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UNIVERSITI PUTRA MALAYSIA STRENGTH AND ... PUTRA MALAYSIA STRENGTH AND STIFFNESS OF JOINTS IN RATTAN FURNITURE WAN TARMEZE WAN ARIFFIN FK 1994 5 STRENGTH AND STIFFNESS OF JOINTS IN

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  • UNIVERSITI PUTRA MALAYSIA

    STRENGTH AND STIFFNESS OF JOINTS IN RATTAN FURNITURE

    WAN TARMEZE WAN ARIFFIN

    FK 1994 5

  • STRENGTH A N D STIFFNESS OF JOINTS

    IN RATTA N FURNITURE

    By

    WA N TARM EZE WAN A R I F F I N

    T h e s i s S u bm i t t e d i n F u l f i l me n t o f t h e Requ i r e m e n t s fo r t h e M a s t e r o f S c i e n c e i n t h e F a cul ty o f E n g i n e e r i n g.

    U n i v e r s i t i P e rt a n i a n M a l ay sia.

    De c embe r 1 9 9 4

  • T h i s t h e s i s i s d ed i c a t e d t o t h e a u t h o r's b e l o v e d w i fe;

    Kh a ms a t o n Say u t i

    a n d t h e i r e n e r g e t i c c h i l d r e n ;

    Wa n Wa t a r i

    Wa n Ama n i n a

  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    PRAISES and THANKS be long ONLY to ALLAH S. W. T fo r g i v i ng me the

    time to wo rk with the fol l o wing wo nde rful peopl e and frie nds th rough -out

    the cou rse of th is study . I n ch ronol og ical orde r of a ppeara nce . they a re :

    The management o f FRI M who o ffe red me the o pportun i ty to unde rta ke

    th is study ; The Supe rv isory Committee - I r. Dr. Shahnor Bas ri (Cha irman ) ,

    D r. Shamsudd in Sul a iman a nd P ro f. Madya Bah a nu rd in Hitam whose c ritics

    have stre ngthened my thes is ; Azmi Ahmad , a o ne time Resea rch Ass ista nt in

    UPM ( no w, an executive in EON ) whose 'can do' attitude has ins pired me ; Ab

    J a l il Muhammad who hel ped me in pu rchas ing the rattan pol es ; Wa n Abdul

    Nas i r Ha ra ni ( TUNAS BAKT I Sg . Bes i) and Jama ri Hj Shahl an ( Koo p. KIJANG

    E MAS B kt . Lanj an ) who a l l o wed their staff to bind the rattan,j o ints ; The

    staff o f Metal Worksho p ( FRIM) , espec ia lly Tuan Hj Oma r Osman who

    fab ricated the j igs ; The staff o f Timbe r Tech nol ogy Lab ( FR I M) who hel ped

    me with the testing - Tua n Hj Oma r Kha idzir ( the boss ) , Ms Azian M. Kasby ,

    Roszal l i Mohd , Othma n Desa a nd Ms . Chong ; The Furnitu re Testing Lab ( FR I M)

    pe rsonne 1 s who a l l o wed me to use thei r soph i sti cated fac il iti es - Arshad

    S a ru ( the Penghulu). Abdul Hamid Sal eh ( who a l so pe rfected the tech nica l

    d ra wing s ) and Za wa wi Kas s im; Za ini Uj a ng ( my e ffic ient Resea rch Ass ista nt )

    who hel ped me a l ot ; Arshad Oma r ( the compute r wiz a rd ) who sha rpened my

    s kill in computer g ra ph ic s ; All my frie nds who gave a ns wers a nd c ritics

    when I needed cl arifications and j ustifications - to name some , a n ice o l d

    iii

  • man Mr Chu Vu e Pun ( th e Mal ays i an ti mber j o i nts exp ert) , Tuan Hj Shu kar i

    Mi don ( an exp er i enc ed mechan i cal eng i n eer ) , Hash i m W. Sams i ( on th e

    stati stical anal ys es ) , Kamarul zaman Nor din ( for havi ng a s imi l ar research

    i nterest) , Raz a k Wah ab, Hamdan Husai n and Moh d Tami z i Mustafa (on var ious

    aspects of rattan furni tur e des ign and manu facturi ng ) ; F inal l y , a l l who

    hav e hel p ed di rectl y and i ndi r ectl y . ALHAMDULILLAH.

    iv

  • AC KOW LE DG E ME N T S LI S T O F TA B LE S LI S T O F F I G U R E S LI S T O F P LAT E S

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Page

    i i i v i i i

    x x i v

    LI S T O F A B B R E V I AT I O N S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . x v A B S T RA C T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . x v i i A B S T R A K . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . x i x

    CHA P T E R

    I

    I I

    I I I

    I N T R O D U C T I O N

    LI T E RATU R E R E V I EW R a t t a n

    A n a t om i c a l Fe a t u r e s a n d

    1

    8 9

    P h y s i c a l P ro pe rt i e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 S t r e n g t h Pro pe r t i e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 R a t t a n F u r n i t u r e J o i n t s . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 6

    Wood J o i n t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 P a s t S t u d i e s o n Wood J o i n t s . . . . . . . . 1 9 W i t h d r awa l Re s i s t a n c e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 0 La t e r a l S t r e n g t h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1 B e n d i n g S t r e n g t h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 F a c t o r s I n f l u e n c i n g t h e S t r e n g t h a n d S t i f fn e s s o f J o i n t s . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 5 Re l a t i o n s h i ps between t h e S t r e n g t h P r o pe r t i e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 6

    MAT E R I A LS A N D MET H O D S 2 9 P r e pa r a t i o n o f T e s t ( J o i n t ) S pe c i m e n 30 S e l e c t i o n fo r F a s t e n e r s f o r J o i n t S pe c i m e n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 C o n s t r u c t i on o f J o i n t S pe c i m e n . . . . . . . . . . 3 4 De s i g n a n d F a b r i c a t i o n o f T e s t J i g s 38 S t r e n g t h a n d S t i f fn e s s T e s t s . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2 S p e c i f i c G r a v i t y Me a s u r e m e n t . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3 S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4

    v

  • I V

    v

    V I

    V I I

    V I I I

    W I TH D RAWA L RES I S TA N C E Obj e c t i v es o f t h e S t u dy

    P a ge

    4 6 47

    S e l e c t i o n of J o i n t S p e c i me n s . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 7 P r e p a r a t i on o f J o i n t S p e c i me n s fo r T e s t i n g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 8 W i t h d r a w a l Te s t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 9 S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s e s Res u l t s a n d Di s c u s s i o n

    LAT E RA L A N D S I DE LAT E RA L S TR E N GTH

    5 1 5 2

    6 2 O bj e c t i v e s o f t h e S t u dy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3 Sel e c t i o n o f J o i n t S p e c i me n s . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 5 P r e p a r a t i o n o f J o i n t S p e c i m e n s f o r T e s t i n g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 6 L a t e r a l a n d S i d e L a t e r a l T e s t s . . . . . . . . . . 6 6 S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s e s Re s u l t s a n d Di s c u s s i o n

    B E N D I N G A N D S I D E B E N D I N G S T R E N GTH O b j e c t i v e s o f t h e S t udy

    69 7 1

    8 3 8 4

    S e 1 e c t i o n o f J o i n t S p e c i me n s . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 7 P r e p a r a t i o n o f J o i n t S p e c i me n s f o r Te s t i n g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 7 B e n d i n g a n d S i d e B e n d i n g T e s t s . . . . . . . . . . 88 S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Re s u l t s and Di s c u s s i on 93

    T H E E F F EC T S OF RATTAN S P E C I F I C G RAV I TY ON TH E S T R E N G TH A N D STI F F N E S S O F RATTA N J O I N T S 1 04 O b j e c t i v e s o f t h e S t udy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 6 M a t e r i a l s a n d Met h o d s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 6 Res u l t s a n d D i s c u s s i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 7

    TH E O R E TI C A L M O D E L S F O R ROTATI O N A L S T I F F N E S S E S O F RATTAN F U RN I TU R E J O I N TS 1 1 7 O b j e c t i v e s o f t h e S t udy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 8 B e n d i n g Rot a t i on a l S t i f fn e s s Mod e l . . . . . . 1 2 0

    Fo r c e An a l y s i s a n d M od e l D e r i v a t i o n 1 2 0 Mod e l V e r i f i c a t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 3

    S i d e B e n d i n g Rot a t i on a l S t i f fn e s s Mod e l 1 2 6 F o r c e An a l y s i s a n d Mod e l D e r i v a t i o n 1 2 7 F a s t e n e r B e n d i n g T e s t a n d M od e l V e r i f i c a t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3 6

    VI

  • P age

    I X SUMMARY , OV ERA L L C ON C LU S I ON S A N D R E C OMMEN D AT I ON S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 S umma ry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 4 2 Ov e r a l l C o n c l u s i o n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 4 3 Rec ommend a t i o n 1 44

    R E F E R E N C E S 1 4 6

    A P P E N D I C E S 1 5 4

    V ITA 1 6 7

    vii

  • LIST OF TABLES

    Table

    1 Some Av e r a g e S t r e n g t h V a l u e s o f Ca7amus man ,

    Page

    Te s t ed at G r e e n a n d A i r - D ry Con d i t i o n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3

    2 Some A v e r a g e S t r e n g t h V a l u e s o f H a rdwood a t 1 2 P e r c e n t Mo i s t u r e C o n t e n t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 4

    3 S e l e c t i on o f J o i n t S p e c i men f o r W i t h d r a w a l Te s t 4 8

    4 A v e r a g e S t r e n g t h a n d S t i f fn e s s V a l u e s o f R a t t a n J o i n t s Te s t e d i n W i t h d r a w a l Lo a d i n g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 6

    5 S umma ry o f An a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o n S a m p l e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a n d W i t h d r awa l Re s i s t a n c e between G ro u p s

    6 S e 1 e c t i o n o f J o i n t S p e c ; m e n f o r L a t e r a 1 (U

    5 8

    a n d S i d e L a t e r a l ( S L ) Te s t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 5

    7 A v e r a g