Text of Thermopylae: Myth, History, & Archaeology. Herodotus 484-c.425 B.C. Father of History but Son of...
Thermopylae: Myth, History, & Archaeology
Herodotus484-c.425 B.C.Father of History but Son of MythAccess to veterans of Persian wars
Plutarch46-127 A.D.Life of Lycurgus the Law-giverSpartan Institutions & Life
Xenophonc.430-c.354Mercenary in Persian civil warAnabasisWarriorsSpartan Institutions
The Persian Empire 490 B.C.
Persian EmpireIRANAfghanistanIraqPakistanTurkmenistanLevant Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel, PalestineAnatolia (Turkey)EgyptBulgaria
Origin of Persian Wars 500 B.C. Ionian RevoltGreek Colonies on Coast of Asia Minor rebel against Persian taxes & military service498 B.C. Athens sends help, burns Sardis495 B.C. Darius regains control of IoniaDarius (521-486 B.C.) plots revenge - invasion492 B.C. Persian General Mardonius campaigns in Thrace490 B.C. Persian Fleet sent to invade Greece
Battle of Marathon 490 B.C.Athenians led by Miltiades, former mercenary in Persian armyGreek losses 192Persian dead 6,400!
2nd Persian InvasionXerxes, son of Darius481 B.C. Greek League against Persia Sparta commands but Athens the true naval power 480 B.C. Battle at Thermopylae
XerxesReliefs at Persepolis
Leonidas at Thermopylae (David)
Battle of Thermopylae
Battle of Salamis480/479 B.C. Battle at SalamisGreeks lose c.40 shipsPersians lose c.200 ships, and Persians couldnt swim!Immortals slaughtered on Psyttaleia
Battle of Plataea479 B.C. Battle at Plataea Death of Mardonius, End of Persian Invasion)
Herodotus: only 43,000 of 250,000 Persians survived the battle, while the Greeks lost only 159 men!
The Hoplite PanoplyHelmetShieldBreastplate/CuirassGreavesSwordSpearTotal Weight 50-70 lbs
The ShieldConvex wooden discBronze overlayIndividual Decoration for non-Spartan hoplites
The CuirassFront and back pieces Linothorax
The HelmetCorinthian helmet late 6th - early 5th centuryBeards to prevent chafing?
The Chigi Vase 640-630 B.C.
Spartan SuperiorityUniformity of PanoplyDistinctive Spartan ShieldScarlet CloakRegular training together & bonding in syssitia
Spartans as Defenders of Freedom?Dorian InvasionNorthern Greek People displace or conquer Achaean Greeks in Laconia & then MesseniaSpartiates rule local residents, perioeci (merchants) & helots (agricultural serfs through fear and brutality inspired by the Krypteia (secret police)
EphialtesFrom TrachisSpartan EugenicsGreek CollusionNot deformedSpartan Bounty on his Head
Tactics: Phalanx or Monomachia?
Spartan SexualitySpartan hotties vs. Persian trannies?Athenian Boy-lovers?No home life until 30!The Mess-hall is cold at nightInstitutionalized (chaste?) pederastyHusband-doubling & Adultery
SpartanUmmmErrrThis slide IS important but I have forgotten why
Spartan Government5 Ephors elected from the Spartiate class for 1 year2 hereditary kings with equal authority (cp.2 Roman consuls)Gerousia (council of 28 elders over 65, elected for life, usually from royal households + the 2 kings)Damos citizen assembly
Archaeology of Persian WarsSchliemann excavations!Excavation of Burial Mound of PlataeansTomb of Spartans found near Thermopylae?Persian Chariot Wheels as Votives in Temple of Apollo and Artemis at Kalapodi