Water Reuse Guidelines 625r04108

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    EPA/625/R-04/108September 2004

    Guidelines for Water Reuse

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    Municipal Support DivisionOffice of Wastewater Management

    Office of WaterWashington, DC

    Technology Transfer and Support Division

    National Risk Management Research LaboratoryOffice of Research and Development

    Cincinnati, OH

    U.S. Agency for International DevelopmentWashington, DC

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    Notice

    This document was produced by Camp Dresser & McKee, Inc. under a Cooperative Researchand Development Agreement with the US Environmental Protection Agency. It has beensubjected to the Agencys peer and administrative review and has been approved for publication.Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement orrecommendation for use.

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    Foreword

    In an effort to help meet growing demands being placed

    on available water supplies, many communities throughout the U.S. and the world are turning to water reclamation and reuse. Water reclamation and reuse offer an

    effective means of conserving our limited high-qualityfreshwater supplies while helping to meet the ever grow

    ing demands for water.

    For many years, effluent discharges have been accepted

    as an important source for maintaining minimum streamflows. The investment in treatment technologies required

    to meet restrictive discharge limits has lead an increasing number of industries and communities to consider

    other uses for their treated wastewater effluents as ameans to recover at least a part of this investment.Further, as sources of water supplies have become lim

    ited, there has been greater use and acceptance of reclaimed wastewater effluents as an alternative source

    of water for a wide variety of applications, including landscape and agricultural irrigation, toilet and urinal flush

    ing, industrial processing, power plant cooling, wetlandhabitat creation, restoration and maintenance, andgroundwater recharge. In some areas of the country,

    water reuse and dual water systems with purple pipefor distribution of reclaimed water have become fully

    integrated into local water supplies.

    The 2004 Guidelines for Water Reuseexamines oppor

    tunities for substituting reclaimed water for potable water supplies where potable water quality is not required.

    It presents and summarizes recommended water reuseguidelines, along with supporting information, as guid

    ance for the benefit of the water and wastewater utilities and regulatory agencies, particularly in the U.S. Thedocument updates the 1992 Guidelinesdocument by

    incorporating information on water reuse that has beendeveloped since the 1992 document was issued. This

    revised edition also expands coverage of water reuseissues and practices in other countries. It includes many

    new and updated case studies, expanded coverage ofindirect potable reuse and industrial reuse issues, new

    information on treatment and disinfection technologies,

    emerging chemicals and pathogens of concern, economics, user rates and funding alternatives, public involvement and acceptance (both successes and fail

    ures), research activities and results, and sources offurther information. It also includes as an updated ma

    trix of state regulations and guidelines, and a list of state

    contacts. This information should be useful to states indeveloping water reuse standards, and revising or expanding existing regulations. It should also be useful toplanners, consulting engineers and others actively in

    volved in the evaluation, planning, design, operation ormaintenance of water reclamation and reuse facilities.

    Benjamin H. GrumblesAssistant Administrator for Water U.S. EPA

    Paul Gilman

    Assistant Administrator for Research & DevelopmentU.S. EPA

    Jacqueline E. SchaferDeputy Assistant Administrator

    Bureau for Economic Growth, Agriculture and TradeU.S. Agency for International Development

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    ContentsChapter Page

    1 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................................ 11.1 Objectives of the Guidelines ............................................................................................ 11.2 Water Demands and Reuse .............................................................................................. 11.3 Source Substitution .......................................................................................................... 2

    1.4 Pollution Abatement ......................................................................................................... 31.5 Treatment and Water Quality Considerations ................................................................... 31.6 Overview of the Guidelines .............................................................................................. 41.7 References ....................................................................................................................... 5

    2 TYPES OF REUSE APPLICATIONS ......................................................................................................... 72.1 Urban Reuse .................................................................................................................... 7

    2.1.1 Reclaimed Water Demand ................................................................................... 82.1.2 Reliability and Public Health Protection ............................................................... 92.1.3 Design Considerations ....................................................................................... 10

    2.1.3.1 Water Reclamation Faciliities ............................................................... 102.1.3.2 Distribution System .............................................................................. 10

    2.1.4. Using Reclaimed Water for Fire Protection ........................................................ 122.2 Industrial Reuse ............................................................................................................. 13

    2.2.1 Cooling Water .................................................................................................... 132.2.1.1 Once-Through Cooling Water Systems ................................................. 132.2.1.2 Recirculating Evaporative Cooling Water Systems ............................... 132.2.1.3 Cooling Water Quality Requirements .................................................... 15

    2.2.2 Boiler Make-up Water ........................................................................................ 162.2.3 Industrial Process Water ................................................................................... 17

    2.2.3.1 Pulp and Paper Industry ....................................................................... 172.2.3.2 Chemical Industry ................................................................................ 172.2.3.3 Textile Industry .................................................................................... 172.2.3.4 Petroleum and Coal .............................................................................. 20

    2.3 Agricultural Reuse .......................................................................................................... 202.3.1 Estimating Agricultural Irrigation Demands ........................................................ 21

    2.3.1.1 Evapotranspiration ................................................................................ 212.3.1.2 Effective Precipitation, Percolation and Surface Water

    Runoff Losses ...................................................................................... 212.3.2 Reclaimed Water Quality ................................................................................... 222.3.2.1 Salinity ................................................................................................. 232.3.2.2 Sodium ................................................................................................. 232.3.2.3 Trace Elements .................................................................................... 242.3.2.4 Chlorine Residual .................................................................................. 242.3.2.5 Nutrients ............................................................................................... 24

    2.3.3 Other System Considerations ........................................................................... 262.3.3.1 System Reliability ................................................................................ 26

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    Chapter Page2.3.3.2 Site Use Control ................................................................................... 262.3.3.3 Monitoring Requirements ...................................................................... 262.3.3.4 Runoff Controls .................................................................................... 262.3.3.5 Marketing Incentives ............................................................................ 272.3.3.6 Irrigation Equipment .............................................................................. 27

    2.4 Environmental and Recreational Reuse .......................................................................... 272.4.1 Natural and Man-made Wetlands .........................

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