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many ways, and would also benefit the nation when certainquestions of legislation came to be discussed there. It wasalso thought by the speaker that the interest alreadyoccasionally shown by members of the Royal Family z,
in the greater meetings of medical men, if more fre-
quently exhibited, and especially in the annual gather-ings of medical students, might stimulate the public tosympathise more with medical life-a matter in whichthe whole nation is very deeply interested. The same
personal interest that is shown by our Royal Princes inthe doings of the army, the legal, and even in the musicaland other artistic professions would not be thrown away ifbestowed upon medicine. But while these things were putforward as worthy of the attention of society, of the State,and of the Crown, the prospect of their being granted wasnot held up as an inducement to younger men to enter themedical profession, and to devote themselves to it. Thedivine science and art of healing contained in itself thehighest of all rewards worth seeking. It offered to thehighest intellects problems which should carry them intothe deepest mines of research or up to the loftiest regions ofspeculation. It offered also to men of warm sympathiesquiet walks in the valley below amid the homes of men,where they would have the freest outlet for all their purestimpulses, the widest field for kindly, patient, useful activityfor others. It offered, in short, to all earnest men work ofthe best kind suitable to their particular bent, and if oldCarlyle’s saying is true, that " blessed is the man who hasfound his work, let him ask no other blessedness," Medicinehas indeed the highest reward for all her sons.
WESTMINSTER HOSPITAL. INTRODUCTORY ADDRESS BY MR. JAMES BLACK.
THE introductory address was delivered by Mr. JamesBlack, B.A., F.R.C.S., lecturer on anatomy at the new schoolsin Caxton-street, Westminster, on Oct. 4th, at 3.30 P.M. Hestated that he thought the time placed at his disposal wouldbe most profitably employed in offering a few words ofpractical advice to those who were commencing study forthe medical profession, and some suggestions relative topreliminary training and future prospects. One of the first
questions arising was how the student should profitablyemploy his time. The answer to an extent was furnishedin the prospectus, where he would discover that most ofthe hours of the day were mapped out either for attendanceat lectures and demonstrations, or for practical work in thedissecting room and chemical and physiological laboratories.Students, however, quickly discover that, even then, theirlabours are not at an end; but that extra hours must bespent in reading over those subjects which had occupiedthe mind during the day, and which would be quickly for-gotten unless subjected to methodical and critical reflection.The inquiry also arose, should there be no time fcr recrea-tion and out-door exercise ? The reply was undoubtedlythere should be, for a curriculum defective therein mustinevitably produce pernicious results. From his experienceat Cambridge the lecturer advised that a moderate in-
dulgence in athletic sports was well calculated to developthe student’s physique as well as cultivate his mind. Hecomplimented the school on the fair success which hadattended their efforts in the public competitions, andreferred particularly to the case of one gentleman who up-held the credit of their hospital in the sports, also carriedoff the exhibition, scholarship, most of the prizes, and,what would prove of the greatest value of all to him,was in turn elected to several valuable appointmentsin the hospital. Concluding his remarks on this subject,with the caution that such devotion must be circum-scribed within due limits, Mr. Black spoke a few wordson music and drawing, which he strongly advised hishearers to cultivate. Music was a special blessing ; itafforded the most perfect solace to the jaded intellect. AsDr. Clouston, in his address on Psychology before the BritishMedical Association at Brighton, explained, Intense thoughtwill inhibit emotion; whilst, on the other hand, intenseattention to objective sounds will inhibit thought." Themedical profession included within its ranks many who, tojudge by the excellence of their art work, had reached thepinnacle of fame as artists, and who, none the less, had attainedan exalted position in their own profession. Dr. Oliver
Wendell Holmes, whose recent visit had reminded us thatliterature too, has for one of its brightest ornaments a mem-ber of our profession, happily remarked---" Literature is agood staff to walk with, but not a good one to lean upon.Coleridge had told him, ’Every man should have as wellsome fixed and regular occupation,’ and this advice he wouldhand on to any who might feel tempted to exchange thesteady preparations for a practical career for the uncertainpathway of a literary life." Edward Jenner, one of thegreatest benefactors of mankind, often solaced himself, whenthe cares connected wich the progress of his discoveryweighed upon him, by playing on the violin and flute withall the mirth of youth. Whilst, then, avoiding unmitigatedstudy, the student should vehemently despise the wantonrecklessness of uninterrupted frivolity. To those wiio couldnot help working, even at the expense of their bodily andmental powers, he would say, Guard against this as much aspossible by systematically taking a good night’s rest andsacredly observing the Sabbath.To proceed to the course of studies, the field open to the
medical student was endless in variety, as was illustratedby reference to the following, among other subjects:anatomy, physiology, and chemistry. Allusion was madeto the researches of Fraser, Crum-Brown, Lauder Brunton,and others, who have established a scientific explanationof the action of different substances founded on the in-vestigation of their molecular constitution; a distinct con-nexion being proved to exist between the specific atomicgrouping of these bodies and their physiological action. AndMr. Cresswell Hewett’s remarkable discovery of the syn-thetical manufacture of quinine, by which the price of thedrug was likely to be reduced to something like 3d. perounce, was also referred to. A certain amount of natural science,physical and biological, the lecturer thought, should be
acquired before joining a hospital school, and he sketchedout a preliminary course founded on the lines lately laiddown by a committee of naval instruction for the preliminarytraining for the navy. At fifteen an examination equivalentto that for the lower certificates conducted by the Oxfordand Cambridge School Examination Board was to be passed.For the ensuing year the boy should remain at his school andspecially devote himself to mathematics, physics, modernlanguages, and drawing. At sixteen, when the abovecommittee decided the naval cadets should join the Britanniatraining-ship to pursue a year’s course of technical andnautical instruction preliminary to the succeeding threeyears spent afloat, when, of course, their studies would bestrictly practical and professional. Mr. Black proposed thatthe candidate for the medical profession should attend somewell-equipped laboratory for the ensuing twelvemonth,where he was to be practically taught biology, chemistry,and physics. Certificates should be required of havingundergone such a preliminary training, and the student beexpected to matriculate in the above subjects on entering ahospital school. The lecturer, whilst profoundly appreciatingthe value of a thorough classical education, could not but feelconvinced that by adopting some such course as the abovethere would be more likelihood of the student successfullycompleting his present curriculum in the allotted four years,and that the benefit of a satisfactory preliminary scientifictraining would become universal, whereas such is now toomuch limited to those only who intend taking a universitydegree. Referring to future prospects, he congratulatedhis audience on the chance there seemed of taking anM.D. degree in London on the same conditions thatalready existed at certain universities. The corpora-tion of the venerable College of Physicians and the illus-trious College of Surgeons amply provided England witha truly representative body, admirably suited to conferan M.D. degree on all really well-educated metropolitanstudents.In conclusion, Mr. Black observed that the success of their
own school depended mainly on themselves-not less uponthe students than those who were members of° its staff. Allmust be actuated by high motives. The splendid site of thehospital, under the shadow of that Abbey where lie theashes of the good and great, the long roll of eminent menwho devoted their services to the good work done in thehospital, and, lastly, the enormous vitality which had en-abled the school to survive the crushing blows it hadreceived during its existence of half a century, and toappear as it now did, must inevitably inspire them a l Jwithenthusiasm to do their utmost to maintain the traditions ofthe past,