Unit 5 Intellectual Disabilities

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Unit 5 Intellectual Disabilities . Prepared by: Cicilia Evi GradDiplSc ., M. Psi. The Term . On 2007, American Association for Mental Retardation (AAMR) changed its name to American Association for Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Unit 5 Intellectual Disabilities

Unit 5 Intellectual Disabilities

Unit 5 Intellectual Disabilities Prepared by: Cicilia Evi GradDiplSc., M. Psi

1The Term On 2007, American Association for Mental Retardation (AAMR) changed its name to American Association for Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD)Negative connotations imbecile, moron, idiot, retardate due to social stigmaSimply changing a name does not change the systemic reason for bias 2IntroductionImpaired intellectual functioning, limited adapted behavior, need for supports, and initial occurrence before age 18They make very special effort to learn all the skills needed in adult lifePeople first Normalization (by Benjt Nirje, 1960) making available ordinary patterns of life and conditions of everyday living 3Introduction (2)Dignity of risk (Bob Perske) the principle that taking ordinary risks and chances is part of the human experience avoid being overprotective How society reacts can create obstacles or opportunities for those with intellectual disabilities

4Challenges Learning is difficult Normal task is overwhelming Mostly come from bias, prejudice and stigma from others Any kind of name-calling can be personally hurtful to the individuals We need to erase negative terms feebleminded, MR, handicapped or idiot 5Best Buddies Anthony Shriver 1989 at Georgetown University Foster one-on-one friendships structured around social activities relationships, friendships and opportunities for supports

6Definition Five assumptions on Intellectual Disabilities p. 269Intellectual disabilities is conceptualized in terms of adaptive behavior that they have and the intensity of supports needed to be able to function independently in the community (Luckasson et al, 1992, 2002; Polloway, 1997)Three major elements:Intellectual FunctioningAdaptive BehaviorSystems of supports 7Intellectual Functioning Significantly below average face challenges in cognitive performanceNot typical learners at least 2 SD below the mean need extra help to master skills needed in adult life Cutoff score is 70 category p. 270Story of AL

8Adaptive Behavior Performance in everyday life skills expected of adults (see figure 8.1, p. 270)Difficulties from lack of skills needed in different situations or dont know what skill is needed in particular situation Conceptual skills language, self-direction, reading and writing, money concepts Practical skills eating, dressing, toiletingSocial skills social conventions, how to terminate conversation

9Systems of Supports Networks of friends, family, members and coworkers, social services and government agencies that help them manage their daily life Life is a network of support Levels of intensity intermittent, limited, extensive, pervasiveVary for every person

10Characteristics: Cognition Impaired cognition make tasks difficult interfere communicative competence Degree of cog impairments define curriculum content academic, life skills or both (p. 272)Hard to learning new skills and generalized mastered skills to new situation Impaired STM and trouble with LTM esp when the events not identified as importantReduce ability in incidental learning through observation, without instruction 11Characteristics: Adaptive Behavior They are all facing difficulties in one area of adaptive skills areaIEP goals for them stress independenceBut goals should be thought of in terms of interdependence, at least two peers work together, providing each other with assistance and support

12Characteristics: Need of SupportsNatural supports from family, friend, neighbors, coworkers, peers at school Nonpaid supports community supportsGeneric supports available for everyone public transport and facilities by stateSpecialized supports disability-specific Support fluid concept provide them as much as needed, when it is necessary

13PrevalenceIdentified less than 1% of all students far less than expected number: 3% of students have their IQ score below the cut-off score why so?Social stigma professional reluctant to label Not all cognitive disabilities students are having intellectual disabilities as their primary problemStudents of color being overrepresented 14Causes 1/3 are unknown (The Arc, 2005)The ravages of poverty and its risk factors (limited health care, disrupted lives and fewer early intervention opportunities A connection between child abuse and neglect intellectual disabilities

15Causes (2)Based on onset:Prenatal genetic (PKU, fragile X, Down Syndrome), heredity, toxins (incld. tobacco, alcohol, drug), disease, neural tube defectsPerinatal birth injuries, O2 deprivation, head trauma, umbilical cord accidents, obstetrical traumaPostnatal due to the environment lead poisoning, child abuse and neglects, accidents Based on specific reasons genetic/heredity, toxins, child abuse/neglect

16Genetic Cause Fragile X Syndrome mutation of X chromosomes affecting 1 on 4,000 males and 1 in 8,000 females Down Syndrome the 21st chromosomes contains three chromosomes, not a pair Phenylketonuria (PKU) from buildup of toxins from food containing amino acids (like milk)Need controlled diet 17Toxins Prenatal and postnatal causes of intellectual disabilities Lead poisoning from gasoline, toys or paint of old houses Playing in contaminated dirt, breathing lead directly from a paint source, eating paint chips, or touching old paint and puttingtheir fingers to their mouth 18Toxins (2)Fetal Alcohol Spectrum congenital conditions due to alcohol consumption during pregnancyCause of learning problems, language impairments, difficulties generalizing learning across situations and also behavioral issues: hyperactivity, inattention, low self-esteem, aggression and impulsivity (Duquette et al., 2006) Average IQ score is 79 (Bennington & Thomson, 2006)


20Prevention By directly addressing the cause Vaccines, immunizationEducation, medical technology, access to health care Terminate the pregnancy (80% - 90% due to Down Syndrome), adopting Strategy p. 279

21Assessments IQ tests common, but with many controversy Early identification family, doctor, preschool teachersAssess adaptive abilities to evaluate the actual skills mastered with typical skills expected in a typical environment Alternate assessment portfolio for students who dont go for general classroom (story of Zero to Five homeschooling program)22Early Intervention Can reduce the severity even prevent them Essential for young children with disabilities and who are at-risk for developmental delay or school failureBenefits of high-quality inclusive preschool p. 283Read story of Geri A. Nicholas p. 273Key features of preschool settings p. 283 23Teaching Modification of instruction p. 286 Assignments or tests are reduced or altered Alternative assignments photo essay instead of writing report Self-determination ability to make decision, choosing preferences, and exercising self-advocacy needed for independent living Adult directed reward system More likely to graduate from HS, hold job and experience success in adult life p. 28724How to Help?Technology using internet can helpFunctional curriculum p. 288 Employment Vocational rehabilitationSupported rehabilitationJob coach p. 290Friendships married??? Independent Living

25Quality of LifeA persons satisfaction with life, which includes a sense of contentment that results in part from feelings of dignity, value, worth and respect (Wolfensberger, 2002)An assessment of QoL helps to determine how well the individuals needs and desires are being met and reflects outcomes: empowerment, self-determination, independence, social belonging, community presence and life satisfaction (Schalock, Gardner, & Bradley, 2007)26