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Training Training Principles and Principles and Methods Methods Components of Components of Fitness Fitness Strength Training Strength Training Flexibility and Flexibility and Stretching Stretching

Training Principles and Methods

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Training Principles and Methods. Components of Fitness Strength Training Flexibility and Stretching. What is Training?. In it simplest definition, training is the vehicle by which the human body is made more efficient – making the body better able to run, jump, lift, throw, kick, etc. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Page 1: Training Principles and Methods

Training Training Principles and Principles and


Components of FitnessComponents of Fitness

Strength TrainingStrength Training

Flexibility and Flexibility and StretchingStretching

Page 2: Training Principles and Methods

In it simplest definition, training is the vehicle by which the human body is made more efficient – making the body better able to run, jump, lift, throw, kick, etc.

What is Training?

Training needs vary greatly depending on both the objectives and the physical attributes of the individual.

preparing for competition improving appearance reducing fat or weight reduction

Page 3: Training Principles and Methods

A person can generally measure physical fitness by determining how much energy they have for doing what is enjoyable in life.

Physical Fitness Defined

The Center for Disease Control (Atlanta) defines fitness as "a set of attributes that people have or achieve that relates to their ability to perform physical activity.

The World Health Organization has defined fitness as "the ability to perform muscular work satisfactorily".

The Canadian College of Sports Medicine has proposed that "fitness is the ability to perform moderate to vigorous levels activity without undue fatigue".

Page 4: Training Principles and Methods

The Components of Fitness

The components of physical fitness fall into two groups:

Skill Related(determine athletic ability)

• Activities such as archery, bowling and table tennis develop mainly skill-related attributes.

• Activities such as soccer, team handball, basketball

and and hockey require high levels of both components.

Health Related(important for general health)

• Activities such as walking, running and stair climbing are almost entirely health-related.

Page 5: Training Principles and Methods

The Skill-Related Components of Fitness

The ability to change directions quickly

Reaction Time: The ability to respond quickly to a stimulus

Speed: The ability to cover a short distance quickly

AgilityAgility:: The ability to maintain the body in a state of equilibrium, with poise


The ability to combine different types of movement into specific patterns


The ability to release maximum muscular force at maximum speed


Page 6: Training Principles and Methods

The Health-RelatedComponents of Fitness

The ability of the heart, lung, and blood vessels to send oxygen to the body’s tissues during long periods of vigorous activity.

The ratio of body fat to lean tissue

Body Body CompositioCompositionnCardiovasculaCardiovascularrEnduranceEndurance

The ability to move a joint through a full and normal range of motion without discomfortFlexibilityFlexibility

The maximum amount of force that a muscle or group of muscles can exert in a single effort

Muscular Muscular StrengthStrength

The ability of the muscles to do difficult tasks over a period of time without causing fatigue

Muscular Muscular EnduranceEndurance

Page 7: Training Principles and Methods

Designing Training ProgramsThe components of fitness can

be developed by usingthe principles of

Specificity Progression


can be achieved through changes


Frequency Time

Intensity Type

Page 8: Training Principles and Methods

Specificity (Specific Adaptation To Imposed Demand - S.A.I.D)

In order develop a specific muscle or muscle group training must be specific to those outcomes.

• Muscle adaptations will occur if training is specific• Training must reflect an athlete’s situation needs

Training Principles

Example: if you need to improve your throw, smash or spike, your exercise prescription should include strength or explosive power exercises involving the arms.

Front Lifts

Page 9: Training Principles and Methods


To get stronger, the body must perform tasks that are more challenging than those to which it is accustomed (stress the muscle).

Training Principles

Over time the body will adapt to the overload and new demands will be


Page 10: Training Principles and Methods

Training Principles


In order to constantly improve, an athlete must progressively increase the overload over time

• The athlete must be aware that loads and demands on body must occur over time to increase performance and decrease injury• Start slowly and increase exercise graduallyRepetitions (Reps): The number of times the activity is repeated i.e.: 20 biceps curls

Sets: A group of repetitions performed together without rest i.e.: 3 sets of 20 reps

Page 11: Training Principles and Methods

Frequency (More often)

• the amount of time per week spent training• general guideline is 3-5 times/week• determination of frequency depends greatly on the athlete’s level of fitness, athletic aspirations,

Intensity (More difficult)

• how hard the individual must work• taken as a percentage of the individual’s maximal aerobic and anaerobic power• general guideline is 50%-100% of athlete’s maximal intensity

F.I.T.T. Principle

Page 12: Training Principles and Methods

F.I.T.T. Principle

Time (longer)

• amount of time spent in a single training session• general guideline is 3-6 times/week• depends on the athlete’s level of fitness, athletic aspirations, and type of training


• either aerobic or anaerobic training programs, or a combination of both• depends on the athlete’s level of fitness, athletic aspirations, and sport or activity for which he or she is training

Page 13: Training Principles and Methods

Every athlete has a different physical and psychological makeup • Pre-training fitness levels • Requirements within their sport • Age and gender• Ability to recover from workouts• Ability to recover from injury

Individual Differences

Page 14: Training Principles and Methods

Concentric Contractionoccurs when the muscle shortens while producing tension (i.e.: lifting a weight – climbing stairs – climbing rope)

Types of Muscle Contraction

Eccentric Contractionoccurs when the muscle lengthens while producing tension (i.e.: lowering a weight - bending forward)

Isometric Contractionperformed against resistance while the load remains constant

Isotonic Contractiona contraction performed against an immovable resistance – muscle tension is developed but there is no change in the length of the muscle or the angle of the joint

Isokinetic Contractionoccurs when a muscle contracts maximally at a constant speed over a full range or the joint movement. (The stronger the effort the stronger the resistance)

Page 15: Training Principles and Methods

Sensible Strength TrainingSensible Strength Training

• A common mistake that lifters make is completing a high number of exercises in a workout

• Adolescence should perform no more than 30-36 sets per workout. 12 exercises of 3 sets should be the absolute maximum

• 3 sets of 10 reps at 60% max is a good starting point• In the early stages train twice a week ( Monday + Thursday) • When the law of diminishing returns occurs, more frequent

workout will be needed • Never lift on back to back days (36 hours)• High intensity workouts should only used by advanced lifters

with at least 1-2 years of weight training experience

Page 16: Training Principles and Methods

Sensible Strength TrainingSensible Strength Training

Reps % of Max Objective Reps % of Max Objective

1 100 Maximum Strength



11 74

Strength and


2 95 12 73

3 91 13 72

4 88 14 70

5 85 15 69

6 80


16 68

7 79 17 66

8 77 18 64

9 76 19 62

10 75 20 60

The following chart highlights the relationship between the number

of reps, the percentage of max and training objective.

Page 17: Training Principles and Methods

Sensible Strength TrainingSensible Strength TrainingResearch shows that the number of sets should be inversely proportional to the number of reps performed

Reps Sets % of Maximum Rest Interval

2 - 3 6 -10 90 - 95 5-8 minutes

4 - 7 5 -10 80-89 3-6 minutes

8 -10 4 - 6 75-79 2-5 minutes

11 - 12 3 - 5 less than 75 1-3 minutes

Research shows that 3-10 sets are usually needed for optimal loading. However, the first weeks should include 1-2 sets with a gradual increase.

Page 18: Training Principles and Methods

A person’s training gains will reflect that person’s prior level of training.

• Beginners make larger gains in their fitness levels over a relatively short period of time

• When an athlete’s training experience accumulates they reach their performance plateau where performance levels off and improvements may be non-existent.

The Principle of Diminishing The Principle of Diminishing ReturnsReturns

Must change exercise prescription Ethical vs. unethical training methods

Page 19: Training Principles and Methods

The principle of reversibility occurs when the body undergoes training and then the training effect is removed. The muscles lose the benefits of training.

The Principle of ReversibilityThe Principle of Reversibility

Atrophy – when muscles undergo a period of inactivity they will lose strength and size

Detraining – occurs when someone who has undergone a significant amount of training and then reduces or removes the effects of training. Reasons include: injury, lack of motivation, overtraining, and burnout


Page 20: Training Principles and Methods

Improving FlexibilityImproving FlexibilityMost athletes follow a routine of stretching exercises to

increasemuscle flexibility. Flexibility is crucial for athletes

participating in sport that involves muscled that are put through a wide

range of motion.

Contrary to popular belief, stretching before a workout does not decrease the occurrence of injury. The warm-up, not stretching, performed before the activity is the important deterrent for injury.

Stretching offers more long term benefits by maintaining flexibility. Flexibility at the joint decreases the risk of injury

Page 21: Training Principles and Methods

Flexibility PhysiologyFlexibility PhysiologyMuscle spindles, located within muscle cells, protect the muscle from injury. They respond to changes in muscle or tendon tension by sensing how far and fast a muscle is being stretched and, when activated, produce a stretch reflex. This reflexive action causes the muscle to contract to prevent overstretching the joint. Also located within the muscle tendon is another sensor called the golgi tendon organ (GTO), which responds to changes in muscle length by sensing how much tension is being placed on the tendon. The GTO differs from the muscle spindle in that, when activated, it relaxes the antagonist muscle.

Page 22: Training Principles and Methods

A number of factors can affect flexibility:

• condition of joint ligaments (loose-tight)• body composition – fat may act as a “wedge” • girls are more flexible than boys• age – flexibility decreases with age• inactivity • scar tissue on skin/muscle may limit stretching at the joint

Factors That Limit FlexibilityFactors That Limit Flexibility

Page 23: Training Principles and Methods

Warm-up with a slow jog before stretching; Work flexibility gradually;Stretch until you feel tightness not pain;Hold stretch for 15-20 seconds;Repeat stretch at least three times;Perform daily for maximum benefit;

Guidelines to Improve FlexibilityGuidelines to Improve Flexibility

Page 24: Training Principles and Methods

Active Stretching

A range of motion generated by individual effort voluntary muscular contraction

Passive Stretching

• Range of motion is achieved with the help of an external force (partner, weight, rubber band) with no associated muscular contraction• Helps to achieve a wider range of motion

Stretching TerminologyStretching Terminology

Page 25: Training Principles and Methods

Stretching TechniquesStretching TechniquesThere are four basic stretch techniques


The oldest technique is the ballistic stretch which makes use of repetitive bouncing movements. It has been virtually abandoned by almost all experts in the field due to safety concerns.Static

The static technique involves actively stretching a muscle to the point of mild discomfort by holding it in a maximal stretch for an extended period. Recommendations for the optimal holding time are varied, ranging from 10 seconds to 60 seconds.

It is a very effective, relatively safe, and popular method of stretching.

Page 26: Training Principles and Methods


Dynamic stretching uses movements that mimic a specific sport or exercise in an exaggerated yet controlled manner.

Stretching TechniquesStretching Techniques

• involves slow gradual movement of the joint through its full range of motion

• involves using small intervals rather than one long pull

• first repetition over a relatively small range of motion gradually increasing the amplitude range reaching the maximum range after 10-20 movements

• process is repeated 3 – 5 times using body weight or an assisting partner

Page 27: Training Principles and Methods

Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation

PNF stretching is an effective stretching method for increasing range of motion. It is considered to be the most effective way to increase static flexibility and is a combination of static passive stretching and isometric stretching

PNF stretching is• excellent for targeting specific muscle groups• increasing flexibility• range of movement• improves muscular strength.

Stretching TechniquesStretching Techniques

Page 28: Training Principles and Methods

Hold – Relax

The athlete and partner assume the position for the stretch, and then the partner extends the body limb until the muscle is stretched and tension is felt. Position is held for 10 seconds.

Contract Relax

The athlete then contracts the stretched muscle for 5 - 6 seconds and the partner must resist all movement.

Hold Relax with Opposing muscle Contraction

The muscle group is relaxed, then immediately and cautiously pushed past its normal range of movement for about 30 seconds. Allow 30 seconds recovery before repeating the procedure 2 - 4 times.

PNF stretching combines muscle contraction and relaxation with passive and partner-assisted stretching in three phases:

PNF StretchingPNF Stretching