Washington & Congress, 1789 - 1796

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Washington & Congress, 1789 - 1796. Partisan Politics Emerge During Washington’s Presidency . A Note on George Washington. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Washington & Congress, 1789 - 1796

Partisan Politics Emerge During Washingtons Presidency Washington & Congress, 1789 - 1796

George Washington didnt really want for this to happen. In his Cabinet, strong personalities and men of ability were brought together. Jefferson and Hamilton were frequently on the opposite side of the issues. Yet, all of the men were patriot Americans. Recognizing this, George Washington tried to project a public image of the disinterested statesman. Privately, he appears to have agreed with Alexander Hamilton more frequently than with Thomas Jefferson.

A Note on George WashingtonThomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton ended up on the opposite side of many crucial debates during Washingtons Presidency, including: The Bill of Rights DebateThe Assumption of the National Debt and Redemption of Bonds. Powers of the Government under the Constitution The National BankWho Should Rule? Who, exactly, are We the People? Foreign Policy OptionsThe Alien and Sedition Acts in 1798, under John AdamsReasons for the DivideThomas Jefferson & the RepublicansJefferson and Madison were strong supporters of the Bill of Rights, believing they were essential to (1) preserve the rights of the people and (2) appease the Antifederalists who had resigned themselves to the Constitution in 1788. Alexander Hamilton & the FederalistsAlexander Hamilton and his Federalists were unconvinced that any rights would be better preserved by placing them in writing. Overall, they believed that the rights were necessary and proper, but they also thought that this went without saying. The Bill of RightsJefferson, Madison, & the Republicans Both men, but especially James Madison, saw through Alexander Hamiltons design. They knew that if the national government assumed all of the states debts, that this would give the federal government a compelling reason to tax the states after all, they had to repay England, France, and Holland for helping to grant us our independence. Alexander Hamilton & the Federalists Hamilton knew exactly what he was doing when he assumed the debt of each of the states in 1789. By taking the burden of debt off of the states who still owed money to England, France, Holland or Spain, he was justifying the national governments right to tax its subjects going forward. The Assumption of the Nation debt by the Federal GovernmentMadison: OPPOSEDPaying full price on the Congress paper money bills was going to reward the money speculators who had purchased the bonds when no one believed that the nation would win the conflict. Hamilton: IN FAVORHamilton realized that by paying full price on the government bonds, the aristocratic, wealthy, elite would come to support the government. If a few of the lower sort felt they were losing power, so be it. The Redemption of BondsJeffersonian RepublicansJefferson feared that the national government would attempt to take too much power. He therefore advocated a strict constructionist view of the Constitution. If the Constitution did not specifically grant the government the power to take an action, they could not do so.Hamiltonian FederalistsAlexander Hamilton was much more covetous of power for himself and for the government. He believed that if something was not strictly forbidden by the Constitution, that the government could take action on its own. He believed in the implied powers within the Constitution. Powers Under the ConstitutionAlexander Hamilton viewed the National Bank as a way to encourage cooperation between the wealthy, elite members of society and the government. Since this power was not specifically enumerated in the Constitution, Jefferson viewed the National Bank as a usurpation of power and mistrusted Alexander Hamiltons motives as always

The National BankJeffersonian RepublicansJefferson believed in the virtue of an agrarian republic. He believed that small farmers educated landowners would be the most virtuous men to build a nation with. He wanted to expand the democracy accordingly. Hamiltonian FederalistsAlexander Hamilton believed in a nation of industry and merchant traders. His thought was that a productive society would be more profitable and influential on the world stage. Hamilton believed in republicanism, but would have restricted the vote to property owners.Who should rule?Jeffersonian RepublicansJefferson was a Francophile, meaning that he was in favor of strong diplomatic ties with France. This was generally a popular view, since France had helped the United States gain its independence. Hamiltonian FederalistsHamilton was an Anglophile, meaning that he was in favor of strong diplomatic ties with England. This was not as popular a view, since Americans had recently fought to sever ties with England.Foreign Policy choicesJeffersonian RepublicansJefferson and Madison viewed the Alien and Sedition Acts as obviously unconstitutional measures which limited freedom of speech and freedom of the press, and put the liberty of the people at risk. The two men penned the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions in protest, claiming that states had the right to declare Congressional acts unconstitutional on their own. Hamiltonian FederalistsHamilton agreed with John Adams that the Alien and Sedition acts were necessary infringements of the peoples rights in order to preserve the gains of the revolution. Hamilton viewed the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions as a danger to the supremacy of the federal government, since they advocated nullification and interposition. The Alien and Sedition ACtsThe Virginia Declaration of Rights, by George Mason

The Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom, by Thomas Jefferson

What two documents authored by Virginians did James Madison rely upon in creating the bill or rights? Who wrote each document?Hamilton proposed a tariff on all imported goods shipped into the United States. The Tariff of 1789 was used to raise revenue.

Hamilton proposed that the national government should absorb the debts of the states. This way, the national government would have a legitimate reason to insist upon taxing the states.

The establishment of a National Bank. Hamilton viewed this as a way to foster relationships with the wealthy, the elite, and the aristocratic powers in the nation.

The Excise Taxes. Sin taxes, like those on whiskey, could be commanded by the federal government to raise revenue. Hamiltons Financial PlanThe word enumerated means listed.

The enumerated powers in the Constitution, then, are powers which are specifically mentioned in the Constitution. For example, the power to tax, the power to declare war, the ability to raise and army, or any of the other powers of government specifically delegated to one or more branches of the government. Enumerated powersThe work implied means that something is not explicitly stated, but suggested, or hinted at.

The implied powers of the Constitution are aspects of the document which appear to give the government expansive powers to create laws.

In the Constitution, for example, the Congress is given the power to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper. What is meant by this? Alexander Hamilton would say that this means the federal government has the power to take powers necessary to do its job, whether the Constitution specifically allows them to or not!Implied powersThe Whiskey Rebellion of 1794 was an important moment in US History. Washington personally led a group of 13,000 soldiers to successfully put down a small insurrection in Western Pennsylvania. Compare Washingtons strong response to the feeble inaction of the Congress during Shays Rebellion, and you can see how much more powerful the new government actually was. The Whiskey Rebellion

Thomas JeffersonJefferson was a believer in agrarianism. He thought that Americans who were citizen-farmers would be the most successful leaders of the government. He thought that ordinary people would be less corrupt and willing to fight to preserve the republic.Alexander Hamilton Hamilton believed that the poor could not be trusted with the power of government. He viewed them as overly passionate and too much prone to self-interested decisions. Instead, he favored giving political power to the rich, well-born, and able. Who Should Rule?