Lisa A. Britten - Master's Thesis Defense Presentation

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<p>PowerPoint Presentation</p> <p>In This Together:Secondary Language Arts Teachers Responses to Learning Labs Presented by Lisa A. Brittenin partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree ofMaster of Education in Reading</p> <p>December 15, 2015Grand Valley State UniversityThesis CommitteeAdvisor: Dr. Elizabeth Petroelje Stolle, Ph.D.Dr. Nancy DeFrance, Ph.D.Dr. Nancy Patterson, Ph.D.Dr. Douglas Busman, Ph.D.</p> <p>OutlineMotivationIntroductionRationaleTheoretical FrameworkLiterature ReviewMethodology &amp; Data CollectionFindingsRecommendations</p> <p>MotivationMy interest in the topic of PD comes from my own experiences as a teacher and student of education.11 years experience in public educationGVSU course EDR 687: Practicum Experience for Reading SpecialistPersonal curiosity about PD in general: What kinds of professional development experiences respect educators as professionals and adult learners AND ALSO meet their schools/students needs?</p> <p>IntroductionDistrict/SchoolStudent Achievement GoalsEducational Research/Best PracticesStaffEngagementConsiderations for Designing Professional DevelopmentCost</p> <p>District/school goals include meeting the requirements of state standards, achievement on high-stakes tests, addressing the needs of high-risk student populations, etc.Staff engagement Answer their personal questions, create teacher buy-in, etc.4</p> <p>Introduction</p> <p>School districts have traditionally turned to an approach in which participants sit and receive information (Brancard &amp; Quinnwilliams, 2012).Hello, Im a- professor.- principal.- program developer.- author.- teacher-leader.</p> <p>the sage on the stageThis solution is founded on the idea that teachers need more direction about how to teach. They may lack knowledge about the students in their classrooms, not understand the content they are being asked to teach, or lack understanding about best practices for teaching the content or for assessing students.5</p> <p>Introduction</p> <p>This approach assumes if professional developers supply information, teachers will change the way they teach and students will learn more (p. 321).</p> <p>6</p> <p>IntroductionIn small districts with large numbers of economically-disadvantaged students, PD must not only meet the needs of staff, students, and district goals, but also be cost-effective.There is less return oninvestment when thehired expert leaves the district after the PDsession is finished.</p> <p>Theres always a cost associated with bringing someone in from outside the district. (speakers fees, travel expenses, etc.)7</p> <p>IntroductionBudget cuts, along with rigorous new requirements associated with No Child Left Behind (2001), have created additional challenges for school leaders.What can our school dowith what we alreadyhave?</p> <p>District leaders are looking inward for people and resources in the district to build up, rather than outside of district boundaries for people to bring in.8</p> <p>Introduction</p> <p>a shift from passive, intermittent PDto that which is active, consistent, basedin the teaching environment, and supported by peers(Stewart, 2004, p. 28)EDUCATIONALRESEARCHThere has been a timely shift in educational research about PD.</p> <p>IntroductionOngoing,Job-Embedded,Collaborative,Professional Developmentprimarily school or classroom based and integrated into the workday(Croft, Coggshell, Dolan, &amp; Powers, 2010, p. 2)a focus on learning from peersthrough constructive dialogue(Van Meter &amp; Stevens, 2000; Glazer &amp; Hannafin, 2006)often includes support from instructional coaches(Bean, 2004; Kern, 2009)</p> <p>IntroductionOngoing,Job-Embedded,Collaborative,Professional DevelopmentVarious models for job-embedded, collaborative professional development for both teachers and administrators have emerged over the past decade.Instructional RoundsLearningWalksInstructional WalkthroughsProfessionalLearning CommunitiesCollaborativeInquiryLessonStudy</p> <p>IntroductionOngoing,Job-Embedded,Collaborative,Professional DevelopmentSome emerging models still require further examination as the body of research about them is relatively small.Instructional RoundsLearningWalksInstructional WalkthroughsProfessionalLearning CommunitiesCollaborativeInquiryLessonStudyClassroomLearning Labs </p> <p>IntroductionClassroom learning labscenter around a classroom observation that inspires conversations about teaching and learning.provide a framework for learning from peers through constructive dialogue.rely on an instructional coach to moderate conversation and support participants thinking. Researchers have examined each of these elements independently and have found them to be effective.</p> <p>IntroductionHowever, the idea of bringing them together into the structure referred to as a classroom learning lab has not been explored through a vast amount of research.This presents a need for developing new avenues for exploration.</p> <p>Research QuestionHow do cross-district classroom learning labs impact secondary ELA teachers from small public schools who have few professional development opportunities to discuss instructional best practices with colleagues who work in a similar grade level and content area context?</p> <p>RationaleAdvantagesDisadvantageseasier to build a community of teachers and learners (Klonsky &amp; Klonsky, 1999)correlations between smaller size and higher student achievement (Howley, 1989; Rural School and Community Trust, 2000; Wesley, 2002)higher teacher morale (Meier, 1996)reduction in discipline problems (Fowler &amp; Walberg, 1991; Klonsky, 2002)have less financial access to traditional forms of PD (Brancard &amp; Quinnwilliams, 2012)may only have one teacher for each subject at each grade levelmay isolate subject-area teachers from one another (Jones, 2006) if districts choose to form grade-level PLCs</p> <p>Smaller schools seem better.</p> <p>RationaleIn my research, I wanted to bring teachers from two different districts together to experience a classroom learning lab and see how the experience impacted teachers from the smaller school.</p> <p>Theoretical FrameworkVygotsky (1978): Learning and development are collaborative activities.Social constructivism: Knowledge is first constructed in a social process and then is adapted for use by individuals.Collaborative Elaboration(Van Meter &amp; Stevens, 2000)Andragogy(Knowles, 1980)</p> <p>Theoretical Framework Collaborative ElaborationVan Meter &amp; Stevens (2000) reviewed the theory used in studies around peer collaboration, and determined that Piagets explanation of how learners construct knowledge could not explain every aspect of the collaborative process.Individuals develop conceptually when current understandings are challenged by contradictory views (Piaget, 1926).</p> <p>Theoretical Framework Collaborative ElaborationThey proposed a new theory, termed collaborative elaboration, that blends ideas from both Vygotsky and Piaget.Learning is constructed through a social process, but the individuals involved in that process may experience cognitive conflict when exchanging ideas with others. New learning occurs when the conflict is resolved (Van Meter &amp; Stevens, 2000).</p> <p>Theoretical Framework AndragogyMalcolm Knowles (1980) explains his theory of andragogy as the art and science of helping adults learn (p. 43).It is based on four assumptions about the way that adults seek and create knowledge.</p> <p>Theoretical Framework AndragogyAdult learners have a deep psychological need to be generally self-directing, although they may be dependent intemporary situations (p. 43).Adult learners see education as a process of developing increased competence to achieve their full potential in life (p. 45).Adult learners find satisfaction when they can identify immediate applications of their learning to situations presented by family, personal interests, or career.Adults derive their self-identity from their experience (p. 51), and feel rejected as persons when their experience isnt valued.Knowles Four Assumptions About Adult Learners (1980)</p> <p>Literature ReviewThe Evolution of Models forCollaborative,Job-EmbeddedProfessional Development</p> <p>23</p> <p>Literature ReviewEncouraged classroom walkthroughs followed by collegial post-observation conversationsTeachers were more likely to improve their performance when their expertise in reflecting on previous performance was valued.Teachers seemed to embrace new ideas more readily when they emerged as a result of self-reflection.</p> <p>Downey, Steffy, English, Frase, and Poston (2004)</p> <p>The Three-Minute Classroom Walk-through: Changing School Supervisory Practice One Teacher at a Time</p> <p>24</p> <p>Literature ReviewAsserted that no model for classroom walkthroughs (or similar PD) would be effective unless certain important elements were present in its implementation.</p> <p>Bloom (2007)</p> <p>Classroom Visitations Done Well25</p> <p>Literature Review(1) a focus on improving teaching and learning(2) a belief that the practice of teaching should be public and informed by standards(3) a grounding in the commitment to support the success of every student and teacher(4) an organization around clear and public processes and protocolsBloom (2007)</p> <p>26</p> <p>Literature ReviewExplored a model called instructional rounds, which include a classroom observation and pre- and post-observation discussion.The participants were building principals seeking to solve a problem of practice within their buildings.Roegman and Riehl (2012)</p> <p>27</p> <p>Literature ReviewThe Value ofObserving Other Teachersas ProfessionalDevelopment</p> <p>28</p> <p>Literature ReviewA safe, supportive community was created when the same cohort of teachers analyzed and critiqued each others video-recorded lessons.Borko, Jacobs, Eiteljorg, &amp; Pitman (2008)</p> <p>29</p> <p>Literature ReviewReading teachers who participated in analyzing videos of other teachers reading instruction found the experience beneficial and were inspired to make changes in their practice.Rosaen, Carlisle, Mihocko, Melnick, &amp; Johnson (2013)</p> <p>30</p> <p>Literature ReviewWatching ones own instruction can create a sense of anxiety for the taped teacher, even if the teacher is viewing the video alone or with a supportive supervisor.Including the taped teacher in the group discussing the video has a tendency to limit the spontaneity of discussion and may thwart group dynamics.Brophy (2004)</p> <p>31</p> <p>Literature ReviewJust observing videos alone isnt enough to create the reflective environment that it takes to inspire change. Teachers require structuring and scaffolding for this to happen.Brophy (2004)</p> <p>32</p> <p>Literature ReviewTeachers who observed their own instruction on video had a tendency to focus on what went wrong rather than what went right, leading to decreased teacher morale.Kleinknecht and Schneider (2013)</p> <p>33</p> <p>Literature ReviewThe ClassroomLearning LabModel</p> <p>34</p> <p>Literature ReviewClassroom learning labs (CLLs) offer teachers the benefits of classroom walkthroughs, instructional rounds, and the analysis of video recordings, while also incorporating the essential elements for success identified by Gary Bloom (2007).They provide solutions to the problems that observing video recordings can sometimes create.</p> <p>35</p> <p>Literature ReviewIf continued over time, participating in CLLs can inspire teachers to reexamine and redefine their role and purpose in the classroom and make changes to their instruction.They can lead to a more collaborative, learning-focused professional culture.Bracard and Quinnwilliams (2002)</p> <p>36</p> <p>What is a Classroom Learning Lab?A focus on student achievement through the advancement of teacher learningGrounding in theory and best practices, but also in shared expertiseGuidance by a pre-determined protocol and a facilitator (such as an instructional coach)Collaboration and the involvement of a community of peersKey Elements of Classroom Learning Labs</p> <p>What is a Classroom Learning Lab?HostTeacherFacilitatorGuestTeachersAdmin</p> <p>Host teacher Allows other teachers to observe a lessonGuest teachers observe and participate in conversationsFacilitator Ensures that the group follows the protocol and adheres to group normsAdministrators Provide support (time, money for subs, etc.)38</p> <p>What is a Classroom Learning Lab?ClassroomObservationPre-briefDebrief</p> <p>39</p> <p>What is a Classroom Learning Lab?Pre-briefAll participants are introduced.Norms are established and the protocol is explained.The host teacher introduces the days lesson and the context for the lesson (standards, unit, goals, etc.).Guests identify areas that they will be purposeful about observing in the hosts classroom.</p> <p>40</p> <p>What is a Classroom Learning Lab?ClassroomObservationGuests quietly observe the host teachers lesson and take notes.Guests may interact with students by asking them about their work or learning, but may not take on the role of teacher or coach.</p> <p>41</p> <p>What is a Classroom Learning Lab?DebriefThe host teacher reflects on the lesson.Guests share their noticings with the host.The host responds to noticings with further explanation (to clarify) or with questions (to problem-solve).The facilitator leads a conversation around theory and practice, based on what was observed in the lesson.All participants share their learnings from the session.</p> <p>42</p> <p>Literature ReviewProfessional Learning and Growth ThroughConstructive Dialogue</p> <p>43</p> <p>Literature ReviewOne of the beliefs behind CLLs is that shared teacher expertise helps the host teacher to more closely examine and evaluate his or her instructional decisions and practices.During a CLL, participants expertise is shared with the host teacher in the form of noticings, statements beginning with the phrase, I noticed (Houk, 2010; McDougall, 2015)</p> <p>44</p> <p>Literature ReviewNoticings are pre-planned, intentional, and designed to facilitate productive thinking, conversation, reflection, and professional growth as a part of the CLL process.</p> <p>45</p> <p>Literature ReviewThree key areas are essential when teachers engage in noticing:(1) identifying what is important in the teaching situation(2) using background knowledge related to the situation to reason about it(3) making connections between specific events and broader principles of teaching and learningVan Es and Sherin (2008)</p> <p>46</p> <p>Literature ReviewBy identifying what is important before the classroom observation, teachers with less experience are just as likely as expert teachers to make meaningful observations about the host teachers lesson.Van Es and Sherin (2008)</p> <p>47</p> <p>Literature ReviewCLL participants have their thinking challenged by those whose background knowledge causes them to notice aspects of the lesson in a different way.The ensuing conversation and reflection results in transformative thinking.Van Es and Sherin (2008)</p> <p>48</p> <p>Literature ReviewA CLL asks teachers to consider and share the broader implications of what they observed and then reflect on what those might mean for their own professional learning and teaching practice.Making connections like these leads to professional growth.Van Es and Sherin (2008)</p> <p>49</p>...