Gender Empowerment in India - Challenges and Opportunities

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  • 1. Gender Empowerment in India - Challenges and Opportunities.Talk by Shailaja Chandraat National Defence College Friday, 8th February, 2013

2. Indian states with Population of large countries 3. Population of the World and India.At 1210 millionplus Indiaspopulation canbe compared tothe combinedpopulations ofUSA,Brazil,Indonesia,Pakistan,Japan& Bangladesh . 4. Population Share of Indian States 2011 5. Indias Population growth 1901-2011 Population grew five times in the last 100 yearsDecadal Population GrowthPopulation(million) 6. Demographic Dividend or Demographic Trap?9 States called EAG states namely, Rajasthan, UttarPradesh, Uttarakhand, Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa,Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Assamconstitute: 48 percent of countrys Population 59 percent of Births 70 percent of Infant Deaths 75 percent of Under 5Deaths 62 percent of Maternal Deaths 7. % to Total Maternal Region MMRDeaths EAG* states & Assam308 61.6 Southern states127 11.4 Other states 149 27.0 India212100.0 In Industrial countries the average MMR is 14EAG* (Empowered Action Group) states are Bihar, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh,Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand 8. Regional Variations:Maternal Mortality Ratio* (MMR) 9. Source: Registrar General of India, Ministry of Home Affairs (SRS, 2011) 10. Source: Registrar General of India, (SRS, 2011) 11. Challenges to Gender Empowerment Poverty: Loans and credit are only available againstmoveable or immoveable property which is usually inthe name of men. Education and Training: Girls cannot pursueschooling because of domestic responsibilities. Andearly marriage . Health: Women suffer from malnutrition andanaemia. Remain dependent on intermediaries foraccessing medical and health care even familyplanning services. 12. Challenges to Gender Empowerment Inequality in Power Structure and DecisionMaking: This is especially so in the lowereconomic strata. Absence of Champions for WomensAdvancement There are no support groups topromote womens progress in careers andjobs. 13. Challenges to Gender Empowerment Violence: Gender-based violence includesdomestic violence, sexual assault, stalking, sexualharassment at work, trafficking into prostitution,dowry related cruelty, forced marriage,traditional and honour-based aggression. Armed conflict: Aggression against women is asource of constant terror and distress in all war-torn countries and wherever there is armedconflict 14. Disparity in Economic Empowerment 15. Disparity in Economic Empowerment 16. Disparity in Social Empowerment 17. Disparity in womens decision making within Income groups ( married women