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Cogniti ve Develop ment JFS

Cognitive development

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Jean Piaget


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Swiss Psychologist , worked for

- Several decades on understanding children’s cognitive development

- Most widely known for his theory of Cognitive Development

- Published his first paper at the early age of 10

- Earned his Doctorate in Natural Science at the age of 21

Jean Piaget (1896-1980)

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What is Cognitive Development ?Cognitive development is the changing process of thought, learning and perception as a child develops from infancy to adulthood. As cognition develops, children build on prior experiences, using these to help them make sense of the world around them.

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22Constructivism - KNOWLEDGE IS BUILT BY THE

LEARNERConstructivism is a new approach in education that claims humans are better able to understand the information they have constructed by themselves.

Learning is a social advancement that involves language, real world situations, and interaction and collaboration among learners. The learners are considered to be central in the learning process. Learning is affected by our prejudices, experiences, the time in which we live, and both physical and mental maturity. 

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Piagetian ClassroomCONSTRUCTIVISM had a large influence on

American schools. Piaget believes that a constructivist classroom must provide a variety of activities to challenge students to accept individual differences, increase their readiness to learn, discover new ideas, and construct their own knowledge. In an elementary Piagetian classroom, concrete learning experiences, such as drawing, drama, model building and field trips that involve hands-on opportunities to see, hear, touch, taste, and smell are essential. These early activities and the use of tangible manipulatives and visual aids serve as building blocks for more sophisticated tasks, such as reading comprehension.

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Piaget and LearningWE WANT TO UNDERSTAND


Piaget (1952) defined a schema as 'a cohesive, repeatable action sequence possessing component actions that are tightly interconnected and governed by a core meaning.

 Piaget came up with the idea that we build our schema, or background knowledge, based on our experiences.

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 A schema describes both the mental and physical actions involved in understanding and knowing. Schemas are categories of knowledge that help us to interpret and understand the world. For example, a child may have a schema about a type of animal, such as a dog. If the child's sole experience has been with small dogs, a child might believe that all dogs are small, furry, and have four legs. Suppose then that the child encounters an enormous dog. The child will take in this new information, modifying the previously existing schema to include these new observations.

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EquilibriumAccording to Piaget, equilibrium occurs when a person's background knowledge allows him or her to deal with most new information through something called assimilation, applying what you already know to new situations. Disequilib

riumDisequilibrium, then, refers to our inability to fit new information into our schema. When you come across information or experiences that do not fit into your current knowledge base, this is where disequilibrium begins. Disequilibrium occurs when we encounter new situations or information that do not fit into current background knowledge

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Which is using an existing schema to deal with a new object or situation. Accommodation

This happens when the existing schema (knowledge) does not work, and needs to be

changed to deal with a new object or situation. 

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Piaget’s Stages

of Cognitiv

e Develop


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During the early stages, infants are only aware of what is immediately in front of them. They focus on what they see, what they are doing, and physical interactions with their immediate environment.Because they don't yet know how things react, they're constantly experimenting with activities such as shaking or throwing things, putting things in their mouths, and learning about the world through trial and error.

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New babies are not quite sure what happens to objects when they leave their sight.This is when you play peek a boo with them you keep disappearing and reappearing That would lead babies to wonder this …

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During there first year infants will learn an important concept—object permanence. Everything has a life of its own even if its out of sight. It means that a child understands that people exist even though they are no longer in sight. At this stage, the child starts to adapt to the world even without the use of images but only through direct activity. His behavior is more flexible and is better integrated with his socio-physical environment. The child is capable of searching far hidden or missing objects at this stage.

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Stage 2: Pre-operational Stage ( about 2-7 years ) At this stage, kids learn through pretend play but still struggle with logic and taking the point of view of other people. They also often struggle with understanding the ideal of constancy.

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EgocentrismAccording to Piaget, egocentrism of the young child leads them to believe that everyone thinks as they do, and that the whole world shares their feelings and desires. This sense of oneness with the world leads to the child's assumptions of magic omnipotence. Not only is the world created for them, they can control it. This leads to the child believing that nature is alive, and controllable. This is a concept of egocentrism known as ”animism”, the most characteristic of egocentric thought.

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Philosophy The theory that the self is the only thing that can be known and verified. The view that the self is the only reality.

Ego –

• The self, especially as distinct from the world and other selves.

• In psychoanalysis, the division of the psyche that is conscious, most immediately controls thought and behavior, and is most in touch with external reality.

•  An exaggerated sense of self-importance; conceit.•  Appropriate pride in oneself; self-esteem.

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Stage3: The Concrete Operational Stage ( about 7- 11 years )Kids at this point of development begin

to think more logically, but their thinking can also be very rigid. They tend to struggle with abstract and hypothetical concepts. At this point, children also become less egocentric and begin to think about how other people might think and feel. Kids in the concrete operational stage also begin to understand that their thoughts are unique to them and that not everyone else necessarily shares their thoughts, feelings, and opinions.

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Piaget’s Conservation Task

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Stage 4: The Formal Operational Stage ( above 11 years onwards)

 The final stage of Piaget's theory involves an increase in logic, the ability to use deductive reasoning, and an understanding of abstract ideas. At this point, people become capable of seeing multiple potential solutions to problems and think more scientifically about the world around them.

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Question: If an individual is in the Formal Operational Stage does it mean that he or she is thinking critically??

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A conversation with a child in the Concrete Operational Stage ( 7 – 11 years )Adult: If you hit a glass with a hammer the glass will break.Child: I knew that.Adult: And this one says, Don hits a glass with a hammer.Child: I knew that too.Adult: So what happens to the glass?Child: It broke.Adult: Why did it break?Child: Because the hammer is hard.

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Second conversation with a child in the Concrete Operational Stage ( 7 – 11 years )Adult: If you hit a glass with a feather the glass will break.Child: NO.Adult: And this one says , Don hits the glass with a feather.Adult: So what happens to the glass?Child: Nothing happened.Adult: Why didn’t anything happen?Child: Because the feather is soft.

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A conversation with a teen in the Formal Operational Stage ( 12 - 15 years )Adult: If you hit a glass with a feather the glass will break.Teen: Okay??..Adult: Don hit the glass with a feather, what happens to the glass?Teen: It broke.. Adult: And why did it break?Teen: Because there’s a fact that it’s hit with the feather… so it broke..

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The final stage of Piaget's involvesan increase in logic, the ability to use deductive reasoning, and an understanding of abstract ideas. At this point, people become capable of seeing multiple potential solutions to problems and think more scientifically about the world around them.

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Question: If an individual is in the Formal Operational Stage does it mean that he or she is thinking critically??

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According to studies 90% of professionals tested got the questions wrong. However, many pre-school children got many of the questions right

This is due to a child’s tendency to answer questions with common sense rather than overthinking.

Andersen consulting claims that this disproves the theory that most professionals have the brains of a four- year old.

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How do you put a giraffe into a refrigerator?

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ANSWER: You open the refrigerator , put the giraffe and close the door.

This question test you whether you tend to do

simple thing in an overcomplicated way.

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How do you put an elephant inside a fridge?

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ANSWER: Open the fridge take the out the giraffe, put the elephant and close the door. This question test your ability to think about the repurcussion of your actions.

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Noah has to build an ark . This time he is told to collect every single animal on earth, not just two of each . Every animal boards the ark , except one . Which animal does not board the ark?

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ANSWER: The elephant ; as it is still inside the fridge.

This question test your memory.

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There is a river you must cross. However, the river is inhabited by crocodiles. How do you cross the river without being killed by the crocs?

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ANSWER: You simply swim across. There is no danger as the crocodiles are inside Noah’s ark.

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If a plane crashes on the boarder of US and Canada , where would the survivors be buried?

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Neither. Why would the survivors be buried they survived.

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Mrs. Smith’s Bungalow is decorated entirely in pink. The carpet is pink, the ceiling is pink even the lampshades are pink. What color are the stairs?

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ANSWER: She lives in a Bungalow there are no stairs.

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Imagine you are driving a bus. You drive to bus stop T , where 4 people get on. You then arrive at bus stop O, where 2 people get off. Finally, you reached bus stop M, where everyone gets off.

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ANSWER: His or Her name is whatever your name is . I asked you to imagine that you were the driver.

What is the name of the bus driver?

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Imagine an abandoned aquarium within an abandoned house. In the aquarium were 3 big fishes and 3 small fishes. After 4 days 1 big fish and 2 small fishes died. How many remain in the aquarium?

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ANSWER: All of them-Nobody will have removed the dead fish from the aquarium , for it was abandoned so they would remain there.

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Imagine that you have been kidnapped. Your only way out of escaping is the 3 rooms in front of you.Room 1: Consist of a fiery inferno.Room 2: Is full of assassins with loaded guns.Room 3: Is full of hungry lions who have not eaten for 3 monthsWhich room is the safest way out?

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ANSWER: Room 3 , because the lions will have starved to death if they had not eaten for 3 months.

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Which is heavier a ton of pure gold or a ton

of feathers?

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ANSWER: Neither. Both weight a ton.

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Children have real understanding only of that which they invent themselves.

-Jean Piaget

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