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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION Discussants: Joy U. Fulgar Jeanelle A. Nevares

# Newton’s laws of motion

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NEWTONS LAWS OF MOTION

NEWTONS LAWS OF MOTIONDiscussants: Joy U. FulgarJeanelle A. Nevares

Sir Isaac Newton

relations between the forces acting on a body and the motion of the body

INERTIA: The First Law

Sir Isaac Newton

Aristotle

Galileo

Copernicus

Aristotle on Motion

Aristotle thought of motion in two terms:Natural MotionViolent Motion

Aristotle on Motion

Natural MotionNatural motion on Earth was thought to be either straight up or straight down.

Objects seek their natural resting places.Heavy things fall and very light things rise. Not caused by forces.

Examples:A tree leaf falls to Earth.Rain falls to Earth.Smoke rises into the air.

Violent MotionViolent motion, on the other hand, was imposed motion. Caused by a push or a pullHorse pulling a cart Ship being pushed by wind.

Aristotle on Motion

Boulders do not move without cause. The state of objects was at rest unless they were being pushed or pulled or move toward their natural resting place.

Copernicus and the Moving EarthCopernicus reasoned that the simplest way to interpret astronomical observations was to assume that Earth and the other planets move around the sun.

Galileo on MotionGalileos Idea:A moving object needs no force to keep it moving in the absence of friction.

Galileo on Motion

Galileo came up with the definitions of FRICTION. Friction is the name given to the force that acts between materials that touch as they move past each other.

Balls rolling on downward-sloping planes picked up speed.Balls rolling on upward-sloping planes lost speed.

Galileos Concept of Inertia

A ball rolling on a smooth horizontal plane has almost constant velocity. Galileo stated that if friction were entirely absent, a ball moving horizontally would move forever. No push or pull would be required to keep it moving once it is set in motion.

Galileos Concept of Inertia

Galileos Concept of Inertia

Galileo stated that this tendency of a moving body to keep moving is natural and that every material object resists changes to its state of motion. The property of a body to resist changes to its state of motion is called inertia.

Galileos Concept of Inertia

Galileos Concept of InertiaInertia is a property of matter to resist changes in motion.

Think!A ball is rolled across a counter top and rolls slowly to a stop. How would Aristotle interpret this behavior? How would Galileo interpret it? How would you interpret it?

Answer: Aristotle would probably say that the ball stops because it seeks its natural state of rest. Galileo would probably say that the friction between the ball and the table overcomes the balls natural tendency to continue rollingovercomes the balls inertiaand brings it to a stop. Only you can answer the last question!

Newtons First law of Motion: INERTIA

NEWTON on INERTIAAn object at rest will stay at rest, and an object in motion will stay in motion at constant velocity, unless acted upon by an unbalanced force.**

Objects at Rest

-Objects in a state of rest tend to remain at rest. Only a force will change that state.

Newtons Law of Inertia

Objects in MotionObjects in motion tends to keep on moving, unless acted upon by an external force.In the absence of forces, a moving object tends to move in a straight line indefinitely.

Inertia on a fast moving vehicle

Newtons Law of Inertia

Think!A force of gravity between the sun and its planets holds the planets in orbit around the sun. If that force of gravity suddenly disappeared, in what kind of path would the planets move?

Answer: Each planet would move in a straight line at constant speed.

MassA Measure of Inertia

The more mass an object has, the greater its inertia and the more force it takes to change its state of motion.

MassA Measure of Inertia

The amount of inertia an object has depends on its mass.

Mass Is Not Volume

Volume is a measure of space and is measured in units such as cubic centimeters, cubic meters, and liters. Mass is measured in the fundamental unit of kilograms.

Mass Is Not Volume

The pillow has a larger size (volume) but a smaller mass than the battery.

Mass Is Not Weight

Mass is a measure of the amount of material in an object. Weight, on the other hand, is a measure of the gravitational force acting on the object

MassA Measure of Inertia

The amount of material in a particular stone is the same whether the stone is located on Earth, on the moon, or in outer space.

MassA Measure of InertiaMass and weight are proportional to each other in a given place:In the same location, twice the mass weighs twice as much. Mass and weight are proportional to each other, but they are not equal to each other.

One Kilogram Weighs 10 Newtons

One kilogram of nails weighs 10 newtons, which is equal to 2.2 pounds. Away from Earths surface, where the force of gravity is less, the bag of nails weighs less.

Think!

Does a 2-kilogram bunch of bananas have twice as much inertia as a 1-kilogram loaf of bread? Twice as much mass? Twice as much volume? Twice as much weight, when weighed in the same location?

Answer: Two kilograms of anything has twice the inertia and twice the mass of one kilogram of anything else. In the same location, where mass and weight are proportional, two kilograms of anything will weigh twice as much as one kilogram of anything. Except for volume, the answer to all the questions is yes. Bananas are much more dense than bread, so two kilograms of bananas must occupy less volume than one kilogram of bread.

The Moving Earth AgainThe law of inertia states that objects in motion remain in motion if no unbalanced forces act on them.

Arguments:Consider a bird sitting at rest in the top of a tall tree.The bird sees a worm, drops down vertically, and catches it. It was argued that this would not be possible if Earth moved as Copernicus suggested. The fact that birds do catch worms from high tree branches seemed to be clear evidence that Earth must be at rest.

Earth moves at 30 km/s, but so do the tree, the worm below, and even the air in between. Objects on Earth move with Earth as Earth moves around the sun.

Objects Move With Earth

Earth does not need to be at rest for the bird to catch the worm.

Two thousand years ago, people thought that Earth did not move. One major reason for thinking this was that no force was large enough to move the Earth.Earths motion would be unnatural.Earth was near the center of the universe.Earth moved in a perfect circle.

Assessment Questions

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Two thousand years ago, people thought that Earth did not move. One major reason for thinking this was that no force was large enough to move the Earth.Earths motion would be unnatural.Earth was near the center of the universe.Earth moved in a perfect circle.Answer: A

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According to Aristotle and his followers over centuries, Earth was at the center of the universe. The first European to effectively challenge that notion wasCopernicus.Galileo.Newton.Einstein.

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According to Aristotle and his followers over centuries, Earth was at the center of the universe. The first European to effectively challenge that notion wasCopernicus.Galileo.Newton.Einstein.Answer: A

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Galileos conclusions about motion helped advance science because they were based on experiments rather than philosophical discussions.philosophical discussions rather than experiments.nonmathematical thinking.Aristotles theories of motion.

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Galileos conclusions about motion helped advance science because they were based on experiments rather than philosophical discussions.philosophical discussions rather than experiments.nonmathematical thinking.Aristotles theories of motion. Answer: A

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If gravity between the sun and Earth suddenly vanished, Earth would continue moving in a(n)curved path.straight-line path.outward spiral path.inward spiral path.

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If gravity between the sun and Earth suddenly vanished, Earth would continue moving in a(n)curved path.straight-line path.outward spiral path.inward spiral path.Answer: B

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To say that 1 kg of matter weighs 10 N is to say that 1 kg of matterwill weigh 10 N everywhere. has ten times less volume than 10 kg of matter.has ten times more inertia than 10 kg of matter.is attracted to Earth with 10 N of force.

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To say that 1 kg of matter weighs 10 N is to say that 1 kg of matterwill weigh 10 N everywhere. has ten times less volume than 10 kg of matter.has ten times more inertia than 10 kg of matter.is attracted to Earth with 10 N of force.

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