Thinking about Blended Learning. Diana Laurillard. The global demand for education. B y 2025, the global demand for higher education will double to ~200m per year , mostly from emerging economies (NAFSA 2010 ) 1,600,000 new teaching posts needed for universal primary education by 2015. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Thinking about Blended LearningDiana Laurillard
The global demand for education
By 2025, the global demand for higher education will double to ~200m per year, mostly from emerging economies (NAFSA 2010)
1,600,000 new teaching posts needed for universal primary education by 2015.
3,300,000 new teachers by 2030 (UNESCO 2013)
Student loan debt in US is higher than CC debt so students will demand new models of teaching and learning
Can we use technology to reduce the current staff:student ratios of higher education and maintain quality?NAFSA. (2010). The Changing Landscape of Global Higher Education. Washington DC: Association of International Educators, www.nafsa.org.Universities UK, (2012). Future for Higher Education. London: Universities UK www.universitiesuk.ac.uk.
2From blended to open learning? Internet and ICT in Flemish Higher Education:- the purpose of which is the development of a systemic vision on the optimal exploitation of ICT and internet for the new learning of the 21st century and to provide an alternative perspective aiming at formulating long term policy objectives.
The overall programme aim
10 Discussion items on Blended Learning1. How will blended learning change HE on campus (BA, MA)? 2. Blended learning and the teacher3. The evaluation, exams and assessment challenge4. Open and distance learning - Lifelong learning5. Blended learning and the institution6. Inter institutional networking (national, European and global)7. MOOCs8. Implications for interaction with secondary / primary education9. Role of government and official bodies 10. Potential for development cooperationBlended, Online and Open LearningBlendedBlends online and f2f for campus studentsOnlineOnline only, anywhereDual modeBlended + equivalent onlineOpenOnline with open entry (OU, MOOCs)Online learning offers opportunity of high fixed costs and low support costs to improve per-student costTeaching costs must be carefully managed and plannedLearning benefits must be designed and evaluatedTechnology use should start from problems, not solutionsHE problems and Technology solutionsProblems we know we haveTransition to HE is poor for many studentsDemand for quality HE cannot be met on the current modelEmployers dissatisfied with graduate skillsAcademics interested in research rather than teachingStudents have a digital life untapped by their HE courseAlumni need flexible continuing professional developmentAssessment does not motivate the learning neededStudents lack motivation and independence in learningPotential technology solutionsExtend access to HE ICT resources and activities to schoolsUse large-scale cascade online courses model to reach outUse online collaboration to enable employers to influence curriculumLink teaching to online research methodsUse online student collaboration for sharing digital learning ideasExtend access to HE ICT resources and activities to alumniUse tech to update assessment as automated and more challengingInclude digital tools for students to do inquiry, practice, discussion, collaboration, production
Problems we know we haveTransition to HE is poor for many studentsDemand for quality HE cannot be met on the current modelEmployers dissatisfied with graduate skillsAcademics interested in research rather than teachingStudents have a digital life untapped by their HE courseAlumni need flexible continuing professional developmentAssessment does not motivate the learning neededStudents lack motivation and independence in learningModels of online learning?Problem/IssueAudiencePedagogyContentIncomeTransition to HESchoolsInquiryCollaborativeRe-purposedFreeLarge classesUnder-graduatesAll, pyramid + personal supportNewFee + GovtHigh demandPart-time studentsAll, pyramid + personal supportNewFee + EmployerHigh level skillsPost-graduatesAll, high supportNewFee + GovtWorkplace updatesProfessionalsMOOC, peer supportMarket drivenFeeAlumni updatesAlumniMOOC, low supportResearch drivenFee/SubscriptionLifelong learningOpen to allMOOC, peer supportRe-purposedFreeThe MOOC as large-scale pedagogyAverage student numbers per course - Edinburgh55006000150002050051500Completed = 27% of startersMOOCs @ Edinburgh 2013 Report #127%The MOOC as large-scale pedagogyAverage student numbers per course - UoL959211377172752336753250MOOC Report 2013: University of London7730674722119%Completed = 9% of startersThe MOOC as undergraduate educationNot for undergraduates40%30%17%10%3%MOOCs @ Edinburgh 2013 Report #170% have degreesEnrolled studentsHaywood, J. (2013). MOOCs @ Edinburgh 2013 Report #1. Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh.10The MOOC as undergraduate educationNot for undergraduatesEnrolled students4%29%35%8%3%MOOC Report 2013: University of London68% have degrees8%11%Grainger, B. (2013). Massive Open Online Course (2013) Report. London: University of London International Programmes.11The MOOC as undergraduate educationMOOCs: Higher Educations Digital Moment? 2013: UUK85% have degrees
Grainger, B. (2013). Massive Open Online Course (2013) Report. London: University of London International Programmes.12
The economics of teaching and learning in HE
Preparation of curriculum and resourcesAdaptive systems: field trips, lab sessions, simulations, modelsExpositions: lectures, study guides, slides, podcasts, videosFormative assessment: feedback from peers, digital systemsReadings: books, papers, websites, pdfsCollaborations: projects, workshops, role play simulations, wikisPeer group discussion: seminars, discussion forumsFormative assessment: tutor feedback offline, feedback onlineTutored discussion: tutorials, small groups, discussion forumsSummative assessment: exams, essays, designs, performanceSupport for students learning Fixed costVariable cost13Conceal answers to questionAsk for user-constructed input Show multiple answers/commentsAsk student to improve answerConcealed MCQsThe (virtual) Keller PlanThe vicarious master classPyramid discussion groups Pedagogies for supporting large classesIntroduce contentSelf-paced practiceTutor-marked testStudent becomes tutor for creditUntil half class is tutoring the rest
Tutorial for 5 representative studentsQuestions and guidance represent all students needs
240 individual students produce response to open questionPairs compare and produce joint response60 groups of 4 compare and produce joint response and post as one of 10 responses...6 groups of 40 students vote on best responseTeacher receives 6 responses to comment onConcealed MCQs: Laurillard, D. (2002). Rethinking University Teaching: A Conversational Framework for the Effective Use of Learning Technologies (2nd ed.). London: RoutledgeFalmer.The Keller Plan: Keller, F. S. (1974). Ten years of personalized instruction. Teaching of Psychology, 1(1), 4-9. Pyramid Groups: Gibbs, G., & Jenkins, A. (1992). Teaching large classes in higher education: How to maintain quality with reduced resources. London: Routledge.
14What it takes to teach with technologyThe teaching workload is increasing in terms of Planning for how students will learn in the mix of the physical, digital and social learning spaces designed for themCurating and adapting existing content resourcesDesigning activities and resources for all types of active learning Personalised and adaptive teaching that improve traditional methodsProviding flexibility in blended learning optionsGuiding and nurturing large cohorts of studentsUsing learning technologies to improve scale AND outcomesBUT: Institutions and teachers do not typically plan for the teaching workload implied by these learning benefitsnor for the need to collaborate to innovate with technology15 The design cycle for teachingBuilding teaching community knowledgeMake links to existing content resources??Build on others tested designs The design cycle for scienceBuilding scientific knowledgeWhat is the teaching design equivalent of the journal paper? A tool for learning design: browsing
The Learning Designer: Adopt(interpreting Tudor portraits)Details of: learning context, topic, aims, outcomes, student numbers, durationDetails of the pedagogy: types of learning activity, group size, teacher presence, attached urls, duration, student guidanceAnalysis of the learning experience calculated dynamically
The Learning Designer: Adapt(experimental design for Psychology)Note the designed time is much greater than the allotted timeEvery section of the learning design can be edited, and new resources attachedAnalysis of the learning experience adapts to your editsShare to submit for review
The Learning Designer: Review(Business planning for engineers)Notes for additional commentsReviews and comments could be student evaluationsAdditional pane for Reviewer to add comments according to criteria Test of outcome? Alignment? Feedback? Technology?Reviewer Feedback Teaching as a design cycleBuilding learning technology knowledgeQuestion: What is the teaching design equivalent of the journal paper? Answer:A learning design that can be reviewed, adapted, improved, published, reusedBalancing the benefits and costsIts important to understand the link between the pedagogical benefits and teaching time costs of online learning especially for the large-scale
What are the new digital pedagogies that will address the 1:25 student guidance conundrum? How to shift variable cost support to fixed cost support?
Can we develop a viable business model that will make HE more effective and affordable for undergraduates?Analysing teacher workload(the Course Resource Appraisal Model CRAM)
Run No. of studentsRun 1 15Run 2 20Run 3 20Details of: credit hours, cohort size, income, teacher costs, types of learning and teaching, online and f2f, time for prep and for supportLearning experienceTeacher preparati