2015 essay writing

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<p>PowerPoint Presentation</p> <p>ESSAY WRITINGCENTRE FOR TEACHING AND LEARNING LIBRARY 3RD FLOOR09 441-8143 slc-alb@massey.ac.nzAnalyse the questionDo the researchOrganise your essay planWrite the first draftGet feedbackRevise your draftSubmit your completed essay</p> <p>http://tinyurl.com/essaywriting2015</p> <p>STEP 1: QUESTION ANALYSISWhat is main, general academic idea or theory in the question? </p> <p>What are the elements of this theory and/or the context you need to apply it to? </p> <p>What do you have to do? TopicSub-topic(s)Task(s)</p> <p>SAMPLE QUESTIONDiscuss the tools and methods available to managers to assist decision-making. (1500 - 2000 words)Topic:Decision-makingSub-topics:Tools and methods for managersTask:Discuss</p> <p>SELECTED TASK WORDSBreak down an idea, concept or statement into its componentsDefine the key topic word, make a claim, then summarise a range of opinions, evidence and arguments for your claimPoint out the different aspects of a problem, its causes and possible solutions.See : http://tinyurl.com/commandwords for more task wordsAnalyseDiscussExamineEvaluate</p> <p>STEP 2: DO THE RESEARCHexpert opinionsdefinitionsfacts &amp; figuresFROMreadingstextbookjournal articleshigh quality web sites</p> <p>BE INTERNET-SAVVYUse websites for facts and figures (NOT for theory)for example ..www.statistics.govt.nzwww.unesco.orgwww.worldbank.orgIf youre using a company website to research the organisation, treat the information critically!</p> <p>STEP 3: PARAGRAPH PLANSo for this essay, start off with a rough plan for:10 - 15 paragraphsAverage words per paragraph: 120 - 200Sample Question: Discuss the tools and methods available to managers to assist decision-making. (1800 - 2000 words)</p> <p>SAMPLE PARAGRAPH PLAN2 : Overview (of causes of poor management decision-making)1: Introduction11: Conclusion3/4 Cause 1 / Tool 15/6 Cause 2 / Tool 2 7/8 Cause 3 / Tool 39/10 Cause 4 / Tool 4</p> <p>STEP 4: SAMPLE PARAGRAPH (1ST HALF)(Sentence 1) Given the frequency and importance of management decisions, it is unsurprising that costly errors occur. (Sentence 2) Recent examples include the disastrous strategy of Lehmann Brothers and the inadequate response to Hurricane Katrina (White, 2009). (Sentence 3) These errors may be attributed to external factors, such as time-pressures or unpredictable changes in the environment, or internal factors, such as a lack of expertise or tiredness. (Sentence 4) However, why do managers not identify such factors and address them rationally? </p> <p>STEP 4: SAMPLE PARAGRAPH (2ND HALF)(Sentence 5) The answer appears to be that rationality itself is limited or bounded (Simon 1955; Kahnemann, Fredrickson, Schreiber, &amp; Redelmeier, 1993), by a number of psychological constraints which make humans prone to specific cognitive biases in their decision-making. (Sentence 6) These cognitive biases are intuitive (Kahneman, 2003) and essentially automatic tendencies which shape how human beings select and process information (Krause, 2008, p. 28). (Sentence 7) Numerous cognitive biases have been found, but this essay will focus on four particular biases which have been identified as crucial to poor management decision-making: reliance on past experience, self-interest, pre-judgements and attachments (Finkelstein, Whitehead &amp; Campbell, 2009). (Sentence 8) The nature of these biases will be explored below, together with the appropriate tools that managers can use to identify them and minimise their impact.</p> <p>ESSAY UNITY: keep using topic/focus wordsGiven the frequency and importance of management decisions, it is unsurprising that costly errors occur. Recent examples include the disastrous strategy of Lehmann Brothers and the inadequate response to Hurricane Katrina (White, 2009). These errors may be attributed to external factors, such as time-pressures or unpredictable changes in the environment, or internal factors, such as a lack of expertise or tiredness. However, why do managers not identify such factors and address them rationally? The answer appears to be that rationality itself is limited or bounded (Simon 1955; Kahnemann, Fredrickson, Schreiber, &amp; Redelmeier, 1993), by a number of psychological constraints which make humans prone to specific cognitive biases in their decision-making. These cognitive biases are intuitive (Kahneman, 2003) and essentially automatic tendencies which shape how human beings select and process information (Krause, 2008, p. 28). Numerous cognitive biases have been found, but this essay will focus on four particular biases which have been identified as crucial to poor management decision-making: reliance on past experience, self-interest, pre-judgements and attachments (Finkelstein, Whitehead &amp; Campbell, 2009). The nature of these biases will be explored below, together with the appropriate tools that managers can use to steer ....</p> <p>PARAGRAPH UNITY: keep using subtopic wordsGiven the frequency and importance of management decisions, it is unsurprising that costly errors occur. Recent examples include the disastrous strategy of Lehmann Brothers and the inadequate response to Hurricane Katrina (White, 2009). These errors may be attributed to external factors, such as time-pressures or unpredictable changes in the environment, or internal factors, such as a lack of expertise or tiredness. However, why do managers not identify such factors and address them rationally? The answer appears to be that rationality itself is limited or bounded (Simon 1955; Kahnemann, Fredrickson, Schreiber, &amp; Redelmeier, 1993), by a number of psychological constraints which make humans prone to specific cognitive biases in their decision-making. These cognitive biases are intuitive (Kahneman, 2003) and essentially automatic tendencies which shape how human beings select and process information (Krause, 2008, p. 28). Numerous cognitive biases have been found, but this essay will focus on four particular biases which have been identified as crucial to poor management decision-making: reliance on past experience, self-interest, pre-judgements and attachments (Finkelstein, Whitehead &amp; Campbell, 2009). .....</p> <p>PARAGRAPH COHERENCE: keep referring back Given the frequency and importance of management decisions, it is unsurprising that costly errors occur. Recent examples include the disastrous strategy of Lehmann Brothers and the inadequate response to Hurricane Katrina (White, 2009). These errors may be attributed to external factors, such as time-pressures or unpredictable changes in the environment, or internal factors, such as a lack of expertise or tiredness. However, why do managers not identify such factors and address them rationally? The answer appears to be that rationality itself is limited or bounded (Simon 1955; Kahnemann, Fredrickson, Schreiber, &amp; Redelmeier, 1993), by a number of psychological constraints which make humans prone to specific cognitive biases in their decision-making. These cognitive biases are intuitive (Kahneman, 2003) and essentially automatic tendencies which shape how human beings select and process information (Krause, 2008, p. 28). Numerous cognitive biases have been found, but this essay will focus on four particular biases which have been identified as crucial to poor management decision-making: reliance on past experience, self-interest, pre-judgements and attachments (Finkelstein, Whitehead &amp; Campbell, 2009). The nature of these biases will be explored below, ....</p> <p>PARAGRAPH DEVELOPMENTGiven the frequency and importance of management decisions, it is unsurprising that costly errors occur. Recent examples include the disastrous strategy of Lehmann Brothers and the inadequate response to Hurricane Katrina (White, 2009). These errors may be attributed to external factors, such as time-pressures or unpredictable changes in the environment, or internal factors, such as a lack of expertise or tiredness. However, why do managers not identify such factors and address them rationally? The answer appears to be that rationality itself is limited or bounded (Simon 1955; Kahnemann, Fredrickson, Schreiber, &amp; Redelmeier, 1993), by a number of psychological constraints which make humans prone to specific cognitive biases in their decision-making. These cognitive biases are intuitive (Kahneman, 2003) and essentially automatic tendencies which shape how human beings select and process information (Krause, 2008, p. 28). ...LOGICAL LANGUAGE: CAUSE &amp; EFFECT WORDS, QUESTIONS &amp; ANSWERS ETC</p> <p>PARAGRAPH DEVELOPMENTGiven the frequency and importance of management decisions, it is unsurprising that costly errors occur. Recent examples include the disastrous strategy of Lehmann Brothers and the inadequate response to Hurricane Katrina (White, 2009). These errors may be attributed to external factors, such as time-pressures or unpredictable changes in the environment, or internal factors, such as a lack of expertise or tiredness. However, why do managers not identify such factors and address them rationally? The answer appears to be that rationality itself is limited or bounded (Simon 1955; Kahnemann, Fredrickson, Schreiber, &amp; Redelmeier, 1993), by a number of psychological constraints which make humans prone to specific cognitive biases in their decision-making. These cognitive biases are intuitive (Kahneman, 2003) and essentially automatic tendencies which shape how human beings select and process information (Krause, 2008, p. 28). Numerous cognitive biases have been found, but this essay will focus on four particular biases which have been identified as crucial to poor management decision-making: reliance on past experience, self-interest, pre-judgements and attachments (Finkelstein, Whitehead &amp; Campbell, 2009) ... LOGICAL ARGUMENT SUPPORTED BY RELEVANT THEORY, RESEARCH FINDINGS &amp; REAL WORLD EXAMPLES with citations to show the source</p> <p>4. INTRODUCTION PARAGRAPHS put the issue into a context that shows why its both important and problematic ... include a brief definition of the topic... briefly preview the structure of the essay</p> <p>... present the main argument of the essay in a thesis statement</p> <p>4. EXAMPLE OF EFFECTIVE INTRODUCTION PARAGRAPHDuring the early 2000s, the apparent success of the Euro increased global interest in regional common currencies (Siddiqi, 2003). As Mundell (2002, p. 4) argued, if its right for Europe to scrap its national currencies, why is it wrong for other countries to do the same thing? Especially, it might be added, when those countries have such strong cultural, social, economic and historical ties as Australia and New Zealand. It is unsurprising, therefore that a few years ago, a majority of New Zealand businesses were said to support a move to a currency union (Baker, 2007), though support has since slipped against the background of ongoing problems with the Euro (Brown, 2011). Currency union would involve the gradual reduction of monetary policy flexibility between the two nations to the point at which the currencies cease to be independent (Obiyathulla, 2008) and can be merged. This essay will examine the arguments for and against this proposed currency union, evaluating its possible effects not only on the economy but also on key sectors of New Zealand society. It will be argued that although the adoption of a single currency with Australia might strengthen New Zealands financial system and ease international trade, it is not in New Zealands interests because its economy and society are fundamentally different from those of its more powerful neighbour. </p> <p>4. EXAMPLE OF EFFECTIVE INTRODUCTION PARAGRAPHcontextDuring the early 2000s, the apparent success of the Euro increased global interest in regional common currencies (Siddiqi, 2003). As Mundell (2002, p. 4) argued, if its right for Europe to scrap its national currencies, why is it wrong for other countries to do the same thing? Especially, it might be added, when those countries have such strong cultural, social, economic and historical ties as Australia and New Zealand. It is unsurprising, therefore that in the early 2000s, a majority of New Zealand businesses were said to support a move to a currency union (Baker, 2007), though support later slipped against the background of ongoing problems with the Euro (Brown, 2011). Currency union would involve the gradual reduction of monetary policy flexibility between the two nations to the point at which the currencies cease to be independent (Obiyathulla, 2008) and can be merged. This essay will examine the arguments for and against this proposed currency union, evaluating its possible effects not only on the economy but also on key sectors of New Zealand society. It will be argued that although the adoption of a single currency with Australia might strengthen New Zealands financial system and ease international trade, it is not in New Zealands interests because its economy and society are fundamentally different from those of its more powerful neighbour. </p> <p>4. EXAMPLE OF EFFECTIVE INTRODUCTION PARAGRAPHdefinitionDuring the early 2000s, the apparent success of the Euro increased global interest in regional common currencies (Siddiqi, 2003). As Mundell (2002, p. 4) argued, if its right for Europe to scrap its national currencies, why is it wrong for other countries to do the same thing? Especially, it might be added, when those countries have such strong cultural, social, economic and historical ties as Australia and New Zealand. It is unsurprising, therefore that a few years ago, a majority of New Zealand businesses were said to support a move to a currency union (Baker, 2007), though support has since slipped against the background of ongoing problems with the Euro (Brown, 2011). Currency union would involve the gradual reduction of monetary policy flexibility between the two nations to the point at which the currencies cease to be independent (Obiyathulla, 2008) and can be merged. This essay will examine the arguments for and against this proposed currency union, evaluating its possible effects not only on the economy but also on key sectors of New Zealand society. It will be argued that although the adoption of a single currency with Australia might strengthen New Zealands financial system and ease international trade, it is not in New Zealands interests because its economy and society are fundamentally different from those of its more powerful neighbour. </p> <p>4. EXAMPLE OF EFFECTIVE INTRODUCTION PARAGRAPHDuring the early 2000s, the apparent success of the Euro increased global interest in regional common currencies (Siddiqi, 2003). As Mundell (2002, p. 4) argued, if its right for Europe to scrap its national currencies, why is it wrong for other countries to do the same thing? Especially, it might be added, when those countries have such strong cultural, social, economic and historical ties as Australia and New Zealand. It is unsurprising, therefore that a few years ago, a majority of New Zealand businesses were said to...</p>