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Thermopylae: Myth, History, & Archaeology. Herodotus 484-c.425 B.C. Father of History but Son of Myth Access to veterans of Persian wars

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  • Thermopylae: Myth, History, & Archaeology

  • Herodotus484-c.425 B.C.Father of History but Son of MythAccess to veterans of Persian wars

  • Plutarch46-127 A.D.Life of Lycurgus the Law-giverSpartan Institutions & Life

  • Xenophonc.430-c.354Mercenary in Persian civil warAnabasisWarriorsSpartan Institutions

  • The Persian Empire 490 B.C.

  • Persian EmpireIRANAfghanistanIraqPakistanTurkmenistanLevant Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel, PalestineAnatolia (Turkey)EgyptBulgaria

  • Origin of Persian Wars 500 B.C. Ionian RevoltGreek Colonies on Coast of Asia Minor rebel against Persian taxes & military service498 B.C. Athens sends help, burns Sardis495 B.C. Darius regains control of IoniaDarius (521-486 B.C.) plots revenge - invasion492 B.C. Persian General Mardonius campaigns in Thrace490 B.C. Persian Fleet sent to invade Greece

  • Battle of Marathon 490 B.C.Athenians led by Miltiades, former mercenary in Persian armyGreek losses 192Persian dead 6,400!

  • 2nd Persian InvasionXerxes, son of Darius481 B.C. Greek League against Persia Sparta commands but Athens the true naval power 480 B.C. Battle at Thermopylae

  • XerxesReliefs at Persepolis

  • Leonidas at Thermopylae (David)

  • Battle of Thermopylae

  • Battle of Salamis480/479 B.C. Battle at SalamisGreeks lose c.40 shipsPersians lose c.200 ships, and Persians couldnt swim!Immortals slaughtered on Psyttaleia

  • Triremes

  • Battle of Plataea479 B.C. Battle at Plataea Death of Mardonius, End of Persian Invasion)

    Herodotus: only 43,000 of 250,000 Persians survived the battle, while the Greeks lost only 159 men!

  • The Hoplite PanoplyHelmetShieldBreastplate/CuirassGreavesSwordSpearTotal Weight 50-70 lbs

  • Full Panoply(1) Helmet(2) Cuirass(3) Armguard(4) Shield(5) Belt(6) Thigh Piece(7) Greave(8) Ankleguard(9) Footguard(10) Forearm Guard.

  • The ShieldConvex wooden discBronze overlayIndividual Decoration for non-Spartan hoplites

  • The CuirassFront and back pieces Linothorax

  • The HelmetCorinthian helmet late 6th - early 5th centuryBeards to prevent chafing?

  • The Chigi Vase 640-630 B.C.

  • Spartan SuperiorityUniformity of PanoplyDistinctive Spartan ShieldScarlet CloakRegular training together & bonding in syssitia

  • The Phalanx

  • Spartans as Defenders of Freedom?Dorian InvasionNorthern Greek People displace or conquer Achaean Greeks in Laconia & then MesseniaSpartiates rule local residents, perioeci (merchants) & helots (agricultural serfs through fear and brutality inspired by the Krypteia (secret police)

  • EphialtesFrom TrachisSpartan EugenicsGreek CollusionNot deformedSpartan Bounty on his Head

  • Tactics: Phalanx or Monomachia?

  • Spartan SexualitySpartan hotties vs. Persian trannies?Athenian Boy-lovers?No home life until 30!The Mess-hall is cold at nightInstitutionalized (chaste?) pederastyHusband-doubling & Adultery

  • SpartanUmmmErrrThis slide IS important but I have forgotten why

    Karneia9 day festival of Apollo

  • Spartan SocietyAgoge: 7-17Krypteia: 18-20Syssitia: 21-30HomoioiReserves:31-60

    Womens Rights?PropertySexEducationSports

  • Spartan Government5 Ephors elected from the Spartiate class for 1 year2 hereditary kings with equal authority (cp.2 Roman consuls)Gerousia (council of 28 elders over 65, elected for life, usually from royal households + the 2 kings)Damos citizen assembly

  • Archaeology of Persian WarsSchliemann excavations!Excavation of Burial Mound of PlataeansTomb of Spartans found near Thermopylae?Persian Chariot Wheels as Votives in Temple of Apollo and Artemis at Kalapodi