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The HiLumi LHC Design Study is included in the High Luminosity LHC project and is partly funded by the European Commission within the Framework Programme 7 Capacities Specific Programme, Grant Agreement 284404. Vision from LHC to HL- LHC operation Lucio Rossi For the HL-LHC project

Vision from LHC to HL-LHC operation

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Vision from LHC to HL-LHC operation. Lucio Rossi For the HL-LHC project. LHC performance evolution ( guess !). 0.75 10 34 cm -2 s -1 50 ns bunch high pile up 40. 1.5 10 34 cm -2 s -1 25 ns bunch pile up 40. 1.7-2.2 10 34 cm -2 s -1 25 ns bunch pile up 60. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Vision from LHC to HL-LHC operationLucio RossiFor the HL-LHC projectThe HiLumi LHC Design Study is included in the High Luminosity LHC project and is partly funded by the European Commission within the Framework Programme 7 Capacities Specific Programme, Grant Agreement 284404. 2LHC performance evolution (guess!)[email protected] Workshop 14Oct2014

0.75 1034 cm-2s-150 ns bunch high pile up 40 1.5 1034 cm-2s-125 ns bunch pile up 401.7-2.2 1034 cm-2s-125 ns bunch pile up 60Technical limits (experiments, too) like :50 25 ns3Lumi evolution till 2035 (no learnimg)[email protected] Workshop 14Oct2014

When learning curve is folded in (250f-1/y in 2028) need to plan eventually 300 fb-1/y, with 7-7.5 1034 cm-2s-1 . Design should also able to allow to 4000 fb-1, if needed.5 1034 cm-2s-1 , levelling, 250 fb-1/y, 3000 fb-14High lumi insertions: higher, [email protected] Workshop 14Oct2014LHC triplet70 mm8 T11 kAHL LHC triplet> 12 T150 mm15-17 kA

Longer Quads; Shorter D1 (thanks to SC)ATLASCMSATLASCMS

E. Todesco

5The HL-LHC Nb-T imagnet zooLucio [email protected] 9July2014

D1 (KEK)Nested orbit corrector (CIEMAT)HO correctors: superferric (INFN)D2 (INFN)Q4 (CEA)D2 corr

See WP3 webpageE. Todesco et al.Effect of the crab cavities

RF crab cavity deflects head and tail in opposite direction so that collision is effectively head on and then luminosity is maximizedThis are COMPACT CC, completely new design! Must work synchronized (0.001) on each side of the IP!Lucio [email protected]

Latest cavity designs toward accelerator

RF Dipole: Waveguide orwaveguide-coax couplers

Double -wave: Coaxial couplers withhook-type antenna

4-rod: Coaxial couplers with different antenna typesCoupler conceptsLucio [email protected] on two designs Present baseline: 3 cavity /cyomodule4 cavity/cryomod is under study for Crab Kissing TEST in SPS under preparation (A. MacPherson)

8P2 - DS collimators ions 11 T (LS2 -2018)Lucio [email protected]

11 T Nb3Sn

FNAL - CERN89Low impedence collimators(LS2 & LS3)Lucio [email protected] 9July2014

New material: MoGrReduce impedance by > 2)S. Redaelli et al.Maybe already in LS2 10LRBBW: an enabling tool that needs a definitive testLucio [email protected] 9July2014

9.3 Test using an adapted collimatorTest is expensive!The final system cannot be an electric wire embedded in a jaw!e-lens used as e-wireHowever wee need > 200 Am!NOT baseline (yet)11Controlling halo diffusion rate: hollow e-lens (synergy with LRBBCW)Lucio [email protected] 9July2014Promises of hollow e-lens:1. Control the halo dynamics without affecting the beam core;2. Control the time-profile of beam losses (avoid loss spikes);3. Control the steady halo population (crucial in case of CC fast failures).Remarks: - very convincing experimental experience in other machines!- full potential can be exploited if appropriate halo monitoring is available.

NOT baseline (yet)12Crystal collimation: a new paradigme in collimation (DS partially and primaryLucio [email protected] 9July2014

NOT baseline (yet)13Eliminating Technical BottlenecksCryogenics P4- P1 P5Lucio [email protected] 9July2014

ITITITITITITITIT

RFRF

New Plant 6 kW in P4 IN LS2Two new 18 kW Plants in P1 and P5

1314New IR Cryo-scheme (sepration IR-Arc)Lucio [email protected] 9July2014

L. TavianR. Van WeelderenS. ClaudetDisplacing EPC and DFB in the adjacent TDZ tunnel ( 500 m away) via SC linksIt si also a TEST!DQRIP7Q4Q5D3Q6DFBMDFBAQ11, Q10Q7IP 6D4

4.5 K8.75 m1 mWarm magnets (PCs in UJ 76) RR 73RR 73

Lucio [email protected] 9July20141516Lucio [email protected] 9July2014

L = 20 m(252) 1 kA @ 25 K, LHC Link P7Feb 2014: World record for HTS transport current (A. Ballarino)ParameterNominal LHC (design report)HL-LHC 25ns (standard)HL-LHC 25 ns(BCMS)HL-LHC 50nsBeam energy in collision [TeV]7777Nb1.15E+112.2E+112.2E113.5E+11nb 28082748126041404Number of collisions at IP1 and IP52808273625921404Ntot3.2E+146.0E+145.7E+144.9E+14beam current [A]0.581.091.030.89x-ing angle [rad]285590590590beam separation []9.412.512.511.4* [m]0.550.150.150.15n [m]3.752.502.503L [eVs]2.502.502.502.50r.m.s. energy spread1.13E-041.13E-041.13E-041.13E-04r.m.s. bunch length [m]7.55E-027.55E-027.55E-027.55E-02IBS horizontal [h]80 -> 10618.518.517.2IBS longitudinal [h]61 -> 6020.420.416.1Piwinski angle0.653.143.142.87Geometric loss factor R0 without crab-cavity0.8360.3050.3050.331Geometric loss factor R1 with crab-cavity(0.981)0.8290.8290.838beam-beam / IP without Crab Cavity 3.1E-033.3E-033.3E-034.7E-03beam-beam / IP with Crab cavity 3.8E-031.1E-021.1E-021.4E-02Peak Luminosity without crab-cavity [cm-2 s-1]1.00E+347.18E+346.80E+348.44E+34Virtual Luminosity with crab-cavity: Lpeak*R1/R0 [cm-2 s-1](1.18E+34)19.54E+3418.52E+3421.38E+34Events / crossing without levelling w/o crab-cavity27198198454Levelled Luminosity [cm-2 s-1]-5.00E+345.00E342.50E+34Events / crossing (with levelling and crab-cavities for HL-LHC)27138146135Peak line density of pile up event [evt/mm] (max over stable beam)0.211.251.311.20Levelling time [h] (assuming no emittance growth)-8.37.618.017Baseline Parameters (last PLC)

Lucio [email protected] 9July2014

ATS requiredCollision values

18The Achromatic Telescopic Squeezing (ATS) scheme Small b* is limited by aperture but not only: optics matching & flexibility (round and flat optics), chromatic effects (not only Q), spurious dispersion from X-angle,..

A novel optics scheme was developed to reach un-precedent b* w/o chromatic limit based on a kind of generalized squeeze involving 50% of the ringLucio [email protected] 9July2014ATS is not an option is critical for the upgrade; implementation in Run II or Run III is beneficial!b*= 40 cmb*= 10 cmThe new IR is sort of 8 km long !(S. Fartoukh) Proof of principle demonstrated in the LHC down to a b* of 10-15 cm at IP1 and IP5Lucio [email protected] 9July201419The ``crab-kissing (CK) scheme (2/5)

z [m] w.r.t. IPHL-LHC w/o CK scheme: Plan A (solid) and Plan B(dotted)- 12.5 MV crabs in X-plane, round optics (15/15 cm), sz =7.5 cm (Plan A)- or bb wire, flat optics (50/10 cm), sz =10 cm (Plan B)HL-LHC+ with CK scheme and Gaussian bunch profile ..adding crab-cavities to Plan B in X and || planes (6 MV+7 MV)HL-LHC++ with CK scheme and rectangular bunch profile ... adding a new 800 MHz RF system (still keeping sz =10 cm) A net gain by a factor 2 at each step.... at nearly constant integrated performance

(S. Fartoukh)@ECFA HL LHCExper. Workshop, Aix-les-Bains7October 201320Operation & IntensityLevelling cycle

Beam intensity limitation(s)To be assessed in next LHC runTDIS in LS2 (dont like too small emittance beams!)Heating of kickers (MKI): new high Tc ferrite and coating for e-clouds (prototype installed in LS2).Lucio [email protected] 9July2014

21Efficiency for LdtAll our assumptions are based on forecast for the operation cycle:

Lucio [email protected] 9July2014

50%High reliability and availbility are key goalsR. DeMaria, RLIUPIntegral luminosity: the final goal of HL_LHCM. Brugger Global Workshop ObjectivesUnderstand availability limitations due to radiation effects (SEE, TID, DD) as well as other effects onto accelerator equipment and quantify the required equipment performance to reach the luminosity goals Run 2, Run 3, HL-LHC.Identify what is required (tools, facilities, expertise) to quantify and mitigate radiation effects on equipment. Identify appropriate mitigation measures: radiation tolerant developments (tunnel electronics, PC), displacement of sensitive equipment (superconducting links etc.) and other aspects.Identify the long-term requirements for electronic systems.Address IR3-IR7 life time issues linked to radiation and equipment maintenance planning.Understand how development of electronics for radiation environment is addressed in the LHC experiments.Global Workshop ObjectivesUnderstand availability limitations due to radiation effects (SEE, TID, DD) as well as other effects onto accelerator equipment and quantify the required equipment performance to reach the luminosity goals Run 2, Run 3, HL-LHC.Identify what is required (tools, facilities, expertise) to quantify and mitigate radiation effects on equipment. Identify appropriate mitigation measures: radiation tolerant developments (tunnel electronics, PC), displacement of sensitive equipment (superconducting links etc.) and other aspects.Identify the long-term requirements for electronic systems.Address IR3-IR7 life time issues linked to radiation and equipment maintenance planning.Understand how development of electronics for radiation environment is addressed in the LHC experiments.Aiming for high availability

Radiation effectsSingle Event Errors (SEEs)LS1 focus on mitigationFrom MITIGATION to PREVENTIONCumulative (long-term) damage (TID, DD)so far not encountered at LHC (experience from injectors!)Equipment failures (focus on electronics components)experience, development needs, optionsComponents reaching the end of life with and without radiation

Workshop Goals25Concerns for what to do next, but also in view of 22 years of LHC: we need R&D NOW!What needs to be doneup to LS2/LS3 and for HL-LHCRadiation damage and intervention concerns in IR3/7Design/test choices and synergies to be exploitedRequirements to reach the HL-LHC targetAvailabilityExpertise & FacilitiesDevelopments & Qualification Needs

Workshop Goals26In view of the 4 Workshop Sessions

Session-1: Fundamentals of R2E and Availability Radiation Monitoring & Test Facilities: improve/operate

R2E Expertise (LHC, Injectors, Experiments): keep & develop

Availability: fault tracking, impact analysis:improve/adopt

Needs and Goals27In view of the 4 Workshop Sessions

Session-2: Concerned Equipment: up to LS2/LS3/HL-LHC Development needs and R2E requirements: R2E structure?

Maintenance and lifetime (with & w/o. rad.): What is known and what needs to be?

How to improve availability:What can and has to be done?

Needs and Goals28In view of the 4 Workshop Sessions

Session-3: IR3/7 Damage/Maintenance IssuesFailure risks due to radiation/environment: is there any show-stopper?

Needs: monitoring, handling, testing: what is ok and what needs to be improved?

Maintenance, life-time & mitigation: what is the equipment requirement/strategy?

Needs and Goals29In view of the 4 Workshop Sessions

Session-4: Long-term strategyMitigation/Prevention strategy & needs: are we on the right track?

SCL & rad-tol PC options/needs/roadmap: what is the (combined) best strategy?

Required developments & synergies: what are and can be common grounds?

Needs and Goals3031SC links removal of EPCs, DFBs from tunnel to surface (or new gallery?)Lucio [email protected] 9July2014

2150 kA

1 pair 700 m 50 kA LS24 pairs 300 m 150 kA (MS) LS3 4 pairs 300 m 150 kA (IR) LS3 tens of 6-18 kA CLs pairs in HTS

In particular: do we need to remove the Powering of the Arc magnets in IR1-IR5 ?Past Present Future33

Run 1:HL-LHC:HL-LHC:160 days 25 fb-1200 days 210 fb-1260 fb-1HL-LHC:200 days + 20% availability300 fb-1R2E LHC Long-Term

R2E SEE Failure Analysis~250 hDowntime2008-2011Analyze and mitigate all safety relevant cases and limit global impact2011-2012Focus on long downtimes and shieldingLS1 (2013/2014)Final relocation and shieldingLS1-LS2 (2015-2018)Tunnel equipment and power converters-> LS3-HL-LHCTunnel Equipment (Injectors + LHC) + RRs~400 hDowntimeLS1 LS2 Aiming for