Transforming learning using iPods and Web 2.0 toolsRomina Jamieson-ProctorUniversity of Southern Queensland, Fraser CoastKevin LarkinGriffith University, Gold Coast
The Digital Education Revolution (DER) aims to provide Australian students with a world-class education system that is underpinned by the effective use of ICT.
But...there are challenges as well as opportunities facing 21st Century learners e.g., limited understanding regarding how students use ICT for learning, as well as the relationships among ICT use, self-perceptions, approaches to learning, and student learning outcomes. Further, students spend more time out of school than at school each day, and the affordances and constraints of learning with mobile digital tools outside of school have not been determined.
Context5-year study aims to investigate, students use of small mobile digital devices for learning both at school and at home and to compare students and teachers perspectives about how best to use mobile devices to facilitate student learning.
Major focus is on student HOT and CREATIVITY currently a major black hole in the literature on the impact of ICT in education.
RQ: How do students use mobile digital devices to facilitate 21st century skills? [21st Century skills include critical thinking and problem solving, communication, collaboration, and creativity and innovation the 4Cs] Ref.#7
The 4Cs (critical thinking, communication, collaboration, creativity) Combine a focus on 21st century student outcomes with innovative support structures
based on the understanding that creativity is a process that can be observed only at the intersection where individuals, domains, and fields interact Ref.#2
Framework for 21st Century Learning
Conceptual Model: A Systems Perspective for Student Creativity
Classroom observation protocol developed from the Systems Perspective for Student Creativity
Creativity Model ComponentIndicative Observation pointsObservation commentsDomain/ ContentWhat subject area (domain) is the focus of the lesson?What have students been asked to do? What specifically is the task?Is the focus knowledge acquisition or HOT? (i.e., Bloom)How are they using the iPods/ICT to help them get the job done?Context Are the students mostly working individually or in small groups or as a whole class?What physical resources do they have besides iPods/ICT?What other helpers/adults if any are present?Are the students specifically told how or when to use their iPods/ICT resources?How is the students work to be assessed?IndividualIdentify 1-2 interesting students, describe how they are performing the required task. What are they doing, in particular, with the available ICT?What specific personal characteristics can you observe being used/happening? Is the class generally managing to complete the required task? Any problems? Why?
Person: Creativity Checklist Ref.#8
Process: the observation protocol constructed from the conceptual model for creativity
Product: Consensual Assessment of authentic/rich tasks Ref.#1How are the person, processes and products of creativity to be measured?
Five year longitudinal study Systems Perspective on Creativity framework as basis for creation of new measurement tools
Repeated measures, mixed-method design
MethodologyParticipants: convenience sample regional Qld P-12 independent school where iPods + WiFi access were provided to all Year 8 students (N=39) Data Collection: 2 form teachers completed CC (Oct10 & June11) [T1 & T2]; students observed approximately 8 times while working on Rich Tasks with iPods by member of research team
Data analysis: CC T1-T2 paired sample t-test; observations collated & analysed manually
Sample of Initial Observations
ComponentSample Observation / CommentsIndividual (Affords creative personal abilities and affects) Marking rubrics are explored at start of each new project by Teacher. Teacher and students focus on how to achieve highest standards. Students use divergent thinking to develop plan for product. Students use special talents e.g., music/art to assist with team product. Students all have to complete same task for assessment no variation for individual differences or abilities. Students follow instructions with limited divergent thinking required in most activities. Individual products required and no variability within products for different students. Subject specific content knowledge focus of lesson with limited focus on multiple intelligences and limited focus on processes. Students very social and enjoy working with peers but require direction on how to work effectively in groups/teams. Students are noisy with concentration difficult and limited reflection on project plan.Students enjoy using iPods and find them easy to use. Students use adjectives such as awesome, fun to describe using iPods. iPods are helpful and ability to research always available.Students comment that there are other ways to use digital tools than they are allowed. Students expressed a wish they were allowed to use iPods more and in ways that they want to. Students wished tasks were more open so they had choices. Product marking rubric developed by teacher with no consultation with students.
Sample of Initial Observations
ComponentSample Observation / CommentsDomain / Content(Affords information and skills)Students use iPods to complete English comprehension activities from a website. iPods used to make boring content like grammar, spelling and mathematics interesting. Students creating digital storybooks and illustrating own storybooks with pictures taken with iPods. Students creating movie to demonstrate how to light bunsen burner for other Year 8s. Students enjoy working with others but few opportunities provided as most tasks require individual products. For most parts of a lesson students sit at own desks working on individual tasks. Traditional processes still endorsed by teachers understand task, research topic, mindmap solution, build / create solution. Students using iPods to support traditional tasks e.g., writing, researching. Mostly linguistic and mathematical intelligence domains stressed with limited use of creative domains (art, music). In addition, subject area knowledge is the focus of lessons. Drill and skill games used on iPod for literacy and numeracy. Prescribed knowledge, comprehension and application the focus of lesson with no synthesis (creativity) and evaluation obvious in a series of 6 lessons in one specific unit. Choice of products completely described by teachers with little to no variability allowed. Students say parents are questioning their use of iPods at home instead of doing real schoolwork. Hard to understand what teacher wants or why iPods are needed.
Sample of Initial Observations
ComponentSample Observation / CommentsField / Context(Facilitates and assesses creative products and processes)Students working in groups using the iPods to help each other. Consequently the classroom is characterised by busy noise and classroom movement. Students instructed to delete apps if caught using an app that was not sanctioned in the lesson. Student says its still school wish I could use my iPod for music in class. Students mostly working individually. Students not permitted to work on assignments at home in case parents help. Working totally done at school with limited opportunity to complete at home.Alignment between iPod use and all sections of the product development is limited e.g., students dont plan, create and evaluate using iPods as the teachers favour traditional resources like paper and cardboard and paints. Teacher limits products that can be created and therefore processes that students use. Traditional content domains treated traditionally stories, writing, maths problems. Teacher commences lesson with iPod activity to hook students but then moves onto more traditional tools students lose interest and play with iPods. Teacher fully describes each activity and wont permit iPods to be touched until students map out plan on books. Prior knowledge is surveyed using Poll Everywhere on IWB and iPods to respond. Teacher indicates an inability/lack of time to search for appropriate and motivating apps very time consuming. Teacher expresses lack of knowledge about social networking tools that might be used in classroom. Organisational issues related to iPods being available and charged when required. Students without iPods could not complete set tasks.
Emerging ThemesControl who has it and how does it enhance/constrain creativity?
Transformation how does the use of iPods transform the individual, domain & field? What are the optimum conditions?
Motivation how do the iPods motivate students to be creative?
Attitude how do the iPods impact attitude to creativity?
Learning Processes do the iPods change the learning processes in a domain and/or field?
Creativity Checklist Results Year 1The data from October 2010 (T1) and June 2011 (T2) were compared using a paired samples t-test (N=31). A non-significant difference was found between the two data collection times. This indicates that the students personal creativity traits, as a cohort, did not change in a statistically significant way during the first year of iPod access.
June 2012 (T3) data is now available for comparison
Individual: students expressed frustration about use of iPods & tasks; explored creative use at home; teachers didnt witness students being creative because of tight reigns of control hence no difference T1-T2 with CCDomain: iPods used across curriculum for directed non-transformative tasks that were carefully scripted by teachers allowing little freedom of interpretation for studentsContext: use of iPods prescribed by teachers with limited knowledge, limiting students use for planning, synthesising & evaluating solutions
ConclusionAlthough the primary intent of this paper was to establish the theoretical underpinning of the study in relation to creativity, initial findings suggest that teacher professional development with respect to both the model for creativity used to underpin this study, as well as ways to transform the curriculum with iPods in order to afford students the opportunity to engage in a creative process and demonstrate their creative traits will be needed, if mobile digital technologies are to have an observable impact on student creativity.
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