Text of Unit III Audio, Lighting & The TV Studio. Audio & Sound Control Sound Pickup Principles...
Unit III Audio, Lighting & The TV Studio
Audio & Sound Control Sound Pickup Principles & Microphones
How does music make you feel?? I will play 3 songs, for each of those song I would like you write down an emotion you feel when you listen to it. What type of movie scene do you see in your head when you hear the music??? Discuss it with your partner. Song 1 1:40 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AoHSLwOmNS8 Song 2 - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vbFm1H9yUhg&list=PL9PNdK4Gvlqunr TaTUW4f7kf5SmPHtMI5&index=1 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vbFm1H9yUhg&list=PL9PNdK4Gvlqunr TaTUW4f7kf5SmPHtMI5&index=1 Song 3 3:25 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L6MPANgIYcg
History of Music in Film The majority of silent films were accompanied by anything from full orchestras to organists and pianists. Books of music were published to provide the accompanists with ideas for scene music, categorized by mood, event, or element. Many of the films came with a "suggestion list" of what music to play in which scene. Music continued to be a part of film and still today plays an influential part in the storytelling aspect of a film. Music can serve several purposes that are either important on the emotional side of the movie or help/enhance the storytelling. It is not only helpful but essential for any director/producer to keep the music in mind when planning/shooting the movie.
Learning Garage Band Songs http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8MfRHiVHXsU &list=PL919D238C5B8CC8CB http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8MfRHiVHXsU &list=PL919D238C5B8CC8CB
Learning Garage Band - Loops http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1xr_xJ9TM00
Garageband Now that we have watched the Garageband tutorials, you will have some time to become familiar with the program. If you need to watch them again, they are located on my teacher page under the Unit III Tab. For this activity please pick one of the following emotions: Suspense/fear Happy Sad Relaxed Excited Anger For the next 30 - 40 minutes, please try and create your own song. Use at least 5 different loops to make a 30 second track. Remember: songs in film are meant to evoke emotion or help with storytelling. For this activity have an emotion in mind BEFORE you begin to create your song.
Lesson 2 The Right Music For the Right Scene
Garage Band Project In pairs, you will choose one of the following scenes or trailers and create your own musical score to be the background music for the clip you selected. Remember what we said music in film is primarily used for: To make the audience feel a certain way and enhance the storytelling aspect of the film. Trailer: Nightmare on Elm Street Trailer: 300 Scene: Indiana Jones Stealing the Golden Head Scene: Motivational scene with the coach Remember the Titans Scene: ET Flying Scene: The Notebook Last Scene Scene: Back to the Future - Chase Scene: Rocky
Microphones Lesson 3
Audio Basics In audio the sounds the microphone hears are transduced (transformed) into electric energythe audio signal. This signal is made audible again through the loudspeaker. The basic sound pickup tool is the microphone, or mic (pronounced mike). Good audio requires that you know how to choose the right mic for a specific sound pickupnot an easy task when faced with the many choices available.
Types of Mics - Condenser Condenser microphones are generally used for critical sound pickup indoors, but they are also used in the field. They are especially prominent in music recording. They produce high quality sound.
Types of Mics - Dynamic The dynamic microphone is the most rugged. You can take it outside in all kinds of weather, and it can even withstand occasional rough handling. You can work with the mic close to extremely loud sounds without damaging it or distorting the sound too much.
Types of Microphones The zone within which a microphone can hear wellis specified by its pickup pattern. Its two-dimensional representation is called the polar pattern. The omnidirectional mic hears equally well from all directions. Visualize the omnidirectional mic at the center of a sphere. The sphere itself represents the pickup pattern. The unidirectional mic is designed to hear especially well from one directionthe front. Because the pickup pattern of a unidirectional mic is roughly heart-shaped, it is also called cardioid.
Polar Pick-up Patterns
Audio Cables All professional microphones and camcorders use three-conductor cables (called balanced cables) with three- conductor XLR connectors. They are relatively immune to outside interference from unwanted frequencies. With an XLR jack in a camcorder, you can use any professional audio cable to connect a high-quality microphone to the camera. Most consumer microphones and small camcorders use the smaller RCA phono plug or the mini plug for their (unbalanced) cables. You can, of course, also transport digital audio signals with a FireWire (IEEE 1394) or an HDMI cable over short distances.
Chapter 7 Please use the online book and complete the Chapter 7 quiz. Chapter 7 is all about audio pick-up. Knowing the different types of microphones will help you choose the best one if you would like to record your own song for your music video.
Lighting Studio & Field
Light No matter how the light is technically generated, you will work with two basic types: directional and diffused. Directional light has a precise beam that causes harsh shadows. The sun, a flashlight, and the headlights of a car all produce directional light. Diffused light causes a more general illumination. Its diffused beam spreads out quickly and illuminates a large area. Because diffused light seems to come from all directions (is omnidirectional), it has no clearly defined shadows; they seem soft and transparent. Light intensity, or how much light falls onto an object. Also called light level, light intensity is measured in American foot-candles. A foot-candle is simply a convenient measurement of illumination the amount of light that falls on an object. One foot-candle (fc) is 1 candlepower of light (called a lumen) that falls on a 1-square-foot area located 1 foot away from the light source.
Measuring Illumination Baselight refers to general illumination, or the overall light intensity. You determine baselight levels by pointing a light meter (which reads foot-candles or lux) from the illuminated object or scene toward the camera. If there is insufficient light even at the maximum aperture (lowest -stop number), you need to activate the gain circuits of the camera. Incident light (what enters the lens or what comes from a specific instrument) reflected light (bouncing off the lighted object). Contrast refers to the difference between the brightest and the darkest spots in a video image. This can also be adjusted on the camera itself or after the video is shot in editing.
Shadows Attached shadows seem affixed to the object and cannot be seen independent of it. Take your coffee cup and hold it next to a window or table lamp. The shadow opposite the light source (window or lamp) on the cup is the attached shadow. Unlike attached shadows, cast shadows can be seen independent of the object causing them The shadows of telephone poles, traffic signs, or trees cast onto the street or a nearby wall are all examples of cast shadows. Falloff indicates the degree of change from light to shadow. Specifically, it refers to the relative abruptnessthe speedwith which light areas turn into shadow areas, or the brightness contrast between the light and shadow sides of an object.
Color In a camera, the beam splitter divides the white light transmitted by the lens into the three primary light colorsred, green, and blue (RGB)and how we can produce all video colors by adding the red, green, and blue light in certain proportions. These are called additive primary colors because we mix them by adding one colored light beam on top of others. The standard by which we measure the relative reddishness or bluishness of white light is called color temperature. The color differences of white light are measured on the Kelvin (K) scale. The more bluish the white light looks, the higher the color temperature and the higher the K value; the more reddish it is, the lower its color temperature and therefore the lower the K value. white balance refers to adjusting the camera so that it reproduces a white object as white on the screen regardless of whether it is illuminated by a high- color-temperature source or a low-color-temperature source. When white-balancing, the camera adjusts the RGB signals electronically so that they mix into white.
Studio Lighting The workhorse of studio spotlights is the Fresnel (pronounced fra-nel). Its thin, steplike lens (developed by Augustin Jean Fresnel of France) directs the light into a distinct beam. Three Point (triangle) - Key light, fill light and back light Key (spotlight); fill (flood); back (spotlight) Three Point plus background light (background light will illuminate the area behind the