WGC'12 UR3 LA TP 895489-4 - Glencoe/McGraw- 3 RESOURCES Latin America CHAPTER 8 Physical Geography of Latin America CHAPTER 9 Cultural Geography of Latin America CHAPTER 10 The Region Today:

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UNIT 3 RESOURCESLatin AmericaCHAPTER 8 Physical Geography of Latin AmericaCHAPTER 9 Cultural Geography of Latin AmericaCHAPTER 10 The Region Today: Latin AmericaWGC'12_UR3_LA_TP_895489-4.indd Page 1 1/25/10 11:10:07 AM elhi-2WGC'12_UR3_LA_TP_895489-4.indd Page 1 1/25/10 11:10:07 AM elhi-2 /Volumes/104/GO00432/GO00432_WGC_UNIT_RES3_12%0/9780078954894_Ancl./Applicati.../Volumes/104/GO00432/GO00432_WGC_UNIT_RES3_12%0/9780078954894_Ancl./Applicati...P rinter P DF Copyright by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Permission is granted to reproducethe material contained herein on the condition that such material be reproduced only for classroom use;be provided to students, teachers, and families without charge; and be used solely in conjunction withWorld Geography and Cultures. Any other reproduction, for sale or other use, is expressly prohibited.Send all inquiries to:Glencoe/McGraw-Hill8787 Orion PlaceColumbus, Ohio 43240-4027ISBN: 978-0-07-895489-4MHID: 0-07-895489-4Printed in the United States of America1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 11 10Book OrganizationGlencoe offers resources that accompany World Geography and Cultures to expand,enrich, review, and assess every lesson you teach and for every student you teach. NowGlencoe has organized its many resources for the way you teach.HOW THIS BOOK IS ORGANIZEDEach resources book offers blackline masters at unit, chapter, and section levels for each unit. Each book is divided into three partsunit-based resources, chapter-basedresources, and section-based resources. Glencoe has included tabs at the side of everyactivity page in this book to help you navigate.UNIT-BASED RESOURCESWe have organized this book so that all unit resources appear in the first part of the unitresources book. Although you may choose to use the specific activities at any time duringthe course of unit study, Glencoe has placed these resources up front so that you canreview your options. For example, although World Literature Contemporary Selection 3appears in the front part of this book, you may plan to use this activity in class during the study of the cultural geography of Latin America in Chapter 9.CHAPTER-BASED AND SECTION-BASED RESOURCESChapter-based resources follow the unit materials. For example, Chapter 8 blacklinemasters appear in this book immediately following Unit 3 materials. The materials appearin the order you teachChapter 8 activities; Chapter 8, Section 1 activities; Chapter 8,Section 2 activities; and so on. Following the end of the last section activity for Chapter 8,the Chapter 9 resources appear.A COMPLETE ANSWER KEYA complete answer key appears at the back of this book. This answer key includesanswers for every activity in the book in the order in which the activities appear in the book.AcknowledgmentsPage 11: From Monologue of Isabel Watching it Rain in Macondo from CollectedStories by Gabriel Garca Mrquez. Copyright 1984 by Harper & Row. 0ii_043_U03_RB_895489.qxd 1/22/10 8:37 PM Page ii S-115 104:GO00432:GO00432_WGC_UNIT_RES3_12%0:9780078954894_Ancl.:Application_Files_P rinter P DF iiiTable of ContentsTo the Teacher ............................................................................................................................ vResources ........................................................................................................................................ viLocation Activity 3............................................................................................................ 1Real-Life Applications and Problem Solving Activity 3................................................ 3GeoLab Activity 3............................................................................................................. 5Environmental Issues Case Study 3................................................................................ 9World Literature Contemporary Selection 3 .................................................................. 11Chapter 8 Resources ...................................................................................................................... 13Vocabulary Activity 8 ........................................................................................................ 14Reteaching Activity 8........................................................................................................ 15Reinforcing Skills Activity 8............................................................................................. 17Enrichment Activity 8....................................................................................................... 19Chapter 8 Section Resources......................................................................................................... 20Guided Reading Activity 8-1 ........................................................................................... 21Guided Reading Activity 8-2 ........................................................................................... 22Chapter 9 Resources ...................................................................................................................... 23Vocabulary Activity 9 ........................................................................................................ 24Reteaching Activity 9........................................................................................................ 25Reinforcing Skills Activity 9............................................................................................. 27Enrichment Activity 9....................................................................................................... 29Chapter 9 Section Resources......................................................................................................... 30Guided Reading Activity 9-1 ........................................................................................... 31Guided Reading Activity 9-2 ........................................................................................... 32Guided Reading Activity 9-3 ........................................................................................... 33Unit 30ii_043_U03_RB_895489.qxd 1/22/10 8:37 PM Page iii S-115 104:GO00432:GO00432_WGC_UNIT_RES3_12%0:9780078954894_Ancl.:Application_Files_P rinter P DF ivChapter 10 Resources .................................................................................................................... 34Vocabulary Activity 10 ...................................................................................................... 35Reteaching Activity 10...................................................................................................... 37Reinforcing Skills Activity 10........................................................................................... 39Enrichment Activity 10..................................................................................................... 40Chapter 10 Section Resources ....................................................................................................... 41Guided Reading Activity 10-1 ......................................................................................... 42Guided Reading Activity 10-2 ......................................................................................... 43Answer Key ................................................................................................................................... 440ii_043_U03_RB_895489.qxd 1/22/10 8:38 PM Page iv S-115 104:GO00432:GO00432_WGC_UNIT_RES3_12%0:9780078954894_Ancl.:Application_Files_P rinter P DF vTo the TeacherTHE TOTAL PACKAGEWORLD GEOGRAPHY AND CULTURES CLASSROOM RESOURCESGlencoes Unit Resources books are packed with activities for the varied needs of all your students. They include the following activities.ACTIVITIES FOUND IN UNIT RESOURCES BOOKLETS Location ActivitiesThese activities help students master the locations of countries, important cities, andmajor physical features in the region of study. These activities also reinforce studentsawareness of the relationships among places in the region. Real-Life Applications and ProblemSolving ActivitiesThese activities present a series of realistic geographic issues and problems that studentsare asked to solve. The activities are designed to utilize the kinds of critical thinking andgeography skills that students need to makejudgments, develop their own ideas, and applywhat they have learned to new situations. GeoLab ActivitiesThese activities give students the opportunityto explore, through hands-on experience, thevarious geographic topics presented in the text. Environmental Issues Case StudiesThese case studies provide students with theopportunity to actively explore environmentalissues that affect each of the worlds regions.Case studies include critical thinking questionsand activities designed to extend studentsknowledge and appreciation of environmentalchallenges. World Literature ContemporarySelectionsThese readings provide students with theopportunity to read literature by or about people who live in each of the worlds geo-graphic regions. Each selection is preceded by background information and a guided reading suggestion, and followed by com-prehension and critical thinking questions. Vocabulary ActivitiesThese review and reinforcement activities help students to master unfamiliar terms used in the Student Edition. The worksheetsemphasize identification of word meaningsand provide visual and kinesthetic reinforce-ment of language skills. Reteaching ActivitiesThese are a variety of activities designed toenable students to visualize the connectionsamong facts in the text. Graphs, charts, tables,and concept maps are among the many typesof graphic organizers used. Reinforcing Skills ActivitiesThese activities correspond to lessons in theSkillBuilder Handbook at the end of theStudent Edition. The activities give studentsthe opportunity to gain additional skills prac-tice. In addition, students are challenged toapply the skills to relevant issues in the regionof study. Enrichment ActivitiesThese activities introduce students to contentthat is different from, but related to, thethemes, ideas, and information in the StudentEdition. Enrichment activities help studentsdevelop a broader and deeper understanding of the physical world and global community. Guided Reading ActivitiesThese activities provide help for students who are having difficulty comprehending the student text. Students fill in missing information in the guided reading outlines,sentence completion activities, or other information-organizing exercises as they read the text.0ii_043_U03_RB_895489.qxd 1/22/10 8:38 PM Page v S-115 104:GO00432:GO00432_WGC_UNIT_RES3_12%0:9780078954894_Ancl.:Application_Files_89P rinter P DF viResourcesLocation Activity 3 Latin America ................................................................................................... 1Real-Life Applications and Problem Solving Activity 3Setting up a Nutrition Education Program .................................................. 3GeoLab Activity 3 Inca Engineering .............................................................................................. 5Environmental Issues Case Study 3 Ecotourism: Traveling to Unspoiled Places ................................................. 9World Literature Contemporary Selection 3 Latin America ................................................................................................... 11Unit 30ii_043_U03_RB_895489.qxd 1/22/10 8:38 PM Page vi S-115 104:GO00432:GO00432_WGC_UNIT_RES3_12%0:9780078954894_Ancl.:Application_Files_P rinter P DF Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Equator20S40S020N60W 40WNTropic of CancerTropic of Capricorn1,0001,00000mi.kmName Date Class1D I R E C T I O N S : Label each country and city using the Unit 3 Regional Atlason pages 190193 of World Geography and Cultures.Location Activity 3AUse with Unit 3(continued)Latin AmericaUNIT30ii_043_U03_RB_895489.qxd 2/4/10 4:06 PM Page 1 S-115 104:GO00432:GO00432_WGC_UNIT_RES3_12%0:9780078954894_Ancl.:Application_Files_895P rinter P DF Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.UNIT3Name Date Class2D I R E C T I O N S : Write the correct name for each numbered physical feature in the corresponding blank below.Location Activity 3B1.2.3.4.5.6.7.8.9.10.11.12.Equator20S0Tropic of CancerTropic of Capricorn20N60W 40W1,0001,00000mi.kmN810121329511746Latin America0ii_043_U03_RB_895489.qxd 1/22/10 8:38 PM Page 2 S-115 104:GO00432:GO00432_WGC_UNIT_RES3_12%0:9780078954894_Ancl.:Application_Files_89P rinter P DF Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.UNIT3Name Date Class3Real-Life Applications & Problem SolvingSetting Up a Nutrition Education ProgramAssume that you are Director of Health and Human Development for Tegihua, a country in Latin America. Tegihua is a developing country, and poverty is widespread. Most people are undereducated, there are few doctors, and food issometimes scarce. The people of your country are not getting the proper nutrition.This leads many of them to become the victims of diseases. You are working to create a nutrition education program for the people ofTegihua. To do that, you need a knowledge of geography and its impact on publichealth. A few months ago, you created a Nutritional Review Panel to study thenutrition of the people of Tegihua. The information collected and organized by the panel will help you in establishing a Tegihuan Nutrition Education Program.The Panels report appears in the memo below.Country of TegihuaDepartment of Health and Human DevelopmentTO: The DirectorFROM: The Nutritional Review PanelRE: The State of Nutrition in TegihuaOverviewThe Nutritional Review Panel has concluded that the nutritional health of the Tegihuan population is in crisis. Tegihuan citizens, especially those living in villages, have little understanding of the rolenutrition plays in their lives. Many cases of malnutrition exist, and without immediate action, this crisis will worsen. Specific details follow.Population and Physical Geography Seventy-two percent of Tegihuans live in villages scattered in lowland and mountain regions. Travel routes are well established between lowland villages. Villages in the mountains are moredifficult to reach. Land in lowland villages is good for farming. Mountain villages have only small gardens. People of different villages get along peacefully. Trade and communication between villages isabundant.Food Distribution Corn, beans, and rice are the main food staples among people in villages. Livestock (cattle, pigs, chickens) are available but are in short supply in villages. Villages that grow a variety of vegetables have lower instances of malnutrition. Villages in the mountains are less likely to grow a variety of vegetables. Several kinds of fruit are available in the villages, but they are not included in the daily diet, especially in mountain populations.General Habits and Attitudes of Population Villagers live a traditional life. Most enjoy social gatherings, song, dance, and celebration. Manyvillagers shared information with the panel in return for useful items like blankets, tools, andgasoline. Most villagers neither read nor write. Children of the villagers are eager to learn, and do so mostly through song, dance, and storytelling. People in nearby villages come together several times a year for festivals and celebrations.Conclusions The Tegihuans would benefit greatly from learning how to use the available food resources to create a balanced daily diet. We recommend an intensive education program.(continued)0ii_043_U03_RB_895489.qxd 1/22/10 8:38 PM Page 3 S-115 104:GO00432:GO00432_WGC_UNIT_RES3_12%0:9780078954894_Ancl.:Application_Files_89P rinter P DF Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.UNIT3Name Date Class4Real-Life Applications & Problem SolvingNow you must respond to the report. Using the stationery below, direct the Nutritional Review Panel to institute policies designed to spread nutritionawareness throughout the population of Tegihua. Under each subhead, write the details of each stage of your plan.Country of TegihuaDepartment of Health and Human DevelopmentTO: The Nutritional Review PanelFROM: The DirectorRE: The Tegihuan Nutrition Education ProgramOur Goal:Stage One: Getting the Message to TegihuansStage Two: Helping Tegihuans Use What They LearnStage Three: Incentives for Tegihuans Nutritional Awareness0ii_043_U03_RB_895489.qxd 1/22/10 8:38 PM Page 4 S-115 104:GO00432:GO00432_WGC_UNIT_RES3_12%0:9780078954894_Ancl.:Application_Files_89P rinter P DF Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.UNIT3Name Date Class5(continued)GeoLab ActivityIn this GeoLab Activity, you will experiment with different materials to findout how they affect the friction encountered when moving heavy objects.Inca EngineeringThe Inca were master builders. Using tools of the hardest stone, the Inca carved blocks of anothertype of stone so precisely that they fit together perfectly without mortar. Inca structures have survivedharsh weather and even earthquakes for more than500 years. Some Inca buildings consisted of massive stonesweighing up to 100 metric tons. After shaping thehuge stones, Inca workers moved them miles up mountain slopes. They used mud, gravel, or other materials beneath the stone to help itslide along the ground. These materials reducethe friction between the stone and the ground,making it easier to move the heavy stone blocks.Inca engineers did not have machinery or animals to help them. It took theefforts of hundreds of laborers using ropes to haul the massive stones upsteep inclines. Today experts estimate that it took about 1,800 workers tomove a 100-metric-ton stone. Each laborer would be pulling about 120 pounds. 1. To understand how the Inca used different materials to reduce friction andmake moving heavy objects easier.2. To predict which materials are most effective in reducing friction.MaterialsOBJECTIVESOVERVIEW 1 board, 2 8 4 1 chair 1 concrete block 2 pieces of strong twine, 2 meters (61/2 feet) long each spring scale 4 dowels, 1 diameter 4 long pea gravel fine sand0ii_043_U03_RB_895489.qxd 1/22/10 8:38 PM Page 5 S-115 104:GO00432:GO00432_WGC_UNIT_RES3_12%0:9780078954894_Ancl.:Application_Files_89P rinter P DF Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.UNIT3Name Date Class6(continued)GeoLab ActivityProcedures With two or three classmates, set up an experiment to test how well three different materials reduce friction. Put one end of the 2 8 board on the seat of the chair and the other endon the ground to create a ramp (inclined plane). Place the block on the bottom end of the ramp. Tie one end of a piece oftwine to the block as shown in the illustration. Tie the other end to the hookon one end of the spring scale. Tie the second piece of twine to the other end of the spring scale. This willbe where you pull. Use the table on the next page to record your predictions of how muchforce it will take to move the block up the ramp using the dowels, the peagravel, or the sand to reduce the friction. Have one team member pour a small amount of pea gravel on the ramp justabove the concrete block. Then, slowly and steadily pull the block over thegravel up the ramp. The team member with the gravel should continue tospread gravel in front of the block as it is pulled up the ramp. Another teammember should observe the force, as measured on the spring scale, that isnecessary to move the block up the ramp. Record the actual force measuredon the table. Repeat the experiment using the sand and record your results. Repeat the experiment using the dowels by laying down the dowels horizontally across the board in the path of the block so that the block rolls over them. Be sure to keep moving the dowels from the back to the front of the concrete block as it is pulled up the ramp. Record the reading from the spring scale.0ii_043_U03_RB_895489.qxd 1/22/10 8:38 PM Page 6 S-115 104:GO00432:GO00432_WGC_UNIT_RES3_12%0:9780078954894_Ancl.:Application_Files_89P rinter P DF Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.UNIT3Name Date Class7GeoLab ActivityLAB ACTIVITY REPORTRecord your predictions and observations in the table below.1. Which material made it easiest to pull the block? Which material made it hardest?2. How does this experiment illustrate how the Inca might have moved building blocks up mountains to construct their buildings?3. Assume that you are an Inca engineer. From your experiment, what recommen-dations would you make to builders who need to move large blocks of stone? 4. What factors beside the materials used to reduce friction would be important for the builders to consider?Drawing Conclusions Why do you think the Inca went through so muchtrouble to cut and move huge building stones to the tops of mountains? Critical ThinkingForcePredicted Actualgravelsanddowel0ii_043_U03_RB_895489.qxd 1/22/10 8:38 PM Page 7 S-115 104:GO00432:GO00432_WGC_UNIT_RES3_12%0:9780078954894_Ancl.:Application_Files_89P rinter P DF Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Name Date Class9(continued)Environmental IssuesCase StudiesUNIT3Ecotourism is a very special kind of travel. According to Karen Ziffer ofConservation International, ecotourism educates people about the environment,sensitizes them to environmental problems, and uses the revenues generatedfor economic development in the region. The term ecotourism was coined in the 1980s by Hector Ceballos-Lacurain, a Mexican architect who has been a champion of conservation in his own country and around the world. Hesees ecotourism as environmentally responsible, low-impact travel to relativelyundisturbed natural areas with a dual purpose: to appreciate the nature andculture of the area and to benefit the local community. Ecotourists visit such places as South American rain forests, Hawaiian coralreefs, the habitats of wild African gorillas, and the unique ecosystem of theGalpagos Islands off the coast of Ecuador. They travel with trained guidesand are expected to follow rules of behavior intended to minimize the humanimpact of their visit. Take only photos, leave only footprints is the first rulefor ecotourism. Another important rule is Move cautiously and quietly tokeep from disturbing wildlife and plants.Most ecotourism destinations are in developing countries in South andCentral America, Africa, and Asia. Ecotourism represents an alternative todestructive activities like logging, mining, and intensive agriculture as a wayto bring needed money and jobs into the local economy.DIRECTIONS: Read the pro and con arguments below. Then, answer thequestions under Examining the Issue. Use another sheet of paper for youranswers if necessary.Ecotourism: Traveling to Unspoiled PlacesEcotourism is a way to save the worldsremaining undisturbed wilderness. It supports conservation in a number of ways. Itprovides a source of revenue for impoverishedcountries and demonstrates that conserving rainforests, wildlife, and other ecosystems can bemore profitable than destroying them. It alsobuilds global awareness and support for conser-vation efforts. Ecotourists become supporters of conservation efforts, and they spread the word about special places that must be saved.Ecotourism has become an important economic activity in natural areas around the world. It provides opportunities for visitors to experience powerful manifestationsof nature and culture and to learn about theimportance of biodiversity, conservation, andlocal cultures. At the same time, ecotourismgenerates income for conservation.Andy Drumm, Senior EcotourismSpecialist, The Nature Conservancy, in Ecotourism DevelopmentA Manual for Conservation Planners and Managers, 2005.PRO0ii_043_U03_RB_895489.qxd 1/22/10 8:39 PM Page 9 S-115 104:GO00432:GO00432_WGC_UNIT_RES3_12%0:9780078954894_Ancl.:Application_Files_89P rinter P DF Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.UNIT3Name Date Class10Environmental IssuesCase Studies Examining the Issue1. How do you define ecotourism? 2. Other than the Galpagos Islands, what are some places ecotourists might visit?DIRECTIONS: Respond to each of the following questions on a separate sheet of paper.3. Decision Making Does ecotourism save fragile environments, or does it threaten them? Explain your answer.4. Drawing Conclusions Ecotourism is the fastest-growing segment of the tourism industry. Why might this kind of travel appeal to people? Use the Internet to learn about ecotours that are available to travelers. Workwith a partner to identify companies and organizations that conduct ecotours.Read the descriptions of the tours and the accommodations they offer. Decide ifthe tours these materials describe would or would not have a negative impacton the ecosystem they visit. Explain your decision in a short essay.Investigating FurtherCritical Thinking SkillsRecalling FactsThe Galpagos Islands, one of the birthplacesof ecotourism, show the problems ecotourismcan bring. Ninety-seven percent of the Galpagosis a national park. Strict rules restrict humanactivity to prevent damage to the environment,but enforcing the rules is difficult. The fractionof the Galpagos not included in the park hasbecome overpopulated. In addition, cruise shipcompanies have added the Galpagos to theirlist of destinations, leaving laundry water,sewage, and alien species in their wakes. Thegovernment currently allows 12,500 cruise shipsto visit each year. Not all ecotourism is the same. There arecompanies that fly the ecotourism flag, butgive little back to the community and make little effort to practice what they preach onboard. Savvy travelers need to dig deep and talk with organizations which work in the desti-nation areas you will be visiting to see whatmoney, activity, and resources are really hittingthe ground.Johannah E. Barry, president ofGalpagos Conservancy, The Washington Post, April 13, 2006.CON0ii_043_U03_RB_895489.qxd 1/22/10 8:39 PM Page 10 S-115 104:GO00432:GO00432_WGC_UNIT_RES3_12%0:9780078954894_Ancl.:Application_Files_P rinter P DF Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Name Date Class11(continued)World Literature: Latin AmericaGabriel Garca Mrquez (b. 1928) spent his childhood in Aracataca,Colombia. He began writing fiction when he was nineteen, which led to a job as a journalist and foreign correspondent. Although he has traveledwidely, he weaves the life, customs, and legends of Colombia into many ofhis novels and stories. Often they are set in Macondo, a fictional version ofthe village where he grew up. Garca Mrquez gained fame with the 1967publication of the novel One Hundred Years of Solitude, considered a mas-terpiece of magic realism, a writing style in which fantastic events are mixedwith everyday life. He received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1982.About the AuthorAs you read the following passage taken fromMonologue of Isabel Watching It Rain in Macondo, think about how you might describe a change of seasons.from Monologue of Isabel Watching It Rain in MacondoGU I D E D RE A D I N GWinter fell on Sunday when people were coming out of church. Saturday night had beensuffocating. But even on Sunday morning nobodythought it would rain. After Mass, before wewomen had time to find the catches on our parasols,1 a thick, dark wind blew, which withone broad, round swirl swept away the dust andhard tinder2 of May. Someone next to me said:Its a water wind. And I knew it even beforethen. From the moment we came out onto thechurch steps I felt shaken by a slimy feeling inmy stomach. The men ran to the nearby houseswith one hand on their hats and a handkerchiefin the other, protecting themselves against thewind and the dust storm. Then it rained. And thesky was a gray, jellyish substance that flapped itswings a hand away from our heads.During the rest of the morning my stepmotherand I were sitting by the railing, happy that therain would revive the thirsty rosemary3 and nard4 in the flowerpots after seven months ofintense summer and scorching dust. At noon thereverberation5 of the earth stopped and a smellof turned earth, of awakened and renovated vegetation mingled with the cool and healthfulodor of the rain in the rosemary. My father saidat lunchtime: When it rains in May, its a signthat therell be good tides. Smiling, crossed bythe luminous 6 thread of the new season, my stepmother told me: Thats what I heard in thesermon. And my father smiled. And he ate witha good appetite and even let his food digestleisurely beside the railing, silent, his eyes closed,but not sleeping, as if to think that he wasdreaming while awake.It rained all afternoon in a single tone. In theuniform and peaceful intensity you could hearthe water fall, the way it is when you travel allafternoon on a train. But without our noticing it,the rain was penetrating too deeply into oursenses. Early Monday morning, when we closedthe door to avoid the cutting, icy draft that blewin from the courtyard, our senses had been filledwith rain. And on Monday morning they hadoverflowed. My stepmother and I went back tolook at the garden. The harsh gray earth of Mayhad been changed overnight into a dark, stickysubstance like cheap soap. A trickle of waterbegan to run off the flowerpots. I think they hadmore than enough water during the night, myUNIT30ii_043_U03_RB_895489.qxd 1/22/10 8:47 PM Page 11 S-115 104:GO00432:GO00432_WGC_UNIT_RES3_12%0:9780078954894_Ancl.:Application_Files_P rinter P DF Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.UNIT3stepmother said. And I noticed that she hadstopped smiling and that her joy of the previousday had changed during the night into a lax andtedious seriousness. I think youre right, I said.It would be better to have the Indians put themon the veranda7 until it stops raining. And thatwas what they did, while the rain grew like animmense tree over the other trees. My fatheroccupied the same spot where he had been onSunday afternoon, but he didnt talk about therain. He said: I must have slept poorly last nightbecause I woke up with a stiff back. And hestayed there, sitting by the railing with his feet ona chair and his head turned toward the emptygarden. Only at dusk, after he had turned downlunch, did he say: It looks as if it will neverclear. And I remembered the months of heat. Iremembered August, those long and awesomesiestas8 in which we dropped down to die underthe weight of the hour, our clothes sticking toour bodies, hearing outside the insistent and dullbuzzing of the hour that never passed. I saw the washed-down walls, the joints of thebeams all puffed up by the water. I saw the small garden, empty for the first time, and thejasmine bush against the wall, faithful to thememory of my mother. I saw my father sitting in a rocker, his painful vertebrae 9 resting on apillow and his sad eyes lost in the labyrinth10 ofthe rain. I remembered the August nights in whosewondrous silence nothing could be heard exceptthe millenary11 sound that the earth makes as itspins on its rusty, unoiled axis. Suddenly I feltovercome by an overwhelming sadness.Name Date Class12World Literature: Latin America(continued)1umbrellas used as sunshades2flammable material for starting a fire3plant used for seasoning4herb5echoing6shining, glowing7porch8afternoon nap or rest9bones of the spine10maze11millennial, relating to 1,000yearsDIRECTIONS: Use the information from the reading to answer the following questions. If necessary, use a separate sheet of paper.1. According to the story, when does winter begin in Macondo, and how does it differ from summer? 2. Which senses does Isabel use to describe the change of seasons?3. How would you describe the changes in the characters feelings about the rain? 4. Identifying Cause-and-Effect Relationships Why do you think Isabel is overcome by a feeling of sadness?CR I T I C A L TH I N K I N GIN T E R P R E T I N G T H E RE A D I N G0ii_043_U03_RB_895489.qxd 1/22/10 8:39 PM Page 12 S-115 104:GO00432:GO00432_WGC_UNIT_RES3_12%0:9780078954894_Ancl.:Application_Files_P rinter P DF 13Chapter 8ResourcesVocabulary Activity 8 Physical Geography of Latin America .......................................................... 14Reteaching Activity 8 Physical Geography of Latin America .......................................................... 15Reinforcing Skills Activity 8Identifying Cause-and-Effect Relationships ................................................ 17Enrichment Activity 8 Tierra del Fuego ............................................................................................... 190ii_043_U03_RB_895489.qxd 1/22/10 8:48 PM Page 13 S-115 104:GO00432:GO00432_WGC_UNIT_RES3_12%0:9780078954894_Ancl.:Application_Files_P rinter P DF Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.CHAPTER8Name Date Class14A C T I V I T YV O C A B U L A R Y 8Physical Geography of Latin America D I R E C T I O N S : Choose a word or phrase from the box to complete each sentence.altiplano canopycordilleras escarpment hydroelectric power llanos pampas punatierra calientetierra fratierra heladatierra templadaWord Bank1. The is a cold climate zone that supports some grasses suitable for grazing.2. The Brazilian Highlands end sharply in a long, wall-like cliff called a(n) . 3. are mountain ranges that run parallel to each other. 4. The dense, continuous layer of leaves formed by the close-growing trees of the rain forest is called the . 5. High up in the mountains is the , or cold land. 6. Latin Americas system of rivers provide a source of energy called . 7. is the moderate climate zone between 2,500 and 6,500 feet (760 and 2,000 m)above sea level. 8. The is the high plain of Peru and Bolivia. 9. Large grasslands in the interior of South America are called in Argentina and Uruguay and in Colombia and Venezuela.10. Literally hot land in Spanish, is the climate zone from sea level to 2,500 feet (760 m). 11. On the peaks of the Andes, high above the tree line, the is a zone of permanent snow and ice.0ii_043_U03_RB_895489.qxd 1/22/10 8:39 PM Page 14 S-115 104:GO00432:GO00432_WGC_UNIT_RES3_12%0:9780078954894_Ancl.:Application_Files_P rinter P DF Name Date Class15(continued)RETEACHING ACTIVITY 8DIRECTIONS: Match each term from Chapter 8 with the correct definition. 1. canopy 2. puna 3. estuary 4. llanos 5. escarpment 6. cordillerasDIRECTIONS: Look at the diagram below. Write two facts for each climate zone.Visualizing InformationTerms and ConceptsPhysical Geography of Latin Americaa. place where the ocean tide meets a river currentb. steep cliff that plunges to meet the oceanc. parallel mountain rangesd. a cold climate zonee. very large grassy plains where cattle are raisedf. continuous layer of leaves across the top of a forestCHAPTER8Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Elevation and Climate10. puna and tierra helada9. tierra fra8. tierra templada7. tierra caliente0ii_043_U03_RB_895489.qxd 1/22/10 8:48 PM Page 15 S-115 104:GO00432:GO00432_WGC_UNIT_RES3_12%0:9780078954894_Ancl.:Application_Files_P rinter P DF Name Date Class16DIRECTIONS: Fill in the blanks in the web below using the geographical features listed in the box.Organizing InformationRETEACHING ACTIVITY 8Lake MaracaiboAndesAtacama DesertBarbadosBrazilian HighlandsCentral AmericaGreater AntillesllanosMato Grosso PlateauMexican PlateaupampasPatagoniaRo de la PlataRio GrandeSierra Madre Occidental Sierra Madre OrientalTierra del FuegoCHAPTER8Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Latin AmericaMiddle America1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Caribbean6. 7. (West)8. 9. (North)10. 11. South America(Central/East)12. 13. (South)14. 15. 16. 17. 0ii_043_U03_RB_895489.qxd 1/22/10 8:48 PM Page 16 S-115 104:GO00432:GO00432_WGC_UNIT_RES3_12%0:9780078954894_Ancl.:Application_Files_P rinter P DF Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.CHAPTER8Name Date Class17CHAPTER 8 REINFORCING SKILLS ACTIVITYIdentifying Cause-and-Effect RelationshipsAs you read about Latin America, you have probably noticed ways that geographyaffects daily life. For example, large river systems form important commercial highways, linking inland and coastal areas. This in turn has the effect of creatinginterior commercial and business centers, which boost economic growth in theregion. The relationship of large river systems and economic growth in this example is a cause-and-effect relationship.Cause-and-effect relationships may be simple or complex, and a single effectcan have several causes. For example, flooding can result from high rainfall occurring in a low-lying area. A single cause also can produce multiple effects. A warm, rainy climate, for example, can bring flooding and bountiful crops.To determine the causes and effects of an event, ask these questions: Why has the event or condition occurred? What happens as a result of the event or condition?DIRECTIONS: Identify one cause and one effect associated with each of the physical features below.1.2.3.Practicing the SkillCause Physical FeaturePacific Ring of FireEffectCause Physical FeatureAmazon Basins climateEffectCause Physical FeatureVertical Climate Zones:tierra caliente, tierra templada,tierra fra,puna,tierra heladaEffect0ii_043_U03_RB_895489.qxd 1/22/10 8:48 PM Page 17 S-115 104:GO00432:GO00432_WGC_UNIT_RES3_12%0:9780078954894_Ancl.:Application_Files_P rinter P DF Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.CHAPTER81. What two countries claim a portion of Tierradel Fuego? 2. Where are the highest areas? 3. What oceans border Tierra del Fuego? 4. Where would you find the greatest amount of precipitation in Tierra del Fuego?5. What barriers might have prevented large settlements in the region? 6. In what ways is Tierra del Fuego a land ofextremes? 7. How did the discovery of Cape Horn probablyaid European exploration of western LatinAmerica? Name Date Class19Enrichment Activity 8Tierra del FuegoTierra del Fuego is an archipelagoa group of islands scattered over an areaof the oceanat the southernmost tip of South America. The main island in this archipelago is alsonamed Tierra del Fuego. In 1520, Portugueseexplorer Ferdinand Magellan sailed through a channel separating the archipelago from the mainland. From his ship, Magellan couldsee land where at night bright fires blazedalong the shoreline. Magellan named theplace Tierra del Fuego, or land of fire.Indigenous people may have kept the firesburning to keep warm or to serve as awarning. The southern tip of the main islandis Cape Horn, named by a Dutch explorerwho first sailed around the cape in 1616.DIRECTIONS: Use the article above and study themap and chart to answer the following questions.Climate Average precipitation: 25 in. (635 mm); western areas: 180 in. (4,600 mm); eastern areas: 20 in. (508 mm).Average temperature: 6C (43F). Windy(prevailing westerlies).Topography Principal land form: archipelago. Southern & western parts of main island: mountains,with peaks over 7,000 ft. (2,694 m). Northernmain island: under 600 ft. (180 m).Vegetation South and west: stunted trees, mosses;Northern plains: grasses; Central mainisland: deciduous beech forest.Tierra del Fuego Geography FactsAtlanticOceanpacificOceanARGENTINAARGENTINACHILEUshuaiaCape HornTierradel FuegoTierra del Fuego0ii_043_U03_RB_895489.qxd 1/22/10 8:48 PM Page 19 S-115 104:GO00432:GO00432_WGC_UNIT_RES3_12%0:9780078954894_Ancl.:Application_Files_P rinter P DF 20Chapter 8Section ResourcesGuided Reading Activity 8-1 The Land ........................................................................................................... 21Guided Reading Activity 8-2 Climate and Vegetation ................................................................................... 220ii_043_U03_RB_895489.qxd 1/22/10 8:48 PM Page 20 S-115 104:GO00432:GO00432_WGC_UNIT_RES3_12%0:9780078954894_Ancl.:Application_Files_P rinter P DF Name Date Class21Guided Reading A c t i v i t y 8 - 1For use with textbook pages 203206.The LandDIRECTIONS: Use the information in your textbook to fill in the blanks forthe following sentences.1. Latin America is divided into three areas: , , and.2. Physical barriers to development, such as , are being overcome by technological advances such as , , and.3. The are a range of mountains running for 4,500 miles (7,242 km) along thewestern edge of South America. 4. In Peru and Bolivia, the Andes encircle a region of high plains called the .5. In eastern South America, broad plateaus and valleys dominate the landscape. The plateau known as spreads over much of Brazil and into Bolivia and Peru. 6. Some of the inland areas of South America are made up of vast grasslands called thein Colombia and Venezuela. 7. The large grasslands in Argentina and Uruguay are known as the .8. The second largest river system in Latin America consists of the ,, and Rivers. 9. As the three rivers flow near the Atlantic Ocean, they spread out and form a broad estuary calledthe .10. Latin Americas mineral resources include gold, , ,, and . 11. is the worlds largest exporter of copper.Fill In the BlanksSECTION8-1Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.0ii_043_U03_RB_895489.qxd 1/22/10 8:48 PM Page 21 S-115 104:GO00432:GO00432_WGC_UNIT_RES3_12%0:9780078954894_Ancl.:Application_Files_P rinter P DF Name Date Class22Guided Reading A c t i v i t y 8 - 2For use with textbook pages 207210.Climate and VegetationDIRECTIONS: Use the information in your textbook to fill in the blank in each sentence.1. Vertical climate zones are defined by the lands above sea level. 2. The tierra templada, or , lies at a middle altitude, between 2,500 and 6,000 feet above sea level. 3. Major crops grown in the middle elevation zones include corn and . 4. The next elevation level, the , has a cold climate with frequent frosts.5. Much of Latin America is located in a climate zone. 6. Southern Mexico and eastern Central America are dominated by a tropical climate and vegetation. 7. The hot and humid conditions of the Amazon Basin result partly from the areas location on the . 8. In the rain forest, trees grow very closely together, and the forest overheadis very dense.9. There are more of plants and animals per square mile in the Amazon rainforest than anywhere else on Earth. 10. Tropical are grasslands that experience a wet and a dry season. 11. In southeastern South America the subtropical climate results in short, mildwinters and long, hot summers.12. Areas of vegetation in coastal deserts are called , or meadows on the desert. Fill In the BlanksSECTION8-2 Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.0ii_043_U03_RB_895489.qxd 1/22/10 8:48 PM Page 22 S-115 104:GO00432:GO00432_WGC_UNIT_RES3_12%0:9780078954894_Ancl.:Application_Files_P rinter P DF 23Chapter 9ResourcesVocabulary Activity 9 Cultural Geography of Latin America .......................................................... 24Reteaching Activity 9 Cultural Geography of Latin America .......................................................... 25Reinforcing Skills Activity 9 Reading a Population Density Map .............................................................. 27Enrichment Activity 9 The Miskito People of the Mosquito Coast .................................................. 290ii_043_U03_RB_895489.qxd 1/22/10 8:48 PM Page 23 S-115 104:GO00432:GO00432_WGC_UNIT_RES3_12%0:9780078954894_Ancl.:Application_Files_P rinter P DF 24Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Name Date ClassA C T I V I T YV O C A B U L A R Y 9Cultural Geography of Latin AmericaD I R E C T I O N S : Choose a word or phrase from the box to complete each sentence.indigenousmestizoviceroysdialectconquistadorspatoisbrain drainprimate cityglyphssyncretismWord Bank1. people are descended from an areas first inhabitants.2. Common dialects that blend diverse languages are forms of . 3. Spanish , or conquerors, first arrived on the Yucatn Peninsula in 1519.4. A countrys culture, political affairs, and economy may be dominated by a . 5. decorate sacred buildings and record history.6. is a new ethnic group of people of Native American and European descent.7. When people blend beliefs and practices from different religions, a results.8. Under the Spaniards, Mexico was governed by royally appointed officials known as.9. In Latin America, each country has its own , or form of language unique to aparticular place or group.10. In Guyuna, Ecuador, and Colombia, highly educated and skilled workers choose to emigrate toother countries, resulting in .CHAPTER90ii_043_U03_RB_895489.qxd 1/22/10 8:48 PM Page 24 S-115 104:GO00432:GO00432_WGC_UNIT_RES3_12%0:9780078954894_Ancl.:Application_Files_P rinter P DF Name Date Class25(continued)RETEACHING ACTIVITY 9 Cultural Geography of Latin AmericaCHAPTER9Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.DIRECTIONS: Match each term from Chapter 9 with the correct definition. 1. chinampas 2. dialect 3. Candombl 4. matriarchal 5. Maya, Inca, Aztec 6. jai alaiDIRECTIONS: Read the passage below, and then answer the questions.The Maya dominated southern Mexico and northern Central America fromabout A.D. 250 to about A.D. 900. They established many cities, the greatest ofwhich was Tikal, located in what is today Guatemala. Skilled in mathematics,the Maya developed accurate calendars and used astronomical observations topredict solar eclipses. They used glyphs, picture writings carved in stone, todecorate their temples and to record their history.7. What is this passage about?8. For what purposes did the Maya use mathematics? 9. For what purposes did the Maya use glyphs?Summarizing InformationTerms and Conceptsa. language of a certain area or regionb. religion in Latin America c. female-ruled family structured. popular sport in Latin Americae. Aztec floating islands for farmingf. empires of Latin Americas past0ii_043_U03_RB_895489.qxd 1/22/10 8:48 PM Page 25 S-115 104:GO00432:GO00432_WGC_UNIT_RES3_12%0:9780078954894_Ancl.:Application_Files_P rinter P DF Name Date Class26RETEACHING ACTIVITY 9CHAPTER9Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.DIRECTIONS: Fill in the following information for each diagram below: Whowere the people? How, when, and why did they first travel to Latin America?PEOPLES OF LATIN AMERICAOrganizing Information10. Indigenous Peoples11. European Colonists12. Africans13. AsiansDIRECTIONS: Answer the following questions in the space provided.14. What are some of the effects of urbanization in Latin America?15. How did European colonists treat the Native Americans of Latin America? How is the past treatmentof Native Americans similar to their treatment today?Connecting Ideas0ii_043_U03_RB_895489.qxd 1/22/10 8:49 PM Page 26 S-115 104:GO00432:GO00432_WGC_UNIT_RES3_12%0:9780078954894_Ancl.:Application_Files_P rinter P DF Name Date Class27CHAPTER 9 REINFORCING SKILLS ACTIVITYCHAPTER9Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Reading a Population Density MapPopulation density maps show population distribution and patterns of human settlement. When reading a population density map, you should look carefully at the key. Different colors or patterns are used to indicate different population densities. You also should note specific patterns of population distribution and compare these observations with what you know about the regions physical geography.DIRECTIONS: Use the population density map of Central and South America to answer the questions below.1. Which areas of Latin America are the most heavily populated?2. Which areas are sparsely populated?3. Do most countries in Central America have a higher or lower population density than countries in South America?4. What do the most populated countries on this map have in common?5. Why do you think a country such as Brazil, with a large area and population, has the same populationdensity as a small country such as Panama?Practicing the SkillCaribbean SeaPACIFICOCEANATLANTICOCEAN701 to 2,000401 to 700121 to 40051 to 1201 to 50Average number of people per square milePopulation Density: Central and South AmericaSource: World Population Data Sheet 20060ii_043_U03_RB_895489.qxd 1/22/10 9:03 PM Page 27 S-115 104:GO00432:GO00432_WGC_UNIT_RES3_12%0:9780078954894_Ancl.:Application_Files_P rinter P DF Name Date Class29Enrichment Activity 9CHAPTER9Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.The Miskito People of the Mosquito CoastThe term Mosquito Coast refers to a strip of land on the Caribbean coast of Central America.Spanish explorers gave it that name in the 1500s.They were the first Europeans to encounter theMiskito people, a Native American culture groupthat inhabited the coastal area. The English wordmosquito comes from the Spanish word for fly.The most detailed account of Miskito cultureappears in A New Voyage Round the World. AnEnglish sailor, William Dampier, published this book in 1697. Dampier described the Miskito as expert fishers, hunters, and farmers. He alsopraised the kindness with which they receivedEuropean visitors. Miskito society, as Dampier and later witnesses viewed it, appeared to be one which valued equal rights. A shaman, or religious leader, was the only person in authority.Experts estimate that there are about 70,000 descendants of the Miskitos living on the MosquitoCoast today. Most farm, fish, or work as migrantlaborers. In recent years Miskito leaders have crusaded for land reforms and other social programs to benefit their people.DIRECTIONS: Use the article and map to answer the questions below.1. How does the name Mosquito Coast give cluesabout the physical geography of the area?2. What positive traits did William Dampier see inthe Miskito culture?3. What was a shaman?4. In which cultural region is the Mosquito Coastlocated?5. In parts of which modern country does the Mosquito Coast lie?6. Is the Mosquito Coast a political unit or a geographic region?Explain. TheMosquitoCoastPACIFICOCEANCaribbean SeaMEXICOGUATEMALAEL SALVADORHONDURASNICARAGUACOSTARICAPANAMABELIZEThe Mosquito Coast0ii_043_U03_RB_895489.qxd 1/22/10 8:49 PM Page 29 S-115 104:GO00432:GO00432_WGC_UNIT_RES3_12%0:9780078954894_Ancl.:Application_Files_P rinter P DF 30Chapter 9Section ResourcesGuided Reading Activity 9-1 Mexico ................................................................................................................ 31Guided Reading Activity 9-2 Central America and The Caribbean ............................................................ 32Guided Reading Activity 9-3 South America .................................................................................................. 330ii_043_U03_RB_895489.qxd 1/22/10 8:57 PM Page 30 S-115 104:GO00432:GO00432_WGC_UNIT_RES3_12%0:9780078954894_Ancl.:Application_Files_P rinter P DF Name Date Class31Guided Reading A c t i v i t y 9 - 1SECTION9-1Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.For use with textbook pages 216220.MexicoDIRECTIONS: Use the information in your textbook to fill in the blanks forthe following sentences.1. A significant part of the Mexican population is concentrated in and around .2. A megacity, such as Mexico City, has expanded to absorb surrounding cities and.3. Primate cities are so big that they often dominate the country's politics, culture, and.4. Two Native American groups to develop early civilizations in Mexico and Central America werethe and the .5. One way the Mayans recorded history was with picture writings carved in stone called, which are found on many temples.6. The Aztec developed a highly structured headed by an emperor.7. Of the first Europeans to settle in Mexico, most of them were .8. While Mexico became independent in 1821, political and economic power remained in the hands of , , and clergy.9. The constitution of 1917 established Mexico as a federal republic with three branches: the executive, , and judicial.10. Mexican culture is an intricate blend of and Spanish influences.11. The blending of beliefs and practices, or , is evident in Mexico despite thelarge Roman Catholic population. 12. An increase in employment and education has helped ease the problem of for children in poverty who lack proper food.13. The modern Mexcian artist, , is famous for his murals.14. Mexican homes are often shared with .15. Although bullfighting is Mexico's national sport, soccer (ftbol), baseball, andare also popular.Fill In the Blanks0ii_043_U03_RB_895489.qxd 1/22/10 8:49 PM Page 31 S-115 104:GO00432:GO00432_WGC_UNIT_RES3_12%0:9780078954894_Ancl.:Application_Files_P rinter P DF Name Date Class32Guided Reading A c t i v i t y 9 - 2SECTION9-2 Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.For use with textbook pages 221226.Central America and the CaribbeanDIRECTIONS: Use the information in your textbook to complete the following outline.I. Population PatternsA. (1.)1. Indigenous peoples2. European3. Arrival of AfricansB. Density and Distribution1. Population densities vary by country2. (2.)C. Urban ChallengesII. History and GovernmentA. (3.)B. Gaining Independence1. Caribbean countries last in the region to achieve independence2. (4.)C. Movements for Change1. (5.)2. Many countries struggling to bring benefits to all classesIII. CultureA. (6.)B. (7.)1. Quality of care linked to standards of livingC. The Arts1. (8.)2. Music combines by a variety of cultural influencesD. Family Life1. (9.)2. Extended familiesE. (10.)1. Baseball, basketball, and volleyballOutline0ii_043_U03_RB_895489.qxd 1/22/10 8:57 PM Page 32 S-115 104:GO00432:GO00432_WGC_UNIT_RES3_12%0:9780078954894_Ancl.:Application_Files_P rinter P DF Name Date Class33Guided Reading A c t i v i t y 9 - 3SECTION9-3Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.For use with textbook pages 227232.South AmericaDIRECTIONS: Read each incomplete sentence below. Use one word from thebox to complete each sentence correctly. Each word may be used only once.1. South America is home to a(n) diverse population.2. In Guyana, about 40 percent of the population is from the eastern part of .3. Approximately 80 percent of South America's population is urban because of internal.4. The major challenges in many South American cities, such as Sao Paulo in Brazil, include theslums, or , where the poor live on the outskirts of the city.5. Brazil moved its capital to Brasilia to encourage people to settle the .6. The ruled in a hierarchal society in which the emperor, high priest, and the army exercised total authority.7. By 1535, the Inca had been severely weakened by civil war, allowing the conquistadors to destroy the Incan Empire. 8. While the British, French, and Dutch colonized the northern parts of South America, thesettled on the coast of Brazil.9. The hardships of working on colonial plantations drastically reduced the numbers of NativeAmericans, which led the colonists to import Africans.10. In some South American countries, have given way to democratically elected governments.11. The post-colonial period of the 1800s was politically and economically .12. Modern South American writers such as , are known for their blending of the real and the fabulous or mythical in their novels.13. Chilean poet won the Nobel Prize for Literature.14. Health concerns linked to poverty, lack of sanitation, infectious diseases, and malnutrition continueto exist in or remote areas of South America.Fill In the BlanksenslavedethnicallyAsiaunstablefavelasdictatorshipsPortugueseSpanishPablo NerudaGabriel Garca MrquezmigrationIncaruralinterior 0ii_043_U03_RB_895489.qxd 1/22/10 8:49 PM Page 33 S-115 104:GO00432:GO00432_WGC_UNIT_RES3_12%0:9780078954894_Ancl.:Application_Files_P rinter P DF 34Chapter 10ResourcesVocabulary Activity 10 The Region Today: Latin America ................................................................. 35Reteaching Activity 10 The Region Today: Latin America ................................................................. 37Reinforcing Skills Activity 10 Creating an Outline ......................................................................................... 39Enrichment Activity 10 The Economy of Cuba ..................................................................................... 410ii_043_U03_RB_895489.qxd 1/22/10 8:57 PM Page 34 S-115 104:GO00432:GO00432_WGC_UNIT_RES3_12%0:9780078954894_Ancl.:Application_Files_P rinter P DF Name Date Class35A C T I V I T YV O C A B U L A R Y 10CHAPTER10Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.The Region Today: Latin AmericaD I R E C T I O N S : Choose a word or phrase from the box to complete each sentence.free trade zones developing countries deforestationshantytowns service industries slash-and-burn export maquiladora farminglatifundia gross domestic product reforestationminifundia (GDP) campesinoscash crops sustainable developmentOWord Bank1. When a country sells its crops or goods to other countries, it is said to them. 2. are rural workers and farmers who intensively farm a .3. are large agricultural estates owned by wealthy families and corporations.4. are in the process of becoming industrial.5. A factory built in Mexico by an American or a Japanese corporation is called a .6. The value of goods and services produced in a country in a year is called the.7. does not deplete natural resources in the way that does.8. relies on clearing rain forests to make way for agriculture.9. If enforced by law, can help regenerate rain forests. 10. Makeshift communities called result when urban population growth exceedsresources.11. are the areas of a country where trade restrictions do not apply.0ii_043_U03_RB_895489.qxd 1/22/10 8:49 PM Page 35 S-115 104:GO00432:GO00432_WGC_UNIT_RES3_12%0:9780078954894_Ancl.:Application_Files_P rinter P DF Name Date Class37RETEACHING ACTIVITY 10CHAPTER10Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.(continued)DIRECTIONS: Match each term from Chapter 10 with the correct definition. 1. minifundia 2. slash-and-burn 3. service industries 4. cash crops 5. GDP 6. campesinoDIRECTIONS: Answer the following questions in the space provided.7. What are some of the positive and negative effects of the North American Free Trade Agreement?8. How has technology changed the way people communicate in Latin American countries?DIRECTIONS: Read the passage, and then answer the question.New technologies are helping weather forecasters predict the weather moreaccurately. For example, technologies such as satellite imaging can help forecasters trace the development of a hurricane, evaluate its strength, predictits probable course, and give ample advance warning to communities that arelikely to be affected by the storm.9. Why might this new technology be important to some people in Latin America?Working with GeographyConnecting IdeasTerms and ConceptsThe Region Today: Latin Americaa. items grown to be soldb. value of goods and services produced in a yearc. destructive farming methodd. farmer on a minifundiae. small farm for food onlyf. fields such as dry cleaning and banking0ii_043_U03_RB_895489.qxd 1/22/10 8:57 PM Page 37 S-115 104:GO00432:GO00432_WGC_UNIT_RES3_12%0:9780078954894_Ancl.:Application_Files_P rinter P DF Name Date Class38RETEACHING ACTIVITY 10CHAPTER10Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.DIRECTIONS: Fill in the blanks of the outline with the choices given in the box below.Title: (1)I. LocationA. (2)B. Central AmericaII. (3)A. Deforestation1. (4)2. (5)B. Cattle ranchingC. MiningD. SettlementE. (6)1. (7)2. Divide forests into segmentsIII. Effects of Rain Forest DestructionA. Increased economic growthB. (8)C. (9)D. (10)E. (11)IV. (12)A. To Develop1. Provides livelihood2. (13)3. Raises living standards4. Provides raw materials for industryB. Not to Develop1. Unique ecosystem2. (14)3. (15)4. Home to indigenous peopleV. (16)A. Sustainable development1. Conservation2. (17)B. ReforestationC. (18)D. (19)Organizing InformationPotential medicines Amazon Basin, Brazil Tourism Loss of materials to treat diseaseLaw enforcement protectionLogging Alternative methods of farming & miningSlash-and-burn agriculture Roads Encourage more developmentSoil erosion Latin Americas Threatened Rain Forests Global warmingLoss of biodiversity Provides area for new settlements Benefits global environment Threats to the Rain ForestsTo Develop or Not to DevelopComplex IssueSolutions0ii_043_U03_RB_895489.qxd 1/22/10 8:57 PM Page 38 S-115 104:GO00432:GO00432_WGC_UNIT_RES3_12%0:9780078954894_Ancl.:Application_Files_P rinter P DF Name Date Class39CHAPTER 10 REINFORCING SKILLS ACTIVITYCHAPTER10Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Creating an OutlineAn outline is a way to organize and present information. The general topic of an outline is stated as aquestion. Then, each type of information begins with a broad idea, followed by increasingly specificdetails. For example, an outline begins with two or more main ideas, labeled with Roman numerals.Under each main idea are two or more subtopics, labeled with capital letters. Finally, supporting detailsfollow each subtopic. These are labeled with Arabic numerals or lowercase letters.DIRECTIONS: Read the following paragraphs, and then complete the outline below. Practicing the SkillTwo important elements of agri-culture in Latin America are the distribution of farmland and theproducts grown. Land is unequallydivided between wealthy landownersand campesinos, or rural farmers.Minifundia and latifundia are twodifferent kinds of estates. Minifundiaare small farms that produce food for the poor families who own them.Any food not used by the familiesworking on minifundia is sold inlocal markets. The latifundia arelarge estates owned either by wealthyfamilies or corporations. Producefrom the latifundia is sold mainlyas cash crops for export. Using theinexpensive labor of campesinos,latifundia owners produce cashcrops that yield very high returns of profit. Recently, latifundia havebecome more mechanized. No matter whether campesinoswork on large estates or on theirown small farms, they are usuallypoor. They do not have the bestland or the latest agricultural equipment. Among the poorest of the campesinos are the NativeAmericans of the altiplano who eke out a living from poor soil in a harsh climate. Their crops are staples like beans, potatoes, corn,and cassavas. In recent years, moreand more campesinos have beenleaving their farms to go to the cities.General Topic: I. Main Idea: A. Subtopic: 1. Detail: 2. Detail: B. Subtopic: 1. Detail: 2. Detail: 3. Detail: 4. Detail: II. Main Idea: A. Subtopic: B. Subtopic: 1. Detail: 2. Detail: C. Subtopic: 1. Detail: 2. Detail: 3. Detail: 4. Detail: D. Subtopic: 0ii_043_U03_RB_895489.qxd 1/22/10 8:57 PM Page 39 S-115 104:GO00432:GO00432_WGC_UNIT_RES3_12%0:9780078954894_Ancl.:Application_Files_P rinter P DF Name Date Class40Enrichment Activity 10CHAPTER10Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.The Economy of CubaThe largest of the Caribbean islands, Cuba hasbeen under communist rule since Fidel Castroseized power in 1959. For many years, theUnited States has maintained a trade embargothat prohibits buying and selling goods to Cuba.Until 1991 the Soviet Union supported Cuba,sending it billions of dollars worth of productsevery year. This created a large trade imbalance,or deficit, where the amount of goods receivedwas greater than the amount exported. In 1991,when the Soviet Union broke up, economic support for Cuba dropped dramatically, and thetrade deficit shrank the next year (see graph).Responding to public protests, Castro institutedsome democratic reforms in 1994. He permittedindividuals to own businesses and allowed banksto lend money to private companies. However,hard-line communists in the government gainedthe upper hand in 1996, bringing at least a temporary halt to reforms. In 2008 Castro handedpower over to his brother Raul, who lifted someeconomic restrictions. He also announced initiatives to generate revenues for the Cubaneconomy.DIRECTIONS: Use the article and the graphs toanswer the following questions. Use a separatesheet of paper if necessary.1. What happened to Cubas GDP in the early 1990s?2. What effect did democratic reforms have on theGross Domestic Product?3. What does the term trade deficit on the bargraph mean?4. Why are the numbers on the bar graph negativenumbers?5. In which two years was Cubas trade deficit thegreatest? The least?6. Which event in the article suggests a reason forthe trade deficit rapidly shrinking in 1992?Trade DeficitGross Domestic Product*1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996110100%908070601984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 19960.5$01.01.52.02.53.0*The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is the total value of the goods and services produced by the residents of a country in a given period of time.$bn, balance of payments basis*1984 = 100%CUBAS ECONOMY*Negative numbers equal deficits.Source: CIA World Factbooks0ii_043_U03_RB_895489.qxd 1/22/10 8:57 PM Page 40 S-115 104:GO00432:GO00432_WGC_UNIT_RES3_12%0:9780078954894_Ancl.:Application_Files_P rinter P DF 41Chapter 10Section ResourcesGuided Reading Activity 10-1The Economy ..................................................................................................... 42Guided Reading Activity 10-2 People and Their Environment ...................................................................... 430ii_043_U03_RB_895489.qxd 1/22/10 8:57 PM Page 41 S-115 104:GO00432:GO00432_WGC_UNIT_RES3_12%0:9780078954894_Ancl.:Application_Files_P rinter P DF Name Date Class42Guided Reading A c t i v i t y 1 0 - 1SECTION10-1 Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.For use with textbook pages 242247.The EconomyDIRECTIONS: Use the information in your textbook to fill in the blanks forthe following sentences.1. Many agricultural crops in Latin America are intended for to other countries.2. Today large-scale, money-making farms require fewer workers because they are highly.3. The cool, fertile highlands of Brazil, Mexico, Guatemala, and Columbia grow some of the worldsbest . 4. Hot, tropical areas of Latin America, particularly in Cuba and Brazil, grow large crops of bananasand . 5. If natural disasters such as floods destroy their main crop, the of these countries suffer, as do their people.6. In some Latin American countries, geographical features such as the high have hindered transportation and communication.7. Jamaica is one of the countries that has expanded its service industry to include telecommunica-tions and . 8. The industrial economy of has been boosted by its oil industry. 9. Manufacturing plants built in Latin America by foreign companies that use cheap local labor are called .10. The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) promotes trade among the United States,Mexico, and . 11. In the United States, some people dislike NAFTA because they fear the loss of jobs to generallyMexican workers. 12. Money borrowed to foster industrialization has led to enormous foreign in many Latin American countries. 13. Despite physical barriers, some Latin American countries have well-developed . 14. Every Latin American country is improving its communications, but few people havein their homes.Fill In the Blanks0ii_043_U03_RB_895489.qxd 1/22/10 8:57 PM Page 42 S-115 104:GO00432:GO00432_WGC_UNIT_RES3_12%0:9780078954894_Ancl.:Application_Files_P rinter P DF Name Date Class43Guided Reading A c t i v i t y 1 0 - 2SECTION10-2Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.For use with textbook pages 250254.People and Their EnvironmentDIRECTIONS: Underline the word or phrase that correctly completes each sentence.1. Technological and economic growth that does not deplete the human and natural resources of anarea is known as development.sustainable environmental rain forest2. Clearing of rain forest is called .timber deforestation depletion3. Pressure from the has accelerated deforestation in the Amazon.government latifundia minifundia4. Almost 20 percent of the has been destroyed.grasslands Amazon rain forest coastal farmlands5. Along with the loss of rain forests comes the loss of valuable substances that may be used to fight .disease wars insects6. The rain forest is also crucial because its trees and plants absorb , which contributes to global warming.oxygen ozone carbon dioxide7. Laws requiring can help restore the forests.reforestation logging strip mining8. When rural people move to cities in Latin America, they are so poor they most often live in .neighborhoods shantytowns the street9. Resources and services become scarce when cities experience .isolation rapid urbanization good management10. Latin America has experienced many over disputed areas involving strategiclocations and natural resources.territorial conflicts economic losses economic boosts11. Free trade agreements have given rise to inefficient factories, whose hurtsthe environment in neighboring nations.pollution labor commerceUnderline the Answer0ii_043_U03_RB_895489.qxd 1/22/10 8:57 PM Page 43 S-115 104:GO00432:GO00432_WGC_UNIT_RES3_12%0:9780078954894_Ancl.:Application_Files_P rinter P DF 44Location Activity 3 pp. 12A. Labeling should be consistent with the Unit 3Regional Atlas.B.1. Gulf of Mexico2. Sierra Madre Occidental3. Isthmus of Panama4. Caribbean Sea5. West Indies6. llanos7. Amazon River8. Andes9. Lake Titicaca10. Paraguay River11. Paran River12. Rio de la PlataUnit 3 Real-Life Applications pp. 34Answers will vary but should demonstrate thatstudents have considered the important factors in implementing such a program: the availableresources, the geography of the area, and thedetails provided about the villagers way of life.Students might suggest setting up traveling showsthat teach about nutrition, teaching children songsabout nutrition, presenting nutrition programs atintervillage celebrations, and giving awards tovillagers who demonstrate nutrition awareness.Unit 3 GeoLab Activity pp. 571. dowels; sand2. It shows that it is feasible to move heavyweights up mountains by using friction-reducing methods, such as gravel or rollersmade from logs.3. Use larger, smoother, more rounded objectsto reduce friction.4. steepness of incline, weight of stone, numberof people pulling the stone, availability offriction-reducing materialCritical Thinking The Inca lived in the Andes, so they may have built temples on the highestpeaks for religious reasons, such as to be nearerthe sky. They may have wanted large stonebuildings for their permanence and stability towithstand earthquakes and weathering.Unit 3 Environmental Issues pp. 9101. Ecotourism is environmentally responsibletravel to relatively undisturbed natural areasin order to appreciate nature and culture. 2. Answers may include tropical rain forests,coral reefs, the habitats of wild gorillas orother animals, and other natural, undisturbedplaces, especially in South and CentralAmerica, Africa, and Asia.3. Answers will vary but should include mentionof the fact that ecotourism promotes globalawareness of the environment and aids localeconomies at the same time that it placesstrains on the very environment that ismeant to benefit from it.4. Answers will vary but might include mentionof the educational benefits and the thrill ofvisiting exotic locales. Unit 3 World Literature pp. 1112Interpreting the Reading1. Winter begins in May. It is cold and wet,while summer is hot and dry.2. Her descriptions involve all five senses.3. At first, all three characters are happy aboutthe rainit revives the plants and is a hope-ful sign after the long summer heat. Whenthe rain continues, however, they feel asthough the rain has overwhelmed theirsenses. They become serious and think thatit may never end.4. Possible answer: Isabel longs for the pleasantsilence of August evenings and is sadbecause she knows it will be a long winter.Vocabulary Activity 8 p. 141. puna2. escarpment 3. cordilleras4. canopy5. tierra fra6. hydroelectric power7. tierra templada8. altiplano 9. pampas, llanos10. tierra caliente11. tierra heladaAnswer Key044_050_U03_RB_895489.qxd 1/22/10 4:54 PM Page 44 S-115 104:GO00432:GO00432_WGC_UNIT_RES3_12%0:9780078954894_Ancl.:Application_Files_P rinter P DF Reteaching Activity 8 pp. 15161. f2. d3. a4. e5. b6. cVisualizing Information7. tierra caliente: between sea level and 2,500feet; hot temperatures, rain forests; cropsinclude bananas, sugar, rice, and cacao8. tierra templada: 2,500 to 6,000 feet; coolertemperatures; leafy evergreens and cone-bearing evergreens; most densely populatedzone; main crops are coffee and corn9. tierra fra: 6,000 to 12,000 feet; coldest temperatures; winter frosts common; maincrops are potatoes and barley10. puna and tierra helada: 12,000 to 16,000feet; cold temperatures and permanent iceand snow, although the puna supports somegrasses suitable for grazingOrganizing Information1.5. Middle America: Central America, SierraMadre Occidental, Sierra Madre Oriental,Mexican Plateau, Rio Grande6.7. Caribbean: Greater Antilles, Barbados8.9. South America (West): Andes, AtacamaDesert10.11. South America (North): llanos, LakeMaracaibo12.13. South America (Central/East): MatoGrosso Plateau, Brazilian Highlands14.17. South America (South): pampas,Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego, Ro de la PlataChapter 8 Reinforcing Skills Activity p. 171. Cause: Plates of the Earths crust have collidedfor billions of years.Effect: earthquakes, volcanoes, and mountainformation2. Cause: location on the Equator and the pat-terns of the prevailing windsEffect: heavy rainfall, tropical rain forest;more species of plants and animals persquare mile than anywhere else on Earth3. Cause: changes in elevation result in differentaverage temperatures and climate patternsEffect: varied vegetation and human settle-ment patternsEnrichment Activity 8 p. 191. Chile and Argentina2. southern and western parts of main island3. Atlantic and Pacific4. in the western areas5. mountains, mostly scattered islands, coldtemperatures6. cold temperatures; heavy rainfall in parts,moderate rainfall in other parts; vegetationvaries widely; high mountains and low plains7. It gave explorers an open sea route to thewestern portion of Latin America.Guided Reading Activity 8-1 p. 211. Middle America, the Caribbean, and SouthAmerica2. rugged mountain terrain, television, cellphones, the Internet3. Andes4. altiplano5. Mato Grosso Plateau6. llanos7. pampas8. Paran, Paraguay, Uruguay9. Ro de la Plata10. silver, emeralds, copper, bauxite11. ChileGuided Reading Activity 8-2 p. 221. elevation2. temperate land3. coffee4. tierra fra5. tropical6. rain forest7. Equator8. canopy9. species10. llanos11. humid12. lomasVocabulary Activity 9 p. 241. Indigenous 2. patois 3. conquistadors 4. primate city 5. Glyphs 6. Mestizo7. syncretism 8. viceroys 9. dialect10. brain drain45044_050_U03_RB_895489.qxd 1/22/10 4:54 PM Page 45 S-115 104:GO00432:GO00432_WGC_UNIT_RES3_12%0:9780078954894_Ancl.:Application_Files_P rinter P DF 46Reteaching Activity 9 pp. 25261. e2. a3. b4. c5. f6. d7. the Maya people and their achievements8. for calendars and astronomical observations9. for decorating their temples and recordingtheir history10. the original people in the region, includingthe Inca, the Aztec, and the Maya11. Spanish and Portuguese came as colonistsand conquerors looking for wealth in thelate 1400s and early 1500s.12. Africans from West Africa were brought asslaves by Europeans, who needed workersin Latin America.13. Asians first migrated to Latin America in the1800s, looking for jobs and new opportunities.14. Urbanization can create major problems forcities, including overcrowded housing, jobshortages, poor sanitation, and a generalstrain on the ability of a city to take care ofall its residents.15. European colonists treated the NativeAmericans harshly. Native Americans had no rights, were forced to work on farms,and died from epidemic diseases and fromenduring extreme hardships. In most LatinAmerican countries today, Native Americansstill often are treated as second-class citizenswith little political power and few economicbenefits. However, some groups, as in Mexico,have made progress in gaining a voice withthe new government.Chapter 9 Reinforcing Skills p. 271. Central America and the Caribbean2. central and southern South America3. higher4. They are located near water. Populationstend to become denser in coastal citiesbecause waterways make trade easier.5. Although Brazil has a higher populationthan Panama, it is a vast country that haslarge areas that are uninhabitable. Panama isa small country with a small population.Enrichment Activity 9 p. 291. Possible response: The name suggests that thearea is warm and moist enough to supportmosquitos. It also suggests that the area iscoastal and narrow and does not extendinland.2. He saw their expertise at fishing, hunting,and farming. He also noted that the peoplewere kind to European visitors and appearedto value equal rights.3. a religious leader4. Middle America or Latin America5. Nicaragua6. The Mosquito Coast is a geographic regionbecause it does not form a separate countrywith one government and defined politicalborders.Guided Reading Activity 9-1 p. 311. Mexico City2. suburbs3. economy4. Aztec, Maya5. glyphs6. class system7. Spaniards8. wealthy landowners, army officers9. legislative10. Native American11. syncretism12. malnutrition13. Diego Rivera14. extended family15. jai alaiGuided Reading Activity 9-2 p. 321. The People2. Internal and external migration3. European conquest4. Creation of five Central American countries5. Industry brought wealth to upper classes6. Language and Religion7. Education and Health Care8. woodworking, poetry, metal work, andweaving9. Matriarchal societies10. Sports and Leisure044_050_U03_RB_895489.qxd 1/22/10 4:54 PM Page 46 S-115 104:GO00432:GO00432_WGC_UNIT_RES3_12%0:9780078954894_Ancl.:Application_Files_P rinter P DF Guided Reading Activity 9-3 p. 331. ethnically2. Asia3. migration4. favelas5. interior6. Inca7. Spanish8. Portuguese9. enslaved10. dictatorships11. unstable12. Gabriel Garca Mrquez13. Pablo Neruda14. Carnival15. ruralVocabulary Activity 10 p. 351. export 2. Campesinos, minifundia3. Latifundia 4. Developing countries 5. maquiladora6. gross domestic product 7. Sustainable development, deforestation 8. Slash-and-burn 9. reforestation 10. shantytowns11. Free trade zonesReteaching Activity 10 pp. 37381. e2. c3. f4. a5. b6. d7. NAFTA has made trade easier among theUnited States, Canada, and Mexico, andincreased the flow of goods, services, andpeople among the countries; it has addedjobs in Mexico that otherwise might nothave existed and has boosted exports fromMexico. Some people in the United Statesworry that there is a loss of jobs to lower-paid workers in Mexico.8. Many people in larger cities use cell phones,more people have personal computers, andInternet access has improved.9. Some parts of Latin America, particularly the Caribbean islands and Central America,are very vulnerable to hurricanes. Accurateforecasting can help people be better pre-pared for approaching storms and possiblylimit the amount of damage that is done.Organizing Information1. Latin Americas Threatened Rain Forests 2. Amazon Basin, Brazil 3. Threats to the Rain Forests4. Logging5. Slash-and-burn agriculture6. Roads7. Encourage more development8. Loss of biodiversity9. Global warming10. loss of materials to treat disease11. Soil erosion12. To Develop or Not to DevelopComplex Issue13. Provides area for new settlements14. Potential medicines15. Benefits global environment16. Solutions17. Alternative methods of farming & mining18. Tourism19. Law enforcement protectionReinforcing Skills Activity 10 p. 39General Topic: How is Latin American agricultureorganized?I. Main Idea: Distribution of Land and ProductsGeneratedA. Subtopic: Minifundia1. Owned by campesinos2. Produce food for owners and local marketsB. Subtopic: Latifundia1. Large estates owned by wealthy familiesor corporations2. Use cheap laborcampesinos3. Yield high returns of profit on cash crops4. Have become more mechanized47044_050_U03_RB_895489.qxd 1/22/10 4:54 PM Page 47 S-115 104:GO00432:GO00432_WGC_UNIT_RES3_12%0:9780078954894_Ancl.:Application_Files_P rinter P DF 48II. Main Idea: CampesinosA. Subtopic: Work on large estates or smallfarmsB. Subtopic: Usually poor1. Do not have best land or equipment2. Poorest are Native Americans of thealtiplanoC. Subtopic: Raise staple crops1. Beans2. Corn3. Potatoes4. CassavaD. Leaving farms for the citiesEnrichment Activity 10 p. 401. It declined significantly.2. It began to rise.3. The amount of goods received or importedis greater than the amount produced orexported.4. They represent a trade imbalance, which is adeficit that is expressed in a negative.5. greatest: 1986, 1989least: 1992, 19936. The Soviet Union stopped providing economic support.Guided Reading Activity 10-1 p. 421. export2. mechanized3. coffee4. sugarcane5. economies6. Andes7. information technology8. Mexico9. maquiladoras10. Canada11. lower-paid12. debt13. rail systems14. telephones or computersGuided Reading Activity 10-2 p. 431. sustainable2. deforestation3. latifundia4. Amazon rain forest5. disease6. carbon dioxide7. reforestation8. shantytowns9. rapid urbanization10. territorial conflicts11. pollution044_050_U03_RB_895489.qxd 1/22/10 4:54 PM Page 48 S-115 104:GO00432:GO00432_WGC_UNIT_RES3_12%0:9780078954894_Ancl.:Application_Files_P rinter P DF World Geography and CulturesTable of ContentsCorrelation of World Geography and Cultures to the National Geography StandardsUsing the Teacher Wraparound EditionClassroom SolutionsScavenger HuntReference AtlasGeographic DictionaryWorld: PhysicalWorld: PoliticalWorld: Land UseWorld: Time ZonesWorld: Gross Domestic Product CartogramWorld: Population CartogramUnited States: PhysicalUnited States: PoliticalCanada: Physical/PoliticalMiddle America: Physical/PoliticalNorth America: PhysicalNorth America: PoliticalSouth America: PhysicalSouth America: PoliticalEurope: PhysicalEurope: PoliticalAfrica: PhysicalAfrica: PoliticalAsia: PhysicalAsia: PoliticalOceania: Physical/PoliticalPolar RegionsA World of ExtremesUnderstanding the Big IdeasThemes and ElementsUnit 1: The WorldUnit 1 Planning GuideChapter 1: How Geographers Look at the WorldChapter 1 Planning GuideSection 1: Geography Skills HandbookSection 2: The Geographers CraftChapter 1 Visual SummaryChapter 1 AssessmentChapter 2: The Physical WorldChapter 2 Planning GuideSection 1: Planet EarthSection 2: Forces of ChangeSection 3: The Earth's WaterChapter 2 Visual SummaryChapter 2 AssessmentChapter 3: Climates of the EarthChapter 3 Planning GuideSection 1: Earth-Sun RelationshipsSection 2: Factors Affecting ClimateSection 3: World Climate PatternsChapter 3 Visual SummaryChapter 3 AssessmentChapter 4: The Human WorldChapter 4 Planning GuideSection 1: World PopulationSection 2: Global CulturesNational Geographic: Special Feature: World ReligionsSection 3: Political and Economic SystemsSection 4: Resources, Trade, and the EnvironmentChapter 4 Visual SummaryChapter 4 AssessmentUnit 2: The United States and CanadaUnit 2 Planning GuideNational Geographic: Regional Atlas: The United States and CanadaWhat Makes This a Region?PhysicalPoliticalRegion TodayCountry ProfilesChapter 5: Physical Geography of the United States and CanadaChapter 5 Planning GuideSection 1: The LandNational Geographic: Why Geography Matters: Story of a HurricaneSection 2: Climate and VegetationChapter 5 Visual SummaryChapter 5 AssessmentChapter 6: Cultural Geography of the United States and CanadaChapter 6 Planning GuideSection 1: The United StatesSection 2: CanadaChapter 6 Visual SummaryChapter 6 AssessmentChapter 7: The Region Today: The United States and CanadaChapter 7 Planning GuideSection 1: The EconomySection 2: People and Their EnvironmentChapter 7 Visual SummaryChapter 7 AssessmentNational Geographic: Case Study: The Global EconomyUnit 3: Latin AmericaUnit 3 Planning GuideNational Geographic: Regional Atlas: Latin AmericaWhat Makes This a Region?PhysicalPoliticalRegion TodayCountry ProfilesChapter 8: Physical Geography of Latin AmericaChapter 8 Planning GuideSection 1: The LandSection 2: Climate and VegetationChapter 8 Visual SummaryChapter 8 AssessmentChapter 9: Cultural Geography of Latin AmericaChapter 9 Planning GuideSection 1: MexicoSection 2: Central America and the CaribbeanSection 3: South AmericaChapter 9 Visual SummaryNational Geographic: Why Geography Matters: Communications in South AmericaChapter 9 AssessmentNational Geographic: Connecting to the United States: Latin AmericaChapter 10: The Region Today: Latin AmericaChapter 10 Planning GuideSection 1: The EconomyNational Geographic: Why Geography Matters: Tumucumaque Mountains National ParkSection 2: People and Their EnvironmentChapter 10 Visual SummaryChapter 10 AssessmentNational Geographic: Case Study: DevelopmentUnit 4: EuropeUnit 4 Planning GuideNational Geographic: Regional Atlas: EuropeWhat Makes This a Region?PhysicalPoliticalRegion TodayCountry ProfilesChapter 11: Physical Geography of EuropeChapter 11 Planning GuideSection 1: The LandSection 2: Climate and VegetationChapter 11 Visual SummaryChapter 11 AssessmentChapter 12: Cultural Geography of EuropeChapter 12 Planning GuideSection 1: Northern EuropeSection 2: Western EuropeNational Geographic: Why Geography Matters: Urban Growth and TransportationSection 3: Southern EuropeNational Geographic: Why Geography Matters: German ReunificationSection 4: Eastern EuropeChapter 12 Visual SummaryChapter 12 AssessmentNational Geographic: Connecting to the United States: EuropeChapter 13: The Region Today: EuropeChapter 13 Planning GuideSection 1: The EconomySection 2: People and Their EnvironmentChapter 13 Visual SummaryChapter 13 AssessmentNational Geographic: Case Study: The European UnionUnit 5: RussiaUnit 5 Planning GuideNational Geographic: Regional Atlas: RussiaWhat Makes This a Region?PhysicalPoliticalCountry ProfilesRegion TodayChapter 14: Physical Geography of RussiaChapter 14 Planning GuideSection 1: The LandSection 2: Climate and VegetationChapter 14 Visual SummaryChapter 14 AssessmentChapter 15: Cultural Geography of RussiaChapter 15 Planning GuideSection 1: Population and CultureNational Geographic: Why Geography Matters: Nationalism in ChechnyaSection 2: History and GovernmentChapter 15 Visual SummaryChapter 15 AssessmentNational Geographic: Connecting to the United States: RussiaChapter 16: The Region Today: RussiaChapter 16 Planning GuideSection 1: The EconomySection 2: People and Their EnvironmentChapter 16 Visual SummaryChapter 16 AssessmentNational Geographic: Case Study: Protecting People and the EnvironmentUnit 6: North Africa, Southwest Asia, and Central AsiaUnit 6 Planning GuideNational Geographic: Regional Atlas: North Africa, Southwest Asia, and Central AsiaWhat Makes This a Region?PhysicalPoliticalRegion TodayCountry ProfilesChapter 17: Physical Geography of North Africa, Southwest Asia, and Central AsiaChapter 17 Planning GuideSection 1: The LandSection 2: Climate and VegetationChapter 17 Visual SummaryChapter 17 AssessmentChapter 18: Cultural Geography of North Africa, Southwest Asia, and Central AsiaChapter 18 Planning GuideSection 1: North AfricaSection 2: The Eastern MediterraneanNational Geographic: Why Geography Matters: Conflict: Israel and PalestineSection 3: The NortheastSection 4: The Arabian PeninsulaNational Geographic: Why Geography Matters: Afghanistan: A Troubled HistorySection 5: Central AsiaChapter 18 Visual SummaryChapter 18 AssessmentNational Geographic: Connecting to the United States: North Africa, Southwest Asia, and Central AsiaChapter 19: The Region Today: North Africa, Southwest Asia, and Central AsiaChapter 19 Planning GuideSection 1: The EconomySection 2: People and Their EnvironmentChapter 19 Visual SummaryChapter 19 AssessmentNational Geographic: Case Study: Sunni and Shia MuslimsUnit 7: Africa South of the SaharaUnit 7 Planning GuideNational Geographic: Regional Atlas: Africa South of the SaharaWhat Makes This a Region?PhysicalPoliticalRegion TodayCountry ProfilesChapter 20: Physical Geography of Africa South of the SaharaChapter 20 Planning GuideSection 1: The LandSection 2: Climate and VegetationChapter 20 Visual SummaryChapter 20 AssessmentChapter 21: Cultural Geography of Africa South of the SaharaChapter 21 Planning GuideSection 1: The SahelSection 2: East AfricaSection 3: West AfricaSection 4: Central AfricaSection 5: Southern AfricaChapter 21 Visual SummaryChapter 21 AssessmentNational Geographic: Connecting to the United States: Africa South of the SaharaChapter 22: The Region Today: Africa South of the SaharaChapter 22 Planning GuideSection 1: The EconomyNational Geographic: Why Geography Matters: Wildlife ConservationSection 2: People and Their EnvironmentChapter 22 Visual SummaryChapter 22 AssessmentNational Geographic: Women and DevelopmentUnit 8: South AsiaUnit 8 Planning GuideNational Geographic: Regional Atlas: South AsiaWhat Makes This a Region?PhysicalPoliticalCountry ProfilesRegion TodayChapter 23: Physical Geography of South AsiaChapter 23 Planning GuideSection 1: The LandNational Geographic: Why Geography Matters: Story of a TsunamiSection 2: Climate and VegetationChapter 23 Visual SummaryChapter 23 AssessmentChapter 24: Cultural Geography of South AsiaChapter 24 Planning GuideSection 1: IndiaSection 2: Pakistan and BangladeshSection 3: Nepal, Bhutan, Maldives, and Sri LankaChapter 24 Visual SummaryChapter 24 AssessmentNational Geographic: Connecting to the United States: South AsiaChapter 25: The Region Today: South AsiaChapter 25 Planning GuideSection 1: The EconomyNational Geographic: Why Geography Matters: India: Skilled Laborers NeededSection 2: People and Their EnvironmentChapter 25 Visual SummaryChapter 25 AssessmentNational Geographic: Case Study: PopulationUnit 9: East AsiaUnit 9 Planning GuideNational Geographic: Regional Atlas: East AsiaWhat Makes This a Region?PhysicalPoliticalCountry ProfilesRegion TodayChapter 26: Physical Geography of East AsiaChapter 26 Planning GuideSection 1: The LandSection 2: Climate and VegetationChapter 26 Visual SummaryChapter 26 AssessmentChapter 27: Cultural Geography of East AsiaChapter 27 Planning GuideSection 1: ChinaSection 2: JapanSection 3: North Korea and South KoreaChapter 27 Visual SummaryChapter 27 AssessmentNational Geographic: Connecting to the United States: East AsiaChapter 28: The Region Today: East AsiaChapter 28 Planning GuideSection 1: The EconomyNational Geographic: Why Geography Matters: China's Growing Energy DemandsSection 2: People and Their EnvironmentChapter 28 Visual SummaryChapter 28 AssessmentNational Geographic: Case Study: Japan's Aging PopulationUnit 10: Southeast AsiaUnit 10 Planning GuideNational Geographic: Regional Atlas: Southeast AsiaWhat Makes This a Region?PhysicalPoliticalRegion TodayCountry ProfilesChapter 29: Physical Geography of Southeast AsiaChapter 29 Planning GuideSection 1: The LandSection 2: Climate and VegetationChapter 29 Visual SummaryChapter 29 AssessmentChapter 30: Cultural Geography of Southeast AsiaChapter 30 Planning GuideSection 1: Mainland Southeast AsiaSection 2: Island Southeast AsiaChapter 30 Visual SummaryChapter 30 AssessmentNational Geographic: Connecting to the United States: Southeast AsiaChapter 31: The Region Today: Southeast AsiaChapter 31 Planning GuideSection 1: The EconomyNational Geographic: Why Geography Matters: Story of a Volcano: Mount PinatuboSection 2: People and Their EnvironmentChapter 31 Visual SummaryChapter 31 AssessmentNational Geographic: Case Study: The Vietnam WarUnit 11: Australia, Oceania, and AntarcticaUnit 11 Planning GuideNational Geographic: Regional Atlas: Australia, Oceania, and AntarcticaWhat Makes This a Region?PhysicalPoliticalRegion TodayCountry ProfilesChapter 32: Physical Geography of Australia, Oceania, and AntarcticaChapter 32 Planning GuideSection 1: The LandNational Geographic: Special Feature: AntarcticaSection 2: Climate and VegetationChapter 32 Visual SummaryChapter 32 AssessmentChapter 33: Cultural Geography of Australia and OceaniaChapter 33 Planning GuideSection 1: Australia and New ZealandSection 2: OceaniaChapter 33 Visual SummaryChapter 33 AssessmentNational Geographic: Connecting to the United States: Australia and OceaniaChapter 34: The Region Today: Australia and OceaniaChapter 34 Planning GuideSection 1: The EconomyNational Geographic: Why Geography Matters: The Great Barrier ReefSection 2: People and Their EnvironmentChapter 34 Visual SummaryChapter 34 AssessmentNational Geographic: Case Study: Clash of CulturesReference SectionSkills HandbookCritical Thinking SkillsComparing and ContrastingDrawing ConclusionsMaking GeneralizationsDetermining Cause and EffectIdentifying the Main IdeaPredictingAnalyzing InformationMaking InferencesDistinguishing Fact from OpinionFormulating QuestionsSynthesizing InformationDetecting BiasSocial Studies SkillsAnalyzing Primary SourcesInterpreting GraphsUnderstanding Time ZonesInterpreting Population PyramidsReading a CartogramComparing DataFoldablesGazetteerEnglish/Spanish GlossaryIndexAcknowledgmentsFeaturesNational Geographic: Special FeaturesNational Geographic: Why Geography MattersNational Geographic: Connecting to the United StatesNational Geographic: Case StudyTeen in LifeMapsGraphs, Charts, and DiagramsPrimary SourcesResourcesAuthentic Assessment Activities and RubricsDaily Focus Skills TransparenciesDifferentiated Instruction for the World Geography ClassroomDinah Zike's High School World Geography Reading and Study Skills FoldablesFoods Around the WorldGIS Simulations, Strategies, and ActivitiesGraphic Organizer TransparenciesHigh School Writing Process TransparenciesMap Overlay Transparencies, Strategies, and ActivitiesOutline Map Resource BookPolitical Map Transparencies, Strategies, and ActivitiesReading Essentials and Note-Taking GuideAnswer KeyStudent WorkbookReading Strategies and Activities for the Social Studies ClassroomReproducible Lesson PlansSection Quizzes and Chapter TestsSpanish Reading Essentials and Note-Taking GuideAnswer KeyStudent WorkbookSpanish Summaries and ActivitiesStandardized Test Practice WorkbookTeacher Annotated EditionStudent WorkbookStrategies for SuccessUnit 1 Resources: The WorldUnit 2 Resources: The United States and CanadaUnit 3 Resources: Latin AmericaUnit 4 Resources: EuropeUnit 5 Resources: RussiaUnit 6 Resources: North Africa, Southwest Asia, and Central AsiaUnit 7 Resources: Africa South of the SaharaUnit 8 Resources: South AsiaUnit 9 Resources: East AsiaUnit 10 Resources: Southeast AsiaUnit 11 Resources: Australia, Oceania, and AntarcticaWorld Art and Architecture Transparencies, Strategies and ActivitiesWorld Cultures Transparencies, Strategies, and ActivitiesWorld Geography In Graphic NovelWriter's GuidebookInternet LinkPrevious DocumentSearchPage NavigatorExit

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