3. 3 Baroque comes from the Portuguese for grotesque; A judgment made by later neo-classical artists who found Baroque art too elaborate for their taste.
4. 4 Today the term refers to the art of the 17th century. It is highly ornamental and theatrical which is a better description than grotesque. Baroque The Kings Bedchamber from the Palace of Versailles
5. 5 It is he art style or art movement of the Counter-Reformation in the 17th century. Although some features appear in Dutch art, the Baroque style was limited mainly to Catholic countries. It is a style in which painters, sculptors, and architects sought emotion, movement, and variety in their works.
6. 6 Advances in the Sciences The increased secularization of government coincided with developments in science that challenged many fundamental religious tenets. Copernicus's argument that the sun was the center of the universe, was developed further and accepted throughout Europe. The atomic basis for chemistry was established. Other scientific discoveries introduced ideas that had widespread ramifications.
7. 7 A World-Wide Market Various changes promoted the growth of a worldwide marketplace. Trade brought coffee and tea to Europe. The taste for sugar, tobacco, and rice, however, contributed to the expansion of the slave trade to provide the labor force needed to produce these crops. The establishment of a worldwide mercantile system permanently altered the face of Europe.
8. 8 The Baroque in Italy The Baroque was born in Italy under the patronage of the Catholic church. A papal program to beautify Rome drew artists from all over Italy. Artists of this era were highly skilled in drawing and painting the human figure from every angle. Discover the meaning of tenebroso.
9. 9 Gianlorenzo Bernini (1598-1680) Bernini was the most important Baroque sculptor and architect of the 17th-century and one of the key creators of the whole era. But he worked initially as a painter. This no was a sideline which he did mainly in his youth. Despite this his work reveals a sure hand. He studied in Rome under his own father, Pietro, and soon became one of the most precocious prodigies in the history of art. Bernini, Self-Portrait as a Mature Man, 1630-35, Oil on canvas, Galleria Borghese, Rome
10. 10 This self-portrait was painted when the artist was about 25 years old, when he sculpted the David, and Apollo and Daphne. The nervous rapidity of the brushstrokes and quick flash of his eyes reveal his desire to capture expression in an instant. He did this systematically in his sculpted portraits. Self-Portrait as a Young Man c. 1623 Oil on canvas Galleria Borghese, Rome
11. 11 Next is one of the few paintings by Bernini. He despised painting, he regarded it as deception and lie in contrast with sculpturing which is the truth. He painted only five self-portraits and a few pictures representing saints. Saint Andrew and Saint Thomas, c. 1627, Oil on canvas, 59 x 76 cm, National Gallery, London
12. 12 Aeneas, Anchises, and Ascanius, 1618- 19 Marble, height: 220 cm, Galleria Borghese, Rome Primarily a sculptor and architect Bernini was a versatile and influential artist. In this, Aeneas, Anchises, and Ascanius Fleeing Troy, Bernini carved his first important life-size sculptural group.
13. 13 Apollo and Daphne is one of Berninis most popular sculptures. The influence of antique sculptures and of contemporary paintings is clearly seen. This life-size marble sculpture, begun by Bernini at the age of 24 has always been in the same room in the Borghese villa. Anyone entering the room first sees Apollo from behind, then the fleeing nymph appears in the process of metamorphosis. Bark covers most of her body, but according to Ovid's lines, Apollo's hand can still feel her heart beating beneath it. The scene ends by Daphne being transformed into a laurel tree to escape her divine aggressor.
15. 15 Berninis 1623 sculpture of David is quite different from the earlier David sculptures by Michelangelo and Donatello. In his David, Bernini depicts the figure casting a stone at an unseen adversary. David, 1623, 67 h, Villa Borghese, Florence
16. 16 In comparison to the earlier celebrated David sculptures, Bernini paid particular attention to the biblical text and sought to follow it as closely as possible. Unlike the earlier sculptures, Bernini's hero has a shepherd's pouch around his neck which already contains pebbles ready to use in the deadly sling which he will use against Goliath. The upper part of David's body is represented immediately after has taken a stone from his pouch. This means that the torso twists and strains not just physically but psychologically. The Renaissance versions of this subject show David in tranquillity with the head of Goliath or the sling-shot as attribute. Bernini, on the other hand, represents David in action, in the very moment of shooting.
17. 17 The youth's tense facial expression is modelled on Bernini himself as he struggled with his tools to work the hard marble. According to contemporary sources Cardinal Maffeo Barberini (who visited Bernini several times in his studio) himself held the mirror during its execution.
18. 18 With the pontificate of Urban VIII (1623-44), Bernini entered a period of enormous productivity and artistic development. Bernini was commissioned to build a symbolic structure over the tomb of St Peter in St Peter's Basilica in Rome. The result is the famous immense gilt-bronze baldachin executed between 1624 and 1633.
19. 19 Bernini brought the fountain sculpture from the villa to the city, from the natural to the social setting. With him, the sculpture is conceived in relation to the water, to its ceaseless flow, to its shape and course, and thus it becomes one of the "symbolic forms" of the Baroque. Fontana del Tritone, 1624-43 Travertine, over life-size Piazza Barberini, Rome
20. 20 The Fountain of Trevi may or may not be the most beautiful fountain in Rome but it is without doubt the most famous. The imaginative concept, the theatrical composition, the sober and imposing beauty of the sculptured marble figures make it a true masterpiece both of sculpture and of architecture.
21. 21 The greatest single example of Bernini's mature art is the Cornaro Chapel in Santa Maria della Vittoria, in Rome, which completes the evolution begun early in his career. The chapel, commissioned by Cardinal Federigo Cornaro, is in a shallow transept in the small church. Its focal point is his sculpture of The Ecstasy of St Teresa (1645-52), a depiction of a mystical experience of the great Spanish Carmelite reformer Teresa of vila.
22. 22 In the Cornaro Chapel, Bernini employed a combination of architecture, sculpture, and painting to create an appropriate dramatic tension for the mystical drama of the Ecstasy of Saint Theresa. Bernini combines a painted ceiling, a marble sculpture, bronze rays of light and a carefully placed window to create this highly dramatic interpretation of The Ecstasy of St. Theresa. Bernini, Ecstasy of St. Theresa, 1645-53. Marble, 11 1/2 h., Coronaro Chapel, Santa Maria della Vittoria, Rome.
23. 23 The white marble group of swooning saint and smiling angel appears to float as a vision might in the cleverly illuminated central niche.
24. 24 Caravaggio (1571-1610) Caravaggio, byname of Michelangelo Merisi, was a painter whose revolutionary technique of tenebrism, or dramatic, selective illumination of form out of deep shadow, became a hallmark of Baroque painting. Scorning the traditional idealized interpretation of religious subjects, he took his models from the streets and painted them naturalistically. His three paintings of St Matthew (c. 1597-1602) caused a sensation and were followed by such masterpieces as The Supper at Emmaus (1601-02) and Death of the Virgin (1605-06).
25. 25 Caravaggio shocked his patrons by placing religious figure in common, earthy settings. This ability to make us seem as if we were in the painting is called naturalism. The subjects in The Supper at Emmaus are brilliantly lit by a single source of light. Caravaggio, The Supper at Emmaus, 1597, Oil on canvas, 54 x 76
26. 26 In The Conversion of St. Paul - Caravaggio uses both tenebroso and dramatic placement of the figures to engage the viewer. According to the bible, on the way to Damascus Saul (Paul the Apostle) fell to the ground when he heard the voice of Christ saying to him, 'Saul, Saul, why do you persecute me?' and temporarily lost his sight. It was reasonable to assume that Saul had fallen from a horse. The Conversion on the Way to Damascus, 1600, Oil on canvas, 230 x 175 cm, Cerasi Chapel,, Rome
27. 27 In his naturalistic treatment of the Conversion of Saint Paul, Caravaggio employs dramatic chiaroscuro effects, called tenebrism, with sharply lit figures seen emerging from a dark background. The dramatic spotlight-like light illuminates the figure of Saint Paul and at the same time serves as the divine source of his conversion. Light also carries this double meaning in the dramatically lit commonplace setting of Caravaggio's Calling of Saint Matthew.
28. 28 Caravaggio Calling of Saint Matthew, ca. 1597-1601. Oil on canvas, 11' 1" x 11' 5". Contarelli Chapel, San Luigi dei Francesi, Rome.
29. 29 The Calling of St Matthew shows the moment at which two men and two worlds confront each other: Christ, in a burst of light, entering the room of the toll collector, and Matthew, intent on counting coins in the midst of a group of gaily dressed men with swords at their sides. In the glance between