Understanding Intelligence Psychologists define intelligence as the ability to understand and adapt to the environment using a combination of inherited

  • Published on
    27-Mar-2015

  • View
    214

  • Download
    1

Embed Size (px)

Transcript

<ul><li>Slide 1</li></ul><p>Understanding Intelligence Psychologists define intelligence as the ability to understand and adapt to the environment using a combination of inherited abilities and learned experiences. Problem with reification- viewing an abstract, immaterial concept s if it were a concrete thing. I believe the answer to the problem is... Slide 2 Francis Galton Started the Eugenics movement Galton (1883) wanted to breed superior people and create a master race. Slide 3 What is Intelligence? Factor Analysis Factor Analysis statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie ones total score used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie ones total score General Intelligence (g) General Intelligence (g) factor that Spearman and others believed underlies specific mental abilities factor that Spearman and others believed underlies specific mental abilities measured by every task on an intelligence test measured by every task on an intelligence test Slide 4 Charles Spearman was the spearhead in the development of intelligence theories with factor analysis and his g general intelligence theory. Charles Spearman was the spearhead in the development of intelligence theories with factor analysis and his g general intelligence theory. Slide 5 Theories of Intelligence Charles Spearmang factor Charles Spearmang factor Louis Thurstoneintelligence as a persons pattern of mental abilities Louis Thurstoneintelligence as a persons pattern of mental abilities ( 7 clusters: word fluency, verbal comprehension, spatial ( 7 clusters: word fluency, verbal comprehension, spatial ability, perceptual speed, numerical ability, inductive reasoning, memory) ability, perceptual speed, numerical ability, inductive reasoning, memory) Howard Gardnermultiple intelligences Howard Gardnermultiple intelligences Sternbergtriarchic theory Sternbergtriarchic theory Slide 6 Theories of Intelligence Charles Spearmang factor Charles Spearmang factor Louis Thurstoneintelligence as a persons pattern of mental abilities Louis Thurstoneintelligence as a persons pattern of mental abilities Howard Gardnermultiple intelligences Howard Gardnermultiple intelligences Sternbergtriarchic theory Sternbergtriarchic theory Cantor, Kihlstrom-social intelligence Cantor, Kihlstrom-social intelligence Slovey, Mayer, Goleman-emotional intelligence Slovey, Mayer, Goleman-emotional intelligence Slide 7 Are Gifted People Easily Identified? You have been asked to select a student, based on the three biographies below, to enroll in a new program for gifted students. Look over the three biographies and decide which student you would choose. Candidate 1Candidate 2Candidate 3 NameBill BrownAlvin LaneAllen Erickson AppearanceAveragePlainHomely I.Q. 180+11282 School BehaviorAloof, OrganizerWell-likedUnsociable, disturbed Physical HealthExcellentLarge for ageSickly Emotional HealthExcellentEasygoing, poor self-concept Had emotional breakdown Interests Chess, MathSports, reading, telling jokes Withdraws to fantasy world Career GoalsNone mentionedWork in a retail store None mentioned Personal GoalsNone mentionedBusinessmanIndependence from family TalentsPhotographic Good debaterPlays violin, likes to read memory, published alone. original math formula at age 10 Which student did you select and why? Slide 8 Gardners 8 Intelligences Linguistic Linguistic Logical-mathematical Logical-mathematical Musical Musical Spatial Spatial Bodily-kinesthetic Bodily-kinesthetic Intrapersonal (self) Intrapersonal (self) Interpersonal (other people) Interpersonal (other people) Naturalist Naturalist (p. 434 chart in text) (p. 434 chart in text) Slide 9 Howard Gardners Multiple Intelligences Slide 10 Robert Sternberg Creative intelligence ability to deal with novel situations by drawing on existing skills and knowledge Creative intelligence ability to deal with novel situations by drawing on existing skills and knowledge Analytic intelligence mental processes used in learning how to solve problems Analytic intelligence mental processes used in learning how to solve problems Practical intelligence ability to adapt to the environment (street smarts) Practical intelligence ability to adapt to the environment (street smarts) THINKING CAP THINKING CAP Slide 11 Are There Multiple Intelligences? Social Intelligence Social Intelligence the know-how involved in comprehending social situations and managing oneself successfully the know-how involved in comprehending social situations and managing oneself successfully Emotional Intelligence Emotional Intelligence ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions Slide 12 Daniel Golemans Theory of Emotional Intelligence The ability to feel, deal with, and recognize emotions makes up its own kind of intelligence. Emotional self-awareness: knowing what we are feeling and why Managing and harnessing emotions: knowing how to control and respond to feelings appropriately Empathy: knowing what another person is feeling Aspects of this theory include: Slide 13 Creativity Intelligence and creativity are somewhat, but not closely, related. People who are creative tend to excel in one area. One measure of creativity is the ability to break set, or think about something in an entirely new way to problem solve. Slide 14 Intelligence and Creativity Creativity Creativity the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas expertise expertise imaginative thinking skills imaginative thinking skills venturesome personality venturesome personality intrinsic motivation intrinsic motivation creative environment creative environment Slide 15 Origins of Intelligence Testing Stanford-Binet Stanford-Binet the widely used American revision of Binets original intelligence test the widely used American revision of Binets original intelligence test revised by Lewis Terman at Stanford University revised by Lewis Terman at Stanford University Slide 16 Origins of Intelligence Testing Intelligence Test Intelligence Test a method of assessing an individuals mental aptitudes and comparing them to those of others, using numerical scores a method of assessing an individuals mental aptitudes and comparing them to those of others, using numerical scores Slide 17 Alfred Binet (18571911) Intelligencecollection of higher- order mental abilities loosely related to one another Intelligencecollection of higher- order mental abilities loosely related to one another Intelligence is nurtured Intelligence is nurtured Binet-Simon Test developed in France, 1905 Binet-Simon Test developed in France, 1905 Origins of Intelligence Testing Slide 18 Mental Age Mental Age a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance child who does as well as the average 8-year-old is said to have a mental age of 8 child who does as well as the average 8-year-old is said to have a mental age of 8 Slide 19 The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test Constructed in the early 1900s by Alfred Binet Described four elements of intelligence Direction = the ability to work toward a goal Adaptability = making necessary adjustments to solve a problem Comprehension = understanding the basic problem Self-evaluation = knowing if the problem has been solved correctly Slide 20 Items Used in the Stanford-Binet Test Slide 21 Mental Age Chronological Age X 100 = I.Q. 7 7 X 100 = 100 8 7 X 100 = Calculating I.Q. What is the I.Q. of a 16-year-old girl with a mental age of 20? 114 Examples: Slide 22 Mental Age Chronological Age X 100 = I.Q. 7 7 X 100 = 100 8 7 X 100 = Calculating I.Q. What is the I.Q. of a 16-year-old girl with a mental age of 20? 114 20 16 = 12.5 X 100 = 125 Examples: Slide 23 Are There Multiple Intelligences? Savant Syndrome Savant Syndrome condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill computation computation drawing drawing Slide 24 Is Intelligence Neurologically Measurable? There is a positive correlation between intelligence and the brains neural processing speed. College students with unusually high levels of verbal intelligence are most likely to retrieve information from memory at an unusually rapid speed. There is a positive correlation between intelligence and the brains neural processing speed. College students with unusually high levels of verbal intelligence are most likely to retrieve information from memory at an unusually rapid speed. Slide 25 Brain Size and Complexity Francis Galton-- phrenology. There is a slight correlation between head size (relative to body size) and intelligence score. Francis Galton-- phrenology. There is a slight correlation between head size (relative to body size) and intelligence score. Slide 26 Brain Function and intelligence Highly intelligent people also tend to take in information more quickly and to show faster brain wave responses to simple stimuli such as a flashing of light. Continuous debate about the extent to which nature and nurture affect the brains structure and functioning. Highly intelligent people also tend to take in information more quickly and to show faster brain wave responses to simple stimuli such as a flashing of light. Continuous debate about the extent to which nature and nurture affect the brains structure and functioning. Slide 27 Processing Speed Earl Hunt found that verbal intelligence scores are predictable from the speed with which people retrieve information from memory. Earl Hunt found that verbal intelligence scores are predictable from the speed with which people retrieve information from memory. Slide 28 Perceptual Speed The correlation between intelligence score and the speed of taking in perceptual information tends to be about +.4 to +.5. Those who perceive quickly tend to score somewhat higher on intelligence tests, particularly tests based on perceptual rather than verbal problem solving. The correlation between intelligence score and the speed of taking in perceptual information tends to be about +.4 to +.5. Those who perceive quickly tend to score somewhat higher on intelligence tests, particularly tests based on perceptual rather than verbal problem solving. Slide 29 Neurological Speed Repeated studies have found that highly intelligent peoples brain waves register a simple stimulus more quickly and with greater complexity. Repeated studies have found that highly intelligent peoples brain waves register a simple stimulus more quickly and with greater complexity. (New testing being done) (New testing being done) Slide 30 Brain Function and Intelligence People who can perceive the stimulus very quickly tend to score somewhat higher on intelligence tests People who can perceive the stimulus very quickly tend to score somewhat higher on intelligence tests Stimulus Mask Question: Long side on left or right? Slide 31 Assessing Intelligence Aptitude Test Aptitude Test a test designed to predict a persons future performance a test designed to predict a persons future performance aptitude is the capacity to learn aptitude is the capacity to learn Achievement Test Achievement Test a test designed to assess what a person has learned a test designed to assess what a person has learned Slide 32 Assessing Intelligence Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) most widely used intelligence test most widely used intelligence test subtests subtests verbal verbal performance (nonverbal) performance (nonverbal) Slide 33 Modern Intelligence Tests The Wechsler tests The Wechsler tests used more widely now than Stanford- Binet used more widely now than Stanford- Binet modeled after Binets, also made adult test modeled after Binets, also made adult test WISC-III for childrenWISC-III for children WAIS-III for adultsWAIS-III for adults Slide 34 The Wechsler Intelligence Test David Wechsler (WEX-ler) devised a different intelligence test to measure real world intelligence. The first part of the test included verbal items like the Binet test. The second part was a nonverbal I.Q. test called a performance scale. Slide 35 Assessing Intelligence: Sample Items from the WAIS From Thorndike and Hagen, 1977 VERBAL General Information Similarities Arithmetic Reasoning Vocabulary Comprehension Digit Span PERFORMANCE Picture Completion Picture Arrangement Block Design Object Assembly Digit-Symbol Substitution Slide 36 Assessing Intelligence Standardization Standardization defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested standardization group defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested standardization group Normal Curve Normal Curve the symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes the symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes Slide 37 The Normal Curve Slide 38 Getting Smarter? Flynn Effect Slide 39 Assessing Intelligence Reliability Reliability the extent to which a test yields consistent results the extent to which a test yields consistent results assessed by consistency of scores on: assessed by consistency of scores on: two halves of the test two halves of the test alternate forms of the test alternate forms of the test retesting retesting Validity Validity the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to Slide 40 Assessing Intelligence Content Validity Content Validity the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest driving test that samples driving tasks driving test that samples driving tasks Criterion Criterion behavior (such as college grades) that a test (such as the SAT) is designed to predict behavior (such as college grades) that a test (such as the SAT) is designed to predict the measure used in defining whether the test has predictive validity the measure used in defining whether the test has predictive validity Slide 41 Assessing Intelligence Predictive Validity Predictive Validity success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict success with wh...</p>

Recommended

View more >