Everyday patterns in lifelong learners to build personal learning ecologies

  • Published on

  • View

  • Download


This article presents the results from a questionnaire filled out by 147 lifelong learners. The primary aim of the questionnaire is to analyse learning practices of adults, and to recognize patterns of lifelong learners in order to support them with technology. These patterns capture the context in which lifelong learners are more willing to learn, that is, the day of the week, duration, location, activity being performed, type of device being used, way to interact with their devices and how these aspects can affect when an adult student takes the initiative to learn. Moreover, this article examines previous publications on surveys, questionnaires and information collected with the same objective, to corroborate and contrast the findings. The contribution of this paper is identifying and describing patterns in which lifelong learners are more willing to build personal learning ecologies when supported by mobile devices.


  • 1. Everyday patterns in lifelong learners to build personal learning ecologies Bernardo Tabuenca, Stefaan Ternier and Marcus Specht 11th World Conference on Mobile and Contextual Learning October 2012, Helsinki (Finland) Open University of the Netherlands page 1
  • 2. Contents Problem definition Patterns based on type of Aim of the research learning activity Aim of this survey Patterns based on contents Working definitions Behaviour checking The experiment notifications Method Linking locations, activities in physical spaces Demographics Conclusions Lifelong learning References Type of mobile device Motivation Patterns based on type of devicepage 2
  • 3. Problem definition The involvement of adults in lifelong learning activities in Europe has been decreasing between 2005 and 2010 (Eurostat, 2011). Lifelong learners are confronted with a broad range of activities they have to manage everyday: Learning Working Everyday life throughout the day Lifelong learning contexts: Traditional formal programs Non-formal education Informal learning Job trainingpage 3
  • 4. Problem definition Wong L-H (2010) Identified ten seams by which learning experiences are disrupted: No support of informal and formal learning activities No support for learning activities across locations, devices and environoments. Lack of support for ubiquitous knowledge access. No suppport for multiple learning tasks and switching between them Linking learning activities with everyday life activities and the physical world objectspage 4
  • 5. Aim of my research Development of integrated personal learning ecologies for efficient lifelong learning support. This research is focused on the combined and simultaneous use of several devices and information channels: 1. Devices need to be aware about the other devices and interfaces that are present in the same setting. 2. An underlying educational design needs to be defined in a way that it can make use of multiple interfaces or information channels. 3. Interfaces must get appropriately integrated in order to facilitate seamless interaction in a personal learning ecology.page 5
  • 6. Aim of this survey Identify patterns in which lifelong learners are more willing to build personal learning ecologies. Analyse learning practices in adults. Day of the week Duration Location Activity being performed Type of device being used Way to interact with mobile devices Contrast our results with previous publicationspage 6
  • 7. Working deni6ons Learning Taking the initiative to learn something actively. It can be related to work, current studies or self-fulfilmentLearning activity (Vavoula & Sharples 2002) The distinct acts that the person carries out during reading, discussing, listening and making notesMobile device regular phone, smartphone, tablet, multimedia player and laptop when used not always in the same placePersonal Learning Ecology integrated information technology devices and objects that are present in the physical environment of learners and couples these devices and objects with learning activitiespage 7
  • 8. Method Topics of the questions: 4 about demographicsAn introduction section was 3 about mobile usage patternsincluded in order to explain theaim of the questionnaire and 2 about how timing and content are relatedworking definitions 7 questions linking activities, locations, and ways ofThe questionnaire is composed interaction with mobile devicesby 21 items: 1 identifying difficulties when 5 multiple choice questions learning with mobile devices, 6 single select questions 3 about motivation, 9 matrix selection questions 1 how familiar are they with 1 open answer question the concept of lifelong learning Are we sharing the data? Yes!page 8 http://hdl.handle.net/1820/4296
  • 9. Survey demographics 100 100 90 86 90 80 80 70 70 61 60 60 # lifelong learners # lifelong learners 50 50 50 43 40 40 30 30 27 20 20 14 13 10 10 0 0 0 Male Female 65 Gender Age
  • 10. Survey demographics 100 99 % lifelong learners; N=147 90 80 70 # lifelong learners 60 Computer sciences 50 48 22% 27% Engineering Natural sciences 40 2% HumaniFes 5% Business 30 8% 16% Law 20 Medicine 11 10% 10% 10 Other 3 1 0 0 Profesional Status Profesional domain
  • 11. Lifelong learning All learning activity undertaken throughout life, with theaim of improving knowledge, skills and competenceswithin a personal, civic, social and/or employment-relatedperspective European comission (2011) Do you consider yourself a lifelong learner? 100 90 78.3 80 70 60 50 40 30 21.7 20 10 0 No Yes
  • 12. Type of mobile device The presence of mobile devices in lifelong learners dailyactivities is a fact: 70.06% of the respondents use portable computers every day 56.46% of the respondents use smartphones every day 17.68% of the respondents use tablets on daily basis
  • 13. Mo6va6on to learn during the day 100 90 80 % lifelong learners; n=147 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 00h - 06h 06h - 08h 08h - 10h 10h - 12h 12h - 16h 16h - 20h 20h - 00h
  • 14. Mo6va6on to learn during the day Smartphone users 100 90 80 % lifelong learners; n=147 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 00h - 06h 06h - 08h 08h - 10h 10h - 12h 12h - 16h 16h - 20h 20h - 00h Lifelong learners that do not use smartphone every day Lifelong learners that use smartphone everyday
  • 15. Mo6va6on to learn during the day Tablet users 100 90 80 % lifelong learners; n=147 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 00h - 06h 06h - 08h 08h - 10h 10h - 12h 12h - 16h 16h - 20h 20h - 00h Lifelonglearners that do not use tablets Lifelong learners that use tablets
  • 16. PaOerns based on type of device Hourly device usage across the day Eo, B. D. (2011)
  • 17. PaOerns based on type of device Daily device usage across the week Eo, B. D. (2011)
  • 18. Usage of smartphones during the week 100 90 80 % lifelong learners; n=147 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday Non smartphone users Smartphone users Tabuenca B., Ternier S. and Specht M. (2012)
  • 19. PaOerns based on type of learning ac6vity 100 90 80 70 Gaming # lifelong learners 60 50 Listen 40 Read 30 Watch videos 20 Write 10 0 0 mins 1 min 5 mins 30 mins 60 mins More than 60 mins
  • 20. PaOerns based on type of content Arbitron M. (2012)
  • 21. Behaviour checking no6ca6ons Lopende tekst en opsommingen
  • 22. Linking loca6ons, ac6vi6es and interac6ons with mobile technologies
  • 23. Linking loca6ons, ac6vi6es and interac6ons with mobile technologies. Preferences regarding genders.
  • 24. Discussion and conclusions 1. Portable computers are the most used type of device. 2. Individuals that own a smartphone reported to be more constantly moFvated to learn during the day than non-smartphone users. 3. Individuals that own smartphone use them constantly during the whole week. The rest of the individuals reported lower usage during working days and an increase during the weekends. 4. Listening is the most compaFble learning acFvity when performing other tasks at the same Fme. It is also the one where adults spend more Fme and in longer Fme-slots.
  • 25. Discussion and conclusions 5. There are two dierent behaviours when adults check their mobile phone for a new SMS, missed call, email or any other noFcaFon. There is a group that only checks incoming noFcaFons when the device warns them with an alert. There is another group that check it conFnuously. 6. There is an associaFon between the learning acFvity being performed (reading, listening, wriFng, or watching) and the concrete locaFon where it takes place. 7. Learning acFviFes are mainly performed when adults are with their legs stopped. The reading and wriFng learning acFviFes mostly take place being sat (sofa, desk, train, bus and toilet) or lying on somewhere (bed). Si=ng in the sofa is the concrete place where adults reported the higher acceptance when carrying out any learning acFvity. However, the listening learning acFvity that takes part more evenly in the dierent locaFons, on-the-move and embedded in dierent acFviFes.
  • 26. Discussion and conclusions 8. Men and women behave in a dierently when making use of their mobile devices. Not only in the way to perform learning acFviFes depending on the context, but also in the way to adend to an incoming noFcaFon on their mobile phones. 9. Lifelong learners reported that their learning experiences are disrupted. Finding a suitable Fme slot to learn during the day is the most frequent diculty reported by parFcipants. 10.There is a high rate of individuals that are not familiarized with the concept of lifelong learning.
  • 27. Future research Evolving and maturing the Ecology of Smart Learning Objects Design Framework with empirical data Ecology of Resources. Ambient InformaFon Channels model. Luckin (2010) Specht (2009)
  • 28. References Arbitron, M. (2011). No prime time for Smartphone. Retrieved from http://www.zokem.com/2011/06/no-prime-time-for-smartphone Eoff, B. D. (2011). How We Use the Tools We Choose: A Week of Worldwide Usage Data. Retrieved from http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/does_your_device_change_the_way_you_use_info.php European C. (2011). Making a European area of lifelong learning reality. Retrieved from http:// www.bologna-berlin2003.de/pdf/MitteilungEng.pdf. Eurostat. (2011). Lifelong learning statistics. Retrieved from http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/statistics_explained/index.php/Lifelong_learning_statistics Eurostat. (2011). Lifelong Learning statistics. Report. Brussels: http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/statistics_explained/index.php/Lifelong_learning_statistics Luckin, R. (2010). Re-Designing Learning Contexts: Technology-Rich, Learner-Centred Ecologies. Learning. Routledge. Specht, M. (2009). Learning in a Technology Enhanced World. Heerlen: Open University of the Netherlands. http://hdl.handle.net/1820/2034 Tabuenca B., Ternier S., and Specht M. (2012). Orchestration of smart learning objects in a learner- centred ecology of resources. Heerlen: Open University of the Netherlands. (On review in Journal of Education, Technology & Society) Vavoula, G., & Sharples, M. (2002). KLeOS: A personal, mobile, Knowledge and Learning Organisation System. Proceedings of IEEE International Workshop On Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education Wong, L-H. (2010). What Seams do We Remove? - The Ten Dimensions of Mobile-assisted Seamless page 28 Learning. ICCE.
  • 29. Questions? bernardo.tabuenca@ou.nl nl.linkedin.com/in/btabuenca @bernardtabuencapage 29


View more >