Vocabulary Review Ch 12 Inheritance Patterns and Human Genetics.

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    18-Dec-2015

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  • Slide 1
  • Vocabulary Review Ch 12 Inheritance Patterns and Human Genetics
  • Slide 2
  • One of the pair of chromosomes that determine the sex of an individual Sex Chromosome
  • Slide 3
  • Any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome Autosome
  • Slide 4
  • A trait that is determined by a gene found on one of the sex chromosomes, such as the X chromosome or the Y chromosome in humans Sex-linked Trait
  • Slide 5
  • One of a pair of genes that tend to be inherited together Linked Gene
  • Slide 6
  • A diagram of gene positions on a chromosome Chromosome map
  • Slide 7
  • In chromosome mapping, an increment of 1 percent in the frequency of crossing-over Map unit
  • Slide 8
  • Mutation that occurs in an organisms gametes Germ-cell mutation
  • Slide 9
  • A mutation that occurs in a body cell Somatic-cell mutation
  • Slide 10
  • A gene or chromosomal mutation that influences the development of an organism in such a way that the organism cannot survive Lethal mutation
  • Slide 11
  • The loss of a part of DNA from a chromosome Deletion
  • Slide 12
  • A reversal in the order of the genes, or of a chromosome segment, within a chromosome Inversion
  • Slide 13
  • The movement of a segment of DNA from one chromosome to another, which results in a change in the position of the segment; also the movement of soluble nutrients from one part of a plant to another Translocation
  • Slide 14
  • The failure of homologous chromosomes to separate during meiosis I or the failure of sister chromatids to separate during mitosis or meiosis II Nondisjunction
  • Slide 15
  • A mutation in which only one nucleotide or nitrogenous base in a gene is changed Point mutation
  • Slide 16
  • A mutation in which a nucleotide or a codon in DNA is replaced with a different nucleotide Substitution
  • Slide 17
  • A mutation, such as the insertion or deletion of a nucleotide in a coding sequence, that results in the misreading of the code during translation because of a change in the reading frame Frameshift mutation
  • Slide 18
  • A mutation in which one or more nucleotides are added to a gene Insertion mutation
  • Slide 19
  • A diagram that shows the occurrence of a genetic trait in several generations of a family Pedigree
  • Slide 20
  • In genetics, an individual who has one copy of a recessive autosomal allele that causes disease in the homozygous condition Carrier
  • Slide 21
  • An inherited disease or disorder that is caused by a mutation in a gene or by a chromosomal defect Genetic disorder
  • Slide 22
  • Describes a characteristic that is influenced by many genes Polygenic
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  • A character such as skin color that is influenced strongly by both genes and the environment Complex character
  • Slide 24
  • More than two alleles (versions of the gene) for a genetic trait Multiple allele
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  • A condition in which both alleles for a gene are fully expressed Codominance
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  • A condition in which a trait in an individual is intermediate between the phenotype of the individuals two parents because the dominant allele is unable to express itself fully Incomplete dominance
  • Slide 27
  • An autosomal trait that is influenced by the presence of male or female sex hormones Sex-influenced trait
  • Slide 28
  • A rare hereditary disease of the brain characterized by involuntary movements of the limbs or face, decreasing mental abilities, and eventual death Huntingtons disease
  • Slide 29
  • A procedure used in fetal diagnosis in which amniotic fluid is removed from the uterus of the pregnant woman Amniocentesis
  • Slide 30
  • A procedure in which the chorionic villi are analyzed to diagnose fetal genotypes Chorionic villi sampling
  • Slide 31
  • The process of testing and informing potential parents about their genetic makeup and the likelihood that they will have offspring with genetic defects or hereditary diseases Genetic counseling
  • Slide 32
  • A technique that places a gene into a cell to correct a hereditary disease or to improve the genome Gene therapy

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