Transportation- and Construction-Induced Vibration

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  • Contract No. 43A0049 Task Order No. 18

    Transportation- and Construction-Induced Vibration Guidance Manual

    California Department of Transportation

    Environmental Program Environmental Engineering

    Noise, Vibration, and Hazardous Waste Management Office

    Prepared for:

    California Department of Transportation Noise, Vibration, and Hazardous Waste Management Office

    1120 N Street, Room 4301 (MS27) Sacramento, CA 94274 Contact: Jim Andrews

    916/653-9554

    Prepared by:

    Jones & Stokes 2600 V Street

    Sacramento, CA 95818 Contact: David Buehler, P.E.

    916/737-3000

    June 2004

  • This document should be cited as: Jones & Stokes. 2004. Transportation- and construction-induced vibration guidance manual.

    June. (J&S 02-039.) Sacramento, CA. Prepared for California Department of Transportation, Noise, Vibration, and Hazardous Waste Management Office, Sacramento, CA.

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    CONTENTS

    Page

    CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND .............................................................1

    CHAPTER 2. BASIC PHYSICS OF GROUND VIBRATION......................................................4 A. Simple Vibratory Motion ................................................................................................4 B. Amplitude Descriptors ....................................................................................................5

    CHAPTER 3. VIBRATION SOURCES .........................................................................................7

    CHAPTER 4. VIBRATION PROPAGATION ...............................................................................9 A. Vibration Wave Types ....................................................................................................9 B. Vibration Propagation Models ........................................................................................9

    CHAPTER 5. VIBRATION RECEIVERS....................................................................................14

    CHAPTER 6. VIBRATION CRITERIA.......................................................................................15 A. People............................................................................................................................15 B. Structures.......................................................................................................................17 C. Equipment .....................................................................................................................19

    CHAPTER 7. VIBRATION PREDICTION AND SCREENING ASSESSMENT FOR CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT.....................................................................................21

    A. Pile Driving Equipment ................................................................................................21 Vibration Amplitudes Produced by Impact Pile Drivers .......................................22 Vibration Amplitudes Produced by Vibratory Pile Drivers...................................24 Vibration Amplitudes Produced by Hydraulic Breakers .......................................25

    B. Vibration Produced By Other Construction Equipment ...............................................26 C. Evaluating Potential Vibration Impacts ........................................................................27

    CHAPTER 8. METHODS FOR REDUCING VIBRATION........................................................30 A. Wave Barriers ...............................................................................................................30 B. Vibration Reduction for Impact Pile Drivers ................................................................30 C. Vibration Reduction for Hydraulic Breakers ................................................................32 D. Vibration Reduction Measures for Other Construction Equipment..............................33 E. Vibration Reduction for Vehicle Operations.................................................................33 F. Vibration Reduction for Train Operations.....................................................................33

    CHAPTER 9. GENERAL PROCEDURES FOR ADDRESSING VIBRATION ISSUES ..........35 A. Vibration Concerns about Existing Activities and Operations .....................................35 B. Vibration Concerns about Planned Activities and Operations......................................36

    Step 1. Identify Potential Problem Areas Surrounding the Project Site ................37 Step 2. Determine Conditions That Exist Before Construction Begins.................39 Step 3. Inform the Public about the Project and Potential Construction-Related Consequences .........................................................40 Step 4. Schedule Work to Reduce Adverse Effects...............................................40

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    Step 5. Design Construction Activities to Minimize Vibration.............................41 Step 6. Notify Nearby Residents and Property Owners That Vibration-Generating Activity Is Imminent...............................................41 Step 7. Monitor and Record Vibration Effects from Construction........................41 Step 8. Respond to and Investigate Complaints.....................................................41

    C. Vibration Study Reports................................................................................................42

    CHAPTER 10. VIBRATION MEASUREMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION........................44 A. Vibration Measurement Equipment ..............................................................................44

    CHAPTER 11. VIBRATION AND AIR OVERPRESSURE FROM BLASTING......................46 A. Introduction to Blasting ................................................................................................46

    Blasting Terminology ............................................................................................46 Blasting Process .....................................................................................................49

    B. Vibration and Air Overpressure Concerns That Arise from Blasting...........................50 C. Methods of Predicting Blast Vibration and Air Overpressures.....................................52

    Predicting Blast Vibration......................................................................................52 Predicting Air Overpressures from Blasting..........................................................54

    D. Criteria for Assessing Human Response to Blasting and Potential for Structural Damage .................................................................................................56

    Human Response ...................................................................................................56 Effect of Blast Vibration on Materials and Structures...........................................57 Government-Published Vibration Limits...............................................................59 Effects of Air Overpressure (Airblast)...................................................................61 Government-Published Air Overpressure Limits ..................................................61

    E. Procedures for Mitigating Blast Vibration and Air Overpressures from Construction Blasting.............................................................................................62

    Step 1. Identify Potential Problem Areas Surrounding the Project Site ................62 Step 2. Determine the Conditions That Exist Before Construction Begins...........63 Step 3. Inform the Public about the Project and Potential Blasting-Related Consequences.................................................................64 Step 4. Schedule the Work to Reduce Adverse Effects .........................................65 Step 5. Design the Blast to Minimize Vibration and Air Overpressure.................65 Step 6. Use the Blast Signals to Notify Nearby Residents That Blasting Is Imminent ................................................................................................68 Step 7. Monitor and Record the Vibration and Air Overpressure Effects of the Blast ...........................................................................................................68 Step 8. Respond to and Investigate Complaints.....................................................68

    F. Blasting Specifications ..................................................................................................69

    CHAPTER 12. REFERENCES AND ADDITIONAL READING...............................................70 APPENDIX A. TECHNICAL ADVISORY TAV-02-01-R9601 APPENDIX B. SAMPLE VIBRATION SCREENING PROCEDURE AND VIBRATION COMPLAINT FORM

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    APPENDIX C. SAMPLE VIBRATION SPECIFICATION APPENDIX D. SAMPLE BLASTING VIBRATION SPECIFICATIONS

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    TABLES AND FIGURES Table Page 1 Geometric Attenuation Coefficients...................................................................................... 10 2 Summary of Material-Damping Coefficients (Applies to Both P- and S-Waves) ................ 11 3 n Values Based on Soil Classes ......................................................................................... 12 4 Human Response to Steady Sta