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Unit XVII: Reproduction Creating more organisms. A. Asexual Reproduction 1. ________ and _____________ 2. Forms of Asexual Reproduction a) _____________________

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Text of Unit XVII: Reproduction Creating more organisms. A. Asexual Reproduction 1. ________ and...

  • Unit XVII: ReproductionCreating more organisms

  • A. Asexual Reproduction 1. ________ and _____________2. Forms of Asexual Reproduction a) _____________________ - basically another name for mitosis - used by many ___________ __________

  • b) ________________ - _________________________ - yeast and hydra

    c) _________________ - making spores like a seed but _________________ to the parent - ________________________

  • d) _______________________ - ability of an organism to ________ lost body parts - ability decreases as the organisms become more complex

  • e) ______________________ - asexual reproduction in plants 1) _______ 2) _______ 3) _______ 4) _______ 5) _______ 6) _______

  • f) __________ - exact genetic copyADVANTAGES FOR ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION?

  • B. Sexual Reproduction 1. Advantages for Sexual Reproduction - _________ allows for adaptation to new environments - _________ - _________________

    2. ______ and ___________ - _______ ________ __________________

    3. _______________ - _______________________ - ______________ - formation __________

  • 4. Development - Development is the process by which the zygote becomes the organism - ________ _______ _____________________ a) Embryo Development 1) ________ Mitotic cell division to make more cells - cells dont grow between divisions - forms morula = solid ball of cells - cells migrate to form a hollow ball of cells = ______________

  • 2) ____________ cells grow between divisions - cells on one side move in and form different cell layers - Cell layers = germ layers become different parts of the organism_____________________________________________________________________________________________ - cells constantly communicate with each other to help direct the process of development and differentiation

  • 5. Human Reproduction a) Male Reproductive System

    _______ male gonads; make _________ and ___________ 100,000s of sperm produced_______ sac that holds testes outside the body wall Sperm production and storage has to be at a __________ ___________ than the body

  • Epididymis storage area for sperm_____________ tube that carries sperm from the testes to the urethra Urethra tube through the penis in which sperm are ejaculatedSemen = mixture of sperm ad fluids

  • b) Female Reproductive System ____________ female gonads, produce estrogen and egg cells Produces 1 egg cell per month ____________ = release of the egg from the ovary

  • ____________________ tube leading from the ovary to the uterus the ____________________________________________________ thick muscular walled organ where implantation of the egg takes place the fertilized egg will grow and develop hereBirth Canal = Vagina site where sperm are deposited

  • c) Menstrual Cycle - hormone controlled process by which the egg develops and is released - the brain and ovary secrete 4 different hormones to control the cycle

  • 1) Follicle Stage pituitary secretes follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) causes the egg to develop in the ovary also cause the ovary to produce estrogen estrogen causes the uterine lining to thicken with tissue2) Ovulation high levels of estrogen causes the pituitary to stop secreting FSH and to begin secreting luteinizing hormone LH high levels of LH cause the ovary to release the egg (usually occurs in the middle of the cycle)3) Corpus Luteum the release of the egg from the ovary causes the ovary to secrete progesterone (pregnancy hormone) progesterone helps maintain the uterine lining4) Menstruation only if the egg is not fertilized secretions of LH and progesterone decrease and the uterine lining is shed from the body with the unfertilized egg

  • d) Human Development 1)________________________ sperm deposited in the vagina and swim up the uterus to the ________________________ One sperm fertilizes the egg_______________________Twins 2) _________________________ as the fertilized egg travels down the Fallopian tubes it goes through cleavage upon reaching the uterus the egg fastens itself to the uterine lining and begins pregnancyectopic pregnancy_________________________

  • 3) Differentiation Cell Specialization - GrowthA ________________ site where mother and fetus _________________________ ______ blood does not cross between mother and fetusB __________________ rope like tube that carries the nutrients and wastes to and from the fetusC _________________D _________________ surrounded by the chorion (membrane) helps protect the fetus and keep it stable

  • 4) Fetal Nourishment Substances in the mothers blood pass to the fetus_______________________________________________

    5) Birth ________ = length of pregnancy 40 weeks (9 mon.) labor = muscular contractions of the uterus premature birth cesarian section

    6) __________________________________

  • C. Sexual Reproduction in Plants A) Flower Structure Flower specialized leaf-like structures designed for pollination

    PERFECT FLOWER1) ____________ male reproductive part of the flower a) anther = top of stamen where pollen are produced b) ______ thick walled particles that contain monoploid nuclei (usually 2 nuclei) c) filament = stalk to project the anther

  • 2) ____________ female reproductive part of the flower a) Stigma sticky surface to catch and hold pollen grains b) Style - a fleshy tube that connects the stigma to the ovary c) _________ contains ovules; becomes the ____ d)_______ eggs; become the ________

  • B) ________________ - pollination is the process by which mature pollen grains attach to the stigma and burrow through the style to fertilize the ovule2) Fertilization Multiple pollen nuclei make their way to the ovules Pollen (n) + Ovule (n) = embryo (2n) seed Pollen + Ovule (2n) = endosperm (3n) Endosperm = food for the embryo1) Self Pollination vs. Cross Pollination

  • C) Seed Structure

    - Hypocotyl roots- Epicotyl stem & leaves- Cotyledons nutrients for the developing plant- Germination = seed hatching