A short Introduction to DNA and the structure of DNA. It also explains base pairing and Chargaff's rule. It informs you of who built the first model of DNA using wire and tin to show a description of how DNA looks like.
- 1. A Brief Introduction to DNA
2. What is DNA? DNAstands for Deoxyribonucleic acid (Pagdatoon,
R.). DNA is the blue print for life (Coulter, B). It carries all
the genetic material for all living organisms. A DNA molecule is
extremely long and is tightly packed together and wrapped onto
hitsones (Coulter, B). 3. Who described the structure of DNA?
Watson and Crick were the first to identify the structure of
deoxyribonucleic acid (emilydonsisk) Watson and Crick were British
scientists that used tin and wire to build the first model
representing the structure of DNA. They illustrated that the DNA
structure is a long double helix structure (Pagdatoon, R). 4. A
structure of DNA. 5. Explaining the double helix. TheDNA structure
is formed in a twisted ladder with the outside compiled from the
sugar-backbone phosphate. It moves in an antiparallel direction
from 5 to 3 (Pagdatoon, R). The complimentary bases are stabilized
by hydrogen bases (guest83e221c). 6. DNA ADNA and an RNA molecule
is a polymer of nucleotides. Each nucleotide consists of:
Nitrogenous base which are Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine and Thymine
which is in DNA and Uracil which is in RNA (pagdatoon, Rizha.).
Phosphate group Sugar DNA consists of Deoxyribose sugar and RNA
consists of Ribose sugar. 7. (Teama, Hassan, S.). 8. Understanding
the nitrogenous bases. The nitrogenous bases are grouped according
to their chemical structures (Teama, Hassan, S.). There are two
structures that the bases are grouped under. Pyrimidine structure:
this is a single ring structure. Cytosine, thymine or uracil have a
pyrimidine structure (emilydonsisk). Purine structure: this is a
double ring structure. Adenine and Guanine have a double ring
(emilydonsisk). 9. Explaining the complimentary bases in DNA. In
DNA Chargaff developed a rule which was: Within a structure of DNA,
the total amount of adenine will always be equal to the total
number of thymine. And the total number of guanine will always be
equal to the total number of cytocine. 10. DNA base pairing. InDNA,
Adenine will pair to Thymine with two hydrogen bonds pairing them.
Guanine will pair to Cytocine with three hydrogen bonds pairing
them. 11. Why is DNA important? DNAis important for the following
reasons: 1) It carries the genetic information that gets passed
down from one generation to the next generation. 2) It contains the
coding for proteins. 3) DNA is the genetic instruction guide for
life and lifes processes. 4) DNA is very important by being able to
replicate itself. 12. Where is DNA located in the cell? Chromatinis
a comprised of DNA andprotein. It is found in the nucleus of a
eukaryotic cell. Histones which are proteins found in the nucleus.
The DNA strand coils around histones forming a nucleosome. 13.
Explaining RNA in genetics. RNA stands for ribonucleic acid There
are various RNA that are in the cell. These include: (Teama,
Hassan,S). mRNA (messenger RNA) tRNA (transfer RNA) rRNA (ribosomal
RNA) cRNA (Catalytic RNA) snRNA (small nuclear RNA) snoRNA (small
nucleolar RNA) 14. Reference Salwa Hassan Teama M.D. Molecular
Biology Department / Medical Research Center Ain ShamsUniversity /
Cairo / Egypt
Rizha C. Penamante, Keysean M. AAPD2F.
Concepts & Connections, sixth Edition Campbell, Reece, Taylor,
Simon, and Dickey