4) International Space Station J.F. Omhover, Arts et Mtiers ParisTech 34 35. November 19th 2013, 12:10 UTC International Space Station Kibo Experiment Module J.F. Omhover, Arts et Mtiers ParisTech 35 36. November 19th 2013, 12:10 UTC J.F. Omhover, Arts et Mtiers ParisTech 36 37. Open Satellite !!! ArduSat J.F. Omhover, Arts et Mtiers ParisTech 37 38. Production & Design Cornell, Creative Machines, Food Printing [link] 38J.F. Omhover, Arts et Mtiers ParisTech 39. Production & Design Not limited to companies or laboratories Technology usable by the masses ? Starting at 300$ Kits DIY (printed boards, controllets) Standard and mutualized FabLabs [Gershenfeld 2006] Open workshops Production means made available to the public Self learning Open Source Prototyping DIY machines Open Fabrication 39J.F. Omhover, Arts et Mtiers ParisTech V/a V/b V/c 40. Open Design Page Opener, 40J.F. Omhover, Arts et Mtiers ParisTech 41. Production & Design Free means [Bowyer 2011] Prototyping, design software Online exchange and transmission of models CC Licences Diversification of solutions (micro-needs) Products to download, products to optimize Ex : micro market, no distribution circuits Communities Sharing models, evolutions, corrections Prosumers : designers, engineers, manufacturers Thingiverse, etc Community of designers Sharing models Open Design 41J.F. Omhover, Arts et Mtiers ParisTech V/d V/e V/f 42. Production & Design Funding platforms for innovative projects CrowdFunding 42J.F. Omhover, Arts et Mtiers ParisTech 43. Education & Development Open Course Ware Freely available contents [Unesco, 2011] Ex : MIT OCW Open modules, contributive classes (MOOC) First MOOCs : Stanford, AI-class / How to retain subscribers along the process Collecting data on students Opening the schools, the means, supports for education Open Education 43J.F. Omhover, Arts et Mtiers ParisTech V/g V/h V/i 44. Education & Development Open access to publications Free distribution circuits Platforms for publishing and reviewing Collaboration Research social media (ex: ResearchGate) Bibliography (ex: Mendeley, Zotero) Reviewing (ex:, science.I/O) Distributed teams Crowdfunding research Open Science 44J.F. Omhover, Arts et Mtiers ParisTech (back to) an open research, open laboratories and open collaboration between international research units [Nielsen, 2011] 45. Open Data Thanks to the detailed topographic data released by the city of Rennes (France), Handimap can propose an application that computes the best path if you are in a wheelchair - J.F. Omhover, Arts et Mtiers ParisTech 45 46. Open Government Regards Citoyens, study of the lobbying within the french parliement reports, July 2011 [link] J.F. Omhover, Arts et Mtiers ParisTech 46 47. AND INTO THE DARK MATTER WHAT COULD GO WRONG ? Chapter VI 47J.F. Omhover, Arts et Mtiers ParisTech 48. Open technology ber cool Watch parts 1950, made with embedded radium, used by a swedish (they say so) to experiment nuclear reaction in his kitchen [link], cf "Atom splitting in my kitchen was a hobby, man tells Swedish police", The Guardian, Aug. 3rd 2011 J.F. Omhover, Arts et Mtiers ParisTech 48 49. Open technology ber cool The Liberator is the first gun entirely printed with 3D printers, it can be downloader online (Credit: Screenshot by Dara Kerr/CNET) [link] J.F. Omhover, Arts et Mtiers ParisTech, Sept. 2011 49 50. Crowdfunding fail or fraud ? He raises 123000 $ on Kickstarters, cancels the project and spends all the money , Journal du Gamer, 26/07/2013 [link] J.F. Omhover, Arts et Mtiers ParisTech 50 51. Crowdsourced Human Flesh Search Brown University student falsely identified as Boston bombing suspect found dead in Providence River NBC News (@NBCNews) 25 avril 2013 [link] J.F. Omhover, Arts et Mtiers ParisTech, Sept. 2011 51 52. BIBLIOGRAPHIE J.F. Omhover, Arts et Mtiers ParisTech 52 53. Baytiyeh, H. & Pfaffman, J., 2010. Open source software: A community of altruists. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(6), p.1345-1354. [lien] Berners-Lee Tim, 2010, The year open data went worldwide, TED Engage, 2009, Engage: Getting on with Government 2.0, a publication of the government 2.0 taskforce, Dec 2009, Bitzer, J., Schrettl, W. & Schroder, P.J.H., 2007. Intrinsic motivation in open source software development. Journal of Comparative Economics, 35(1), p.160169 [lien] Bowyer A., Cuartilles D., 2011. Mechatronics: Arduino & RepRap - Creating Wealth by Giving it Away (Keynote). International Conference on Engineering Design - ICED'11. [lien] CIGREF, 2011. Maturit et gouvernance de lOpen Source, [lien] Capra, E. et al., 2011. Firms involvement in Open Source projects: A trade-off between software structural quality and popularity. Journal of Systems and Software, 84(1), p.144-161. [lien] Cusumano, M., 2010. Technology strategy and management: The evolution of platform thinking. Communications of the ACM, 53(1), p.32. [lien] Durand, R., Vergne, J.P., L'organisation pirate. Essai sur l'volution du capitalisme, Le Bord de l'eau, coll. Mondes Marchands , 2010, 176 p., EAN : 9782356870841. [lien] Fogel, K., 2005. Producing Open Source Software: How to Run a Successful Free Software Project, OReilly ed.. [lien] Gawer A., 2000. The organization of platform leadership: an empirical investigation of intels management processes aimed at fostering complementary innovation by third parties. Report of the Sloan School of Management [lien] Gawer, 2009. Platforms, Markets and Innovation, Ed. Edward Elgar Publishing Gershenfeld N., 2006, Fab Labs, TED, [lien] Gonon, 2011, Universits et rseaux sociaux, web [lien] Grier, D.A., 2007. Working Class Hero. The Known World, IEEE Computer Society Podcasts, 03/05/2007, [lien] Harmon, A., 1998. For Sale: Free Software; Backers of Linux Say System Is Basis For Revolutionizing Computer Business. New York Times. 28/09/1998 Hertel, G., 2003. Motivation of software developers in Open Source projects: an Internet-based survey of contributors to the Linux kernel. Research Policy, 32(7), p.1159-1177. Kazman, R. & Chen, H., 2009. The metropolis model a new logic for development of crowdsourced systems. Communications of the ACM, 52(7), p.76-75. [lien] Khatib, F. et al., 2011. Algorithm discovery by protein folding game players. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, [lien] Klang, M., 2005. Free software and open source. First Monday, 10(3) [lien] Le Crosnier H., 2009. Leons d'mancipation : l'exemple du mouvement des logiciels libres. ATTAC. [lien] 54. Li, Y. et al., 2006. Motivating open source software developers: influence of transformational and transactional leaderships. Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Computer Personnel Research Annual Conference [lien] Mingqing, X., 2010. Does open source software decrease profit of proprietary software producer and increase social welfare. In The 2nd International Conference on Information Science and Engineering. IEEE, pp. 203-206. [lien] Nielsen, M. 2011, Open Science Now !, TED, [lien] Owni 2001, Les Fab Labs capitalisent, Owni, 26/09/2011, [lien] Ong, C.A., 2004. (Re-) integration dynamics of the PC platform. Report of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. [lien] Oreg, S. & Nov, O., 2008. Exploring motivations for contributing to open source initiatives: The roles of contribution context and personal values. Computers in Human Behavior, 24(5), p.20552073. [lien] O'Reilly T., 2005, What Is Web 2.0 : Design Patterns and Business Models for the Next Generation of Software , 09/30/2005, [lien] Pink D., 2010, Drive: The surprising truth about what motivates us, RSA/Animate, Raymond, E.S., 2000. The Cathedral and the Bazaar. [lien] Accessed October 1, 2011 Rossi, C. & Bonaccorsi, A., 2005. Why profit-oriented companies enter the OS field?: intrinsic vs. extrinsic incentives. International Conference on Software Engineering, 30(4). [lien] Rouvroy, A. & Berns, T., 2010a. Le nouveau pouvoir statistique : ou quand le contrle sexerce sur un rel norm, docile et sans vnement car constitu de corps numriques . Multitudes, 40(1), p.88-103. [lien] Rouvroy A., 2010b, in La gouvernementalit algorithmique , Place de la Toile, France Culture, 21/05/2010 Shell, D., 1959. The SHARE 709 system: a cooperative effort. Journal of the ACM (JACM), (August 1955), p.123-127. [lien] Stallman, R.M., 2010. Free software, free society: selected essays of Richard M. Stallman (2nd edition) J. Gay, ed., Gnu Press. UNESCO, 2011. Guidelines for Open Educational Resources (OER) in Higher Education, UNESCO, Commonwealth of Learning. [lien] Wasserman, T. & Capra, E., 2007. Evaluating software engineering processes in commercial and community open source projects. In First International Workshop on Emerging Trends in FLOSS Research and Development (FLOSS07: ICSE Workshops 2007). IEEE. [lien] Zittrain, J.L., 2008. The Future of the Internet (and how to stop it), Yale University Press. [lien] 55. Illustrations O/a Mail dorigine de Linux, by Linux History [lien] O/b Linux Distro Timeline unknown origin, found at [lien] I/a IBM logo I/b - IBM System 360, by Michael Cot, on Flickr, CC-by [lien] I/c - Mike Licht,, on Flickr, CC-by [lien] I/d exemple de Bulletin Board System, [lien] I/e - Compuserve Interface, by [lien] I/f Mosaic navigator II/f an assembly :o) III/a - MIT team wins Darpa's treasure hunt in less than one day, The Guardian, Dec 2009, III/b Project for Haiti, cartography of the information relevant for targeting rescue [lien] III/c Fold-It, a serious game on folding molecules, cf [Khatib 2011] IV/a - Workers manufacture Guy Fawkes masks at a factory in So Gonalo, Brazil in July. Reuters IV/b - Creative Commons, the different contracts, V/a - MakerBot Thing-O-Matic V/b - eMaker Huxley V/c - Fab@Home V/d - FreeCAD V/e - Page Opener, [lien] V/f - HTC Evo 3D extended battery case, [lien] V/g MIT Open Course Ware [lien] V/h Mascotte du cours Machine Learning [lien] V/i logo Coursera [lien]