Unit 4(1800-1870)The American Renaissance DefinitionUnrestrained growth in U.S.1803-1853: area of U.S. increases from 846,000 to 2,181,000.1800-1850: population of U.S. increases from 5 million to over 23 millionWestward expansion (Louisiana Purchase, The Gold Rush)Technological advancements (i.e. steel plow, telegraph, cotton gin)Transportation Improvements (canals, railroads)Democracy
RomanticismDuring the Industrial Revolution an intellectual and artistic hostility towards the new industrialization developed. This was known as the Romantic movement.Romanticism stressed, the self, emotion over logic, the imagination over reason, and subjectivity of approach, and nature, nature, nature!Romanticism refers to a set of loosely connected attitudes toward nature and humankind, and NOT to romantic love.The movement known as Romanticism sprang up in both Europe and America as a reaction to everything that had come before it: The rationalism of 18th-century Age of ReasonThe strict doctrines of Puritanism
Dark vs. light romanticismLIGHTHumans are basically good.OptimisticThe human soul is reflected in nature.
DARKHumans are basically cruel/corrupt.GothicSuspension of disbelief
GOTHIC: characterized by elements of fear, horror, death, and gloom, as well as romantic elements, such as nature, individuality, and very high emotion. These emotions can include fear and suspense.
G: rotesque Characters (Physical & Psychological)
O: ften violent
T: he setting is beak and/or isolated.
H: as a supernatural elementI: mpending doom
C: astles, cemeteries, mansions
Romanticism Authors & titlesWashington Irving: The Devil and Tom Walker
Nathaniel Hawthorne: The Minister's Black Veil
Edgar Allan Poe: Hop Frog / Annabelle Lee
The fireside poetsPopular poets of their timePreferred conventional forms over experimentation.Often used American legends and scenes of American life as their subject matter.William Cullen Bryant: Thanatopsis Thantos=death; Opsis=view Henry Wadsworth Longfellow: The Tide Rises, The Tide FallsJames Russell Lowell: The First Snowfall
Transcendentalism Emerson first expressed his philosophy in his essay Nature.Suggests that every individual is capable of discovering this higher truth through intuition; the human mind is the most important force in the universe.No to government, religion, education, structure, materialsAlways about self-discoveringThoreau was Emersons protgUniversal Spirit-Gods mindReject rules/laws of manExperience through nature
Transcendentalism authors & titlesRalph Waldo Emerson- Self-Reliance
Henry David Thoreau- Civil Disobedience
Jon Krakauer (Chris McCandless)- Into the Wild
Faustian archetypeThe Legend: German doctor who made a deal with the devil for eternal youth.Characteristics: Tragic HeroShadow-DevilTemptress-DealSign in bloodSell soulTrick/The devil usually wins
Examples of Faustian ArchetypeGhost RiderThe Devil Went Down to GeorgiaO Brother, Where art Thou?