Truth, Lies & Voting Systems ESTICT, Edinburgh, April 2010 Slide 2 Engaging Students Through In-Class Technology Engaging Students Through In-Class Technology (ESTICT) is a UK network of education practitioners and learning technologists interested in promoting good practice with classroom technologies that can enhance face- to-face teaching. Slide 3 Lets Think About Voting Systems Slide 4 Little White Lies? Slide 5 Or The Real Truth? Slide 6 ... EVS encouraged active learning... but this was only apparent when questions were being posed during an EVS lecture... In the previous years final MCQ examination... there was no difference... for students attending EVS or traditional lectures and by this measure there is no learning advantage of the EVS over traditional lectures... Slide 7 ... Research studies show that the use of clickers results in measurable increases in student learning in some cases and inconclusive results in other cases. In every published report of student improvement with the use of clickers, the course included student collaboration of some form... Slide 8 ... Students perceive value in the use of clickers and would recommend their use in future classes. Contrary to expectations, learning outcomes of students using clickers did not improve more than the traditional active learning approach of using class discussion... Slide 9 ... Students in clicker sections (compared to traditional sections) did not report feeling significantly more engaged during class. We suggest that future researchers might combine clicker technology with other, established pedagogical techniques... Slide 10 Truth or Lies? Whats Going on Here? What Has Changed? Slide 11 Is Our Pedagogical Research Pseudo-Scientific? Slide 12 A Simple Truth Much, much, more meaningful classroom research, based on modern educational psychology, is needed to understand what is the good practice that can enhance face-to-face teaching through in-class technology (& voting systems in particular) Slide 13 Have the Students Changed? Slide 14 Slide 15 Slide 16 Slide 17 Slide 18 Slide 19 Slide 20 Another Simple Truth We teach todays students, not yesterdays Slide 21 Has the Technology, or Our Use of It, Changed? Slide 22 Slide 23 Slide 24 for the computer to bring about a revolution in higher education, its introduction must be accompanied by improvements in our understanding of teaching and learning Herbert Simon, Nobel Laureate, 1986 A Well Known Truth Slide 25 So... what about our understanding of teaching and learning as it relates to the technology of voting systems? Slide 26 Classroom Communication Systems (CCS) Personal Response Systems (PRS) Audience Response Systems (ARS) Electronic Voting Systems (EVS) Clickers (!) Slide 27 Slide 28 Slide 29 ClassTalk & PRS were developed as Classroom Communication Systems, NOT Voting Systems Slide 30 Another Truth?... both the challenges (why use slideshows & how is good teaching re-used?) imply we dont want a slideshow support like PowerPoint but a palette-like toolbox for creating activities on the spot)... Steve Draper, ESTICT, Leicester, 2009 Slide 31 Slide 32 ... at the ESTICT event yesterday, Steve Draper threw out some challenging comments, as expected. For me, the most interesting was not about electronic voting systems (EVS), but about PowerPoint. One of the main reasons Im not terribly interested in EVS is because most of the systems I have used are so tightly integrated with PowerPoint that inevitably they fall down because of the limitations of PowerPoint... Genetics News Blog 27 th November 2009 Slide 33 One of the main contributors to student boredom is the use of PowerPoint Slide 34 Slide 35 Slide 36 Space Shuttle Columbia Disaster February 1 st 2003 Slide 37 Slide 38 Slide 39 Slide 40 Slide 41 Slide 42 Slide 43 Slide 44 Slide 45 ... it is effective to speak to a diagram, because it presents information in a different form. But it is not effective to speak to the same words that are written, because it is putting too much load on the mind and decreases your ability to understand what is being presented... Slide 46 ... the addition of redundant information can have strong negative consequences... If one form of instruction is intelligible and adequate, providing the same information in a different form will impose an extraneous cognitive load...... Cognitive Load Theory has been designed to provide guidelines intended to assist in the presentation of information in a manner that encourages learner activities that optimize intellectual performance... Slide 47 Slide 48 Slide 49 Slide 50 Slide 51 Slide 52 Slide 53 Slide 54 Slide 55 Slide 56 Slide 57 Slide 58 Slide 59 Slide 60 So, if youre using EVS through PowerPoint, what needs to be changed? Slide 61 Slide 62 Slide 63 Slide 64 Slide 65 Slide 66 Slide 67 A Final Truth Slide 68 Dee Finks Slide 69 Learning How to Learn Becoming a better student Inquiring about a subject Self-directing learners Foundational Knowledge Understanding and remembering: Information Ideas Caring Developing new: Feelings Interests Values Human Dimension Learning about: Oneself Others Application Skills Thinking: Critical, creative and practical thinking Managing projects Integration Connecting: Ideas People Realms of life Slide 70 Slide 71 Slide 72 Whats the IMPACT during class? Sweller et al: A change to long term memory Fink: A significant learning experience Slide 73 So, how should a lesson be designed for EVS to help make that IMPACT ?