Teaching Excellence Workshop from St. Mary's College of Maryland on Flipped Classrooms.
- 1.The Flipped ClassroomLin Muilenburg, EducationErin De Pree, PhysicsScott Mirabile, Psychology Dave Kung, Mathematics
2. Lin Muilenburg, EducationWHAT IS A FLIPPEDCLASSROOM? 3. Flipped Classroom: Oversimplified The flipped classroom is a pedagogical modelin which the typical lecture and homeworkelements of a course are reversed(EDUCAUSE, 2012). In more complex forms, teachers directstudents to instructional video content whenneeded during various stages in complexlearning cycles (Musallam, 2011). 4. An ideology, not a model The Flipped Classroom is a pedagogy-first approachthat strives to meet the needs of the learners. It ismuch more an ideology than it is a specificmethodology . . . there is no prescribed set of rulesto follow or model to fit. This can look very different from classroom toclassroom; no two Flipped Classrooms look exactlythe same, just as no two traditional classrooms lookalike. (Bennet et al., 2012b) 5. An ideology, not a model The Flipped Classroom is one part of a largerinquiry or instruction cycle, not a panacea or stand-alone magic bullet for instruction. It overlaps with many instructional practices suchas: Reverse Instruction, Inquiry Learning, Problem-based Learning, Universal Design for Learning, Peer Instruction, and(Bennet et al., 2012b) Blended Learning. 6. Why Flip? Actively transfer the responsibility and ownership oflearning from the teacher to the students. When students have control over how they learncontent, the pace of their learning, and how theirlearning is assessed, the learning belongs to them. Teachers become guides to understanding ratherthan dispensers of facts, and students become activelearners rather than receptacles of information.(Bennet et al., 2012b) 7. Characteristics Discussions are led by students and typically reachhigher orders of critical thinking; outside content isbrought in and expanded. Students challenge one another during class on content. Content is given context as it relates to real-worldscenarios. Collaborative work is fluid depending on student needsand interests.(Bennet et al., 2012a) 8. Characteristics Student-led tutoring and collaborative learningforms spontaneously. Students take ownership of the material. Students are actively engaged in problem solvingand critical thinking. Students are transforming from passive listeners toactive learners. (Bennet et al., 2012a) 9. Questions to Consider1. How can the focus and attention of the classroom be turned away from the teacher and toward the students giving the students more control over their learning?2. What can be removed from class time that can be better placed outside the classroom (often by leveraging technology)?3. What will be done with the recovered class time that will challenge and actively engage learners?4. How can the students increased cognitive load from higher order thinking be addressed through teacher presence and scaffolding? 10. Ex: Senior Seminar in HMST Reading sets offer choice; distribute knowledge Reading notes: Summarize and react to readings Add one important idea from outside sources Write thought provoking discussion question Post notes to Blackboard before class Class time is for rich, student-led discussions Students take ownership and share resources 11. Screencasting Lectures Directions:http://www.screencast.com/t/zFf6Zwhjd Tech Skills:http://www.screencast.com/t/BgIjwTy3J 12. Technology in the ClassroomA gradual shift from how-to lessons to projectdevelopment workshops Students work collaboratively Peer coaching; expertise is distributed F2F support for higher order thinking Gradually move lower order thinking tohomework e.g., learning software basics 13. Technology in the ClassroomEverything students need is on the course wiki! Assignment descriptions Multiple exemplary models Scoring rubrics How-to screencasts Links to resourcesThe Tech in the Classroom Wiki 14. Erin De Pree, PhysicsDO STUDENTS REALLYLEARN MORE? 15. What happens in class? Clicker questions or ConcepTests Solving homework-like problems Solving real-world problems Mini lab activities Modeling situations with students, playdough, etc. ... 16. Build-Your-Own-Nuclear-Reactor 17. Student-designed model of anexpanding and contracting universe 18. Do Students Really Learn More? Conceptual Tests:Force Concept Inventory (FCI) 1st semester concepts Standard throughout physics community Used internationally Increased preparedness for upper level courses They can explain their knowledge to others 19. Normalized GainRegion GainHigh Gain0.7 1.0Medium Gain0.3 0.7Low Gain 0 0.3 20. Low gain Hake, 1998 21. InteractivecoursesTraditional courses 22. 0.5 individual courseswith interactive engagement0.45 category averages 0.40.35 0.30.25 0.20.15 0.1 St. Marys Physics Courses0.05 without interactive engagement0 23. Relationship to ICES scoresSTUDENT EVALUATIONS 24. 0.45 0.40.35FCI Normalized Gain 0.30.25 0.20.15 0.1m = -0.008R2 = 0.00150.050 2.6 2.8 3 3.2 184.108.40.206 4.2 4.4 ICES Q1 (Rate the Instructor) Score 25. 0.45 0.40.35FCI Normalized Gain 0.30.25 0.20.15 0.1m = 0.0000.05R2 = 0.0000 2.6 2.8 3 3.2 3.43.6 3.84 4.2 4.4 ICES Q2 (Rate the Course) Score 26. Scott Mirabile, PsychologyTHE DOUBLE FLIP 27. The Double Flip: Goals & Methods Goal 1: Prepare for and provide hands-on experiencewith various research paradigmsPrepare through lecture, provide lab activities Goal 2: Foster scientific, critical thinking aboutimportant social issues relevant to developmentalpsychology. Flip 1: Students read text chapters and take quizzes. Assures students have working knowledge of relevant developmental theories & research. Flip 2: Students select supplementary readings, draft & assign response questions, lead the in-class discussions of the topics 28. The Double Flip: Challenges Problems in Preparation Incentivizing responsibility-taking Procrastination Little experience drafting critical thinking questions Problems in Execution Little experience facilitating discussions Can generate a LOT of gradable assignments Student perceptions that YOU arent actuallyteaching 29. The Double Flip: Solutions?Problems in Preparation Incentivizing responsibility-taking Stick: response papers, quizzes, participation grade Carrot: student-selected topics Procrastination Break project into steps, build in time for revise & resubmit Little experience drafting critical thinking questions Provide models (paper, in person) and rubrics Provide out of class support, schedule group meetings 30. The Double Flip: ChallengesProblems in Execution Little experience facilitating discussions Model the discussions you want them to have. Tips: dont gate-keep, tolerate/promote silence, let ideas develop fully Help them facilitate during discussions, dont take over. Can generate a LOT of gradable assignments Using pass/fail rather than numeric grades where possible Student perceptions that YOU arent teaching (about the subject) May be a matter of how the course is framed/described ? 31. Dave Kung, MathematicsAWESOME DUDE 32. EveryoneDISCUSSION 33. ReferencesFor more information on FlippedClassrooms, and to find the articles referencedin this presentation go to:https://sites.google.com/site/nhinstitutes/interactive-classrooms/theory-behind-the-flipped-classroom