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Vocabulary Key Terms • DNA DNA replication • Codon • Intron • Exon • Translation Central Dogma • Transcription • RNA • mRNA • tRNA • Anticodon • Genes • Nucleotide Nitrogen base Amino Acids (AA)

Vocabulary Key Terms DNA DNA replication Codon Intron Exon Translation Central Dogma Transcription RNA mRNA tRNA Anticodon Genes Nucleotide Nitrogen base

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Text of Vocabulary Key Terms DNA DNA replication Codon Intron Exon Translation Central Dogma Transcription...

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Vocabulary Key Terms DNA DNA replication Codon Intron Exon Translation Central Dogma Transcription RNA mRNA tRNA Anticodon Genes Nucleotide Nitrogen base Amino Acids (AA) Slide 2 Where in the cell are we looking at? Slide 3 Slide 4 5a. Know the general structures and functions of DNA, RNA & protein. Slide 5 121 The Components and Structure of DNA What is the overall structure of the DNA molecule? The Components and Structure of DNA DNA is made up of ______________________. A nucleotide is a monomer of nucleic acids made up of a five-carbon sugar called ________________, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. Slide 6 The Components and Structure of DNA There are ______ kinds of bases in in DNA: adenine guanine cytosine thymine Slide 7 The Components and Structure of DNA The backbone of a DNA chain is formed by ______________ and _______________ groups of each nucleotide. The nucleotides can be joined together in any order. Slide 8 The Components and Structure of DNA Chargaff's Rules Erwin Chargaff discovered that: The percentages of _________________ [G] and _____________________ [C] bases are almost equal in any sample of DNA. The percentages of ________________ [A] and __________________ [T] bases are almost equal in any sample of DNA. Slide 9 The Components and Structure of DNA X-Ray Evidence ______________________ used X-ray diffraction to get information about the structure of DNA. She aimed an X-ray beam at concentrated DNA samples and recorded the scattering pattern of the X- rays on film. Slide 10 The Components and Structure of DNA The Double Helix Using clues from Franklins pattern, James Watson and Francis Crick built a model that explained how DNA carried information and could be copied. Watson and Crick's model of DNA was a ___________ _____________ in which _____ strands were wound around each other. Slide 11 Who Discovered the DNA molecule? Discovery of DNA: ___________: Proposed that DNA is made of 2 chains of nucleotides joined together by the nitrogen bases Double Helix: DNA composed of 2 strands twisted together James Watson & Francis Crick Slide 12 The Components and Structure of DNA DNA Double Helix Slide 13 The Components and Structure of DNA Watson and Crick discovered that ____________________ bonds can form only between certain base pairsadenine and thymine, and guanine and cytosine. This principle is called ________________. Slide 14 From DNA to Protein Why is DNA Important? All of the characteristics that you have are affected by the _____________ that you have in your cells. Controls the color of your eyes, hair, or if you can digest milk. ______________ the order of the amino acids s the kind protein made. Slide 15 From DNA to Protein RNA: _____________________ Acid a nucleic acid single stranded Sugar in RNA is ribose Instead of Thyamine, Uracil (U) (A) H Slide 16 Three Types of RNA Help to build proteins Messenger RNA (___________): brings info from the DNA in the nucleus to the cells factory floor, the cytoplasm. Ribosomal RNA (_________): clamp onto the mRNA and use its info to assemble the amino acids in the correct order Transfer RNA (___________): transports amino acids to the ribosome to be assembled into protein Slide 17 RNA Facts RNA exists in many structural forms mRNA: serves as a __________ during protein synthesis tRNA rRNA Slide 18 DNA vs. RNA Deoxyribose sugar Adenine Guanine Cytosine ______________ 2 strands Ribose sugar Adenine Guanine Cytosine ___________ One Strand Slide 19 Proteins Proteins are ________________ composed of amino acid ______________. Different types of proteins function as enzymes and transport molecules, hormones, structural components of cells, & antibodies that fight infection. Slide 20 Slide 21 1d. Know the central dogma of molecular biology outlines the flow of information from transcription of ribonucleic acid (RNA) in the nucleus to translation of proteins on ribosomes in the cytoplasm. Slide 22 Slide 23 12-2 Chromosomes and DNA Replication 122 Chromosomes and DNA Replication Slide 24 DNA and Chromosomes In prokaryotic cells, DNA is located in the __________________. Most __________________ have a single DNA molecule containing nearly all of the cells genetic information. Slide 25 DNA and Chromosomes Chromosome E. Coli Bacterium Bases on the Chromosomes Slide 26 DNA and Chromosomes Many eukaryotes have ________ times the amount of DNA as prokaryotes. Eukaryotic DNA is located in the cell ______________ inside chromosomes. The number of chromosomes varies widely from one species to the next. Slide 27 DNA and Chromosomes Chromosome Structure Eukaryotic chromosomes contain DNA and protein, tightly packed together to form _______________. Chromatin consists of DNA tightly coiled around proteins called ______________________. DNA and histone molecules form nucleosomes. Nucleosomes pack together, forming a thick fiber. Slide 28 DNA and Chromosomes Eukaryotic Chromosome Structure Chromosome Supercoils Nucleosome DNA double helix Histones Coils Slide 29 DNA Replication What happens during DNA replication? DNA Replication Each strand of the DNA double helix has all the information needed to reconstruct the other half by the mechanism of base pairing. In most prokaryotes, DNA replication begins at a single point and continues in two directions. Slide 30 DNA Replication In eukaryotic chromosomes, DNA replication occurs at hundreds of places. Replication proceeds in both directions until each chromosome is completely copied. The sites where separation and replication occur are called ____________________. Slide 31 DNA Replication Duplicating DNA Before a cell divides, it duplicates its DNA in a process called ____________________. Replication ensures that each resulting cell will have a complete set of DNA. During DNA replication, the DNA molecule separates into ______ strands, then produces two new complementary strands following the rules of base pairing. Each strand of the double helix of DNA serves as a template for the new strand. Slide 32 DNA Replication Nitrogen Bases Replication Fork DNA Polymerase Replication Fork Original strand New Strand Growth Slide 33 DNA Replication How Replication Occurs DNA replication is carried out by enzymes that unzip a molecule of DNA. Hydrogen bonds between base pairs are broken and the two strands of DNA unwind. The principal enzyme involved in DNA replication is _______________________. DNA polymerase joins individual nucleotides to produce a DNA molecule and then proofreads each new DNA strand. Slide 34 DNA Replication 1.__________________ breaks up the hydrogen(H + ) bonds between the nitrogen bases that holds the 2 strands togetherunzips the DNA molecule 2.Free floating _______________ bond to the single strands by base pairing 3.Another _______________ bonds these new nucleotides into a chain Slide 35 DNA Replication 4. This process continues until the entire molecule has been unzipped and replicated. 5. Each new strand formed is a _________________ of the original, or parent, strands. 6. The result is the formation of two DNA molecules, each of which is __________________ to the original DNA molecule. Slide 36 12-3 RNA and Protein Synthesis 123 RNA and Protein Synthesis Slide 37 _______________ are coded DNA instructions that control the production of proteins. Genetic messages can be decoded by copying part of the nucleotide sequence from DNA into RNA. _______________ contains coded information for making proteins. Slide 38 The Structure of RNA RNA consists of a long chain of nucleotides. Each nucleotide is made up of a ___-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. There are three main differences between RNA and DNA: The sugar in RNA is ribose instead of deoxyribose. RNA is generally single-stranded. RNA contains ______________ in place of thymine. Slide 39 Types of RNA What are the three main types of RNA? Types of RNA There are three main types of RNA: _________________ RNA ribosomal RNA _______________ RNA Slide 40 Types of RNA Messenger RNA (mRNA) carries ______________ of instructions for assembling amino acids into proteins. Slide 41 Types of RNA Ribosomes are made up of proteins and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Ribosome Ribosomal RNA Slide 42 Types of RNA During protein construction, transfer RNA (tRNA) transfers each amino acid to the _________________. Amino acid Transfer RNA Slide 43 Transcription What is transcription? Transcription RNA molecules are produced by copying part of a nucleotide sequence of DNA into a complementary sequence in RNA. This process is called ______________________. Transcription requires the enzyme ___________________________. Slide 44 Transcription During transcription, RNA polymerase binds to DNA and separates the DNA strands. RNA polymerase then uses one strand of DNA as a template from which nucleotides are assembled into a strand of RNA. RNA polymerase binds only to regions of DNA known as ______________________. Promoters are signals in DNA that indicate to the enzyme where to bind to make RNA. Slide 45 Transcription Steps 1.__________________ unzip the molecule of DNA 2.Free RNA nucleotides pair with complementary DNA nucleotides on one of the DNA strands AGC TAA CCG ______ strand UCG AUU GGC _____ strand 3.When the base pairing is completed, the mRNA molecule breaks away as the DNA strands rejoin. 4.The ______________ leaves the nucleus and enters the cytoplasm Slide 46 Transcription RNA RNA polymerase DNA Slide 47 RNA Editing The DNA of eukaryotic genes contains sequences of nucleotides, called __________________, that are not involved in coding for proteins. The DNA sequences that code for proteins are called _________________. When RNA molecules are formed, introns and exons are copied from DNA. Slide 48 RNA Editing The ____________ are cut out of RNA molecules. The _____________ are the spliced together to form mRNA. Exon Intron DNA Pre-mRNA mRNA Cap Tail