Tropane Alkaloids - suli- .White ppt Hyoscine ... • The total Alkaloids are hydrolysed to obtain

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  • Tropane Alkaloids

    Pharmcognosy II

  • Tropane alkaloids

    Many of these psychoactive alkaloids

  • Tropane Alkaloids

    They are ester alkaloids resulted from the coupling of organic acids with amino alcohol (Base). Derived from tropine and consist of mandelic, tropic or benzoic acid esters of tropine.

    The parent base is the Tropane base.

    Tropane Alkaloids are classified into: 1-

    Solanaceous Tropane Alkaloids.

    2- Erythroxylon (Coca) Alkaloids.

    H N

    1

    2

    3 4

    5 6

    7 NH

  • 1- Solanaceous Tropane Alkaloids

    Occurrence: Atropa, Datura, Hyoscyamus, Duboisia spp.

    Main Alkaloids are:

    1 Atropine.

    2 Hyoscyamine.

    3. Hyoscine (Scopolamine).

  • Atropine & Hyoscyamine

    Hyoscyamine is the major natural alkaloid with negative

    optical rotation (l- form).

    During extraction hyoscyamine racemizes to the optically

    inactive dl Atropine.

    Both alkaloids composed of tropine base and tropic acid.

    NCH3 O

    OH O

    O

    Me N

    O

    H CH2OH N

    O

    O

    CH2OH Me

    Atropine (-)-Hyoscyamine

    Tropine base

    Tropic Acid

    *

  • Atropine Atropine is a core medicine in the World Health Organization's

    "Essential Drugs List", which is a list of minimum medical needs

    for a basic health care system.

    Atropine is a racemic mixture of D-hyoscyamine and L-

    hyoscyamine.

    The most common atropine compound used in medicine is

    atropine sulfate .

    Atropine sulfate Injection, USP

    0.1 mg/mI (Adult)

    0.05 mg/mL (Pediatric)

  • Pharmacological Action of Atropine

    A mydriatic (causes dilatation of the eye pupil).

    An antispasmodic (relaxes the intestinal and

    bronchial smooth muscles).

    A preanesthetic medication to stop body

    secretions.

    A CNS stimulant.

    An antidote to organophosphorus insecticides.

  • Side Effects of Atropine

    Adverse reactions to atropine include:

    ventricular fibrillation.

    tachycardia.

    dizziness.

    nausea.

    blurred vision & dilated pupils

    loss of balance, & confusion.

  • N H3C

    O

    O

    HO N H3C

    O

    H CH2OH

    O

    (-)-Hyoscyamine

    Atropine

    (-)-Hyoscine

    Solanaceous Alkaloids

  • Natural Source of Atropine & Hyoscine

    Atropine & Hyoscine are tropane alkaloids

    extracted from deadly nightshade (Atropa

    belladonna), jimsonweed (Datura stramonium),

    Duboisia(Duboisia myobroides), henbane

    (hyoscyamus niger & hyoscyamus muticus) and

    other plants of the family Solanaceae.

  • Natural Sources of Atropine & Hyoscine

    Atropa belladonna

    ( Solanaceae)

    Hyoscyamus niger

    ( Solanaceae) Datura stramonium

  • Hyoscine (Scopolamine)

    Hyoscine is an ester of l-tropic acid with scopoline base.

    Hyoscine is a syrupy liquid.

    NCH3 O

    O OH

    O

    Scopoline base

    Tropic Acid

  • Hyoscine (Scopolamine)

    Hyoscine is an ester of l-tropic acid with scopoline base.

    Hyoscine is a syrupy liquid.

    Hyoscine

  • Plant material and solvent

    Extract

    Concentration

    Organic solvent dissove Impurities

    Acidification

    Alkalinization

    Acidified Extract (Alk. as salts)

    Alkaline aqueous layer

    Organic solvent dissove Alkaloids

  • Separation of the Alkaloidal mixtures:

    Alkaloids in the form of HCl salts

    1- Alkalinize by NaHCO3 pH 7.5

    2- Extract with Ether

    Ether

    Hyoscine free base

    (pKa = 6.2)

    Aqueous layer

    Atropine & Hyoscyamine HCl

    (pKa = 9.3)

    Convert to oxalate salts,

    Fractional Crystallization

    (Acetone/ Ether)

    Atropine Oxalate

    Crystals Hyoscyamine Oxalate

    Solution

  • Atropine & Hyoscyamineine Oxalates

    Crystallization from

    Acetone/Ether

    Atropine Oxalate

    Crystals Hyoscyamine Oxalate

    Solution

  • Chemical tests:

    Vitali-Morins test: Solid alkaloid + fuming HNO3 Evaporate to dryness, dissolve residue in acetone, add methanolic solution of KOH Violet colour.

    P-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde:

    Alkaloid + reagent in porcelain dish and heat on boiling water path

    Intense Red Colour Cherry Red after cooling.

    Gerrards test:

    Alkaloid + 2% HgCl2 in 50% Ethanol

    Red colour Atropine

    Red after warming Hyoscyamine

    White ppt Hyoscine

  • Pharmacological actions and

    uses:

    The three Alkaloids are anticholinergic agents:

    Decrease saliva and GIT secretions so used preoperative.

    Decrease motility of smooth muscles so used as antispasmodics.

    Stimulate respiratory system.

    A mydriatic (causes dilatation of the eye pupil).

    An antidote to organophosphorus insecticides.

    Hyoscine has more central effect so it is sedative and hypnotic.

    Hyoscine is mainly used as antiemetic.

  • Synthetic and Semisynthetic Derivatives:

    Homatropine:

    Synthetic drug prepared by passing HCl gas in a mixture of tropine

    base and mandelic acid in the presence of water.

    Homatropine is less toxic than Atropine. It is hypnotic in small

    doses. Homatropine is used as Mydriatic with shorter effect than

    Atropine.

    NCH3 O

    OH O

  • Hyoscine butyl bromide:

    Quaternary Semisynthetic derivative of Hyscine.

    It is used as antispasmodic and antiemetic.

    O

    OH O

    O Bu NCH3 +

    Br-

  • 2- Erythroxylon (Coca) Alkaloids

    Occurrence: Coca leaves contain about 2% total alkaloids.

    Main Alkaloids

    are:

    1 Cocaine.

    2 Cinnamylcocaine.

    3. - truxilline.

    The base for Coca Alakloid is called

    Ecogonine

    N H3C OH

    C

    O

    OH

    Ecogonine

  • Erythroxylon cocca

  • Erythroxylon cocca

  • It is the major Alkaloid in Coca leaves.

    Cocaine is diester Alkaloid.

    Heating at 160 0C in conc. HCl leads to

    hydrolyses of cacaine to MeOH, Benzoic acid

    and Ecogonine base.

    NCH3 O

    O

    COOMe

    Benzoic acid

    Ecgonine base

    Cocaine

  • Production of Cocaine commercially:

    The total Alkaloids are hydrolysed to obtain the free

    base.

    The base is then Methylated with HCl in MeOH.

    The Methylated base is then esterified with Benzoly

    chloride.

    Cinnamylcocaine

    NCH3 O

    O

    COOMe

    Cinnamic acid

    Ecgonine base

  • Uses:

    Cocaine was used as local anesthetic.

    Cocaine has a CNS stimulant activity so

    is one of the widely abused drugs.

  • Datura stramonium - Solanaceae

    Definition: Stramonium Leaf consists of the dried leaves or dried leaves and flowering tops of Datura stramonium. The drug should contain at least 0.25% alkaloids calculated as hyoscyamine.

    Common names: Stramonium

    leaf, Thornapple, Jimson or Jamestown weed

  • Datura stramonium - Constituents

    Main (Tropane) Alkaloids

    * Hyoscyamine

    Hyoscine (2:1)

    Younger plants: hyoscine

    predominant alkaloid

    Also contains

    Atropine

    Larger stems contain little

    alkaloid, and drug should contain no more than 3% of stems with a diameter >5mm

  • Datura stramonium Allied Drugs &

    Adulterants

    ALLIED DRUGS

    Datura innoxia

    Datura metel (dried

    leaves are also curled

    and twisted like D.

    stramonium), but are

    browner in colour.

    Datura sanguinea

    ADULTERANTS

    Xanthium, Carthamus

    and

    Chenopodium leaves

    (easily distinguished from

    original herb)

  • Uses of Datura stramonium

    Atropine: Stimulant on CNS

    Depresses nerve endings on

    the secretory glands and smooth muscle

    Hyoscine: lacks CNS stimulant

    action of atropine

    Sedative motion sickness

    Atropine & Hyoscine: used in

    opthalmic practice to dilate the pupil of the eye.

  • Hyoscyamus niger - Solanaceae

    Definition: Hyoscyamus leaf consists of the dried leaves or dried leaves and flowering tops of Hyoscyamus niger. It should contain at least 0.05% alkaloids

    hyoscyamine.

  • Hyoscyamus niger - Constituents

    Tropane Alkaloids

    Mainly

    Hyoscyamine

    Hyoscine (main

    constituent)

  • Hyoscyamus niger - Uses

    Resembles belladonna

    and stramonium in

    action only weaker.

    Higher hyoscine content

    less likely to cause

    cerebral stimulation .

    Used to relieve spasm of

    the urinary tract

  • Atropa belladonna - Solanaceae

    Definition: Belladonna herb consists of the dried leaves and flowering tops of Atropa belladonna, containing at least 0.3% alkaloids (hyoscyamine).

    Should not contain >3% stem

    >5mm in diameter.

    USP also allows A. acuminata

    in the Belladonna Leaf monograph.

  • Atropa belladonna - Constituents

    Main (Tropane) alkaloid

    Hyoscyamine

    Also contains

    Scopoletin

    Calcium oxalate

  • Atropa belladonna - Uses

    Used as