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Theories of International Relations Realism Realism Idealism Idealism Constructivism Constructivism

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Text of Theories of International Relations Realism Realism Idealism Idealism Constructivism Constructivism

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  • Theories of International Relations Realism Realism Idealism Idealism Constructivism Constructivism
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  • Realism I Power: the ability to influence others Power: the ability to influence others Irrelevance of morality and ethics and law Irrelevance of morality and ethics and law Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928) Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928) Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928) Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928) Irrelevance of domestic political systems Irrelevance of domestic political systems Why is power the only thing that matters? Why is power the only thing that matters? Human nature Human nature Anarchic world: no rules Anarchic world: no rules
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  • Realism II All nations are self-reliant All nations are self-reliant To preserve peace use Balance of Power To preserve peace use Balance of Power US vs. USSR in Cold War US vs. USSR in Cold War USChinaJapan in East Asia USChinaJapan in East Asia Unipolarity cannot last Unipolarity cannot last Nations will balance against US power Nations will balance against US power
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  • Englands Balancing Act England RussiaPrussia/Germany FranceAustria-Hungary
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  • The Cold War Balance of Power 1945-1990 IsraelSyria/Egypt EthiopiaSomalia TaiwanChina S. KoreaN. Korea S. Viet NamN. Viet Nam W. BerlinE. Berlin W. GermanyE. Germany Britain/France/JapanPoland/Czech USUSSR
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  • Unipolar World EUJapanRussiaChinaIndiaUS
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  • Power?
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  • US: Weak Neighbors, Big Oceans
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  • Germany Strong Neighbors, Easy Access
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  • Power?
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  • Power? Shanghai, China
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  • Power? Jaipur, India
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  • Power? Thailand Algeria South Korea Thailand Algeria South Korea
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  • Power?
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  • Idealism I Power is not the only thing that matters Power is not the only thing that matters States have common interests and common values States have common interests and common values Trade is the key common interest Trade is the key common interest
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  • Idealism II Global Marketplace Global Marketplace Interdependence Interdependence Desire for rules Desire for rules Desire for predictability and stability Desire for predictability and stability International system is based laws (Treaties) and institutions (UN, WTO) International system is based laws (Treaties) and institutions (UN, WTO) International law International law
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  • UN General Assembly, New York
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  • International Court of Justice, The Hague, Netherlands
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  • WTO, Geneva
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  • Constructivism I Nation-states are not all alike Nation-states are not all alike Political culture shapes foreign policy Political culture shapes foreign policy Form of government shapes foreign policy Form of government shapes foreign policy History shapes foreign policy History shapes foreign policy Domestic political trends and debates shape foreign policy Domestic political trends and debates shape foreign policy
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  • Constructivism II States have identity States have identity State identity influences the way states interact with each other State identity influences the way states interact with each other Examples: Examples: China sensitivity to any policies of other states that threaten its unity and sovereignty China sensitivity to any policies of other states that threaten its unity and sovereignty US desire to transform the world US desire to transform the world
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  • Russian fear of invasion
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  • China 21 st Century
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  • Qin Dynasty 221-206 BC
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  • China: Tang Dynasty 618-907
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  • China: Qing Dynasty 1644-1911
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  • China: Colonized
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  • US: Woodrow Wilson, 1917 The world must be made safe for democracy. Its peace must be planted upon the tested foundations of political liberty. We have no selfish ends to serve. We desire no conquest, no dominion. We seek no indemnities for ourselves, no material compensation for the sacrifices we shall freely make. We are but one of the champions of the rights of mankind. We shall be satisfied when those rights have been made as secure as the faith and the freedom of nations can make them. The world must be made safe for democracy. Its peace must be planted upon the tested foundations of political liberty. We have no selfish ends to serve. We desire no conquest, no dominion. We seek no indemnities for ourselves, no material compensation for the sacrifices we shall freely make. We are but one of the champions of the rights of mankind. We shall be satisfied when those rights have been made as secure as the faith and the freedom of nations can make them.
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  • US: GW Bush, 2005 And we have declared our own intention: America will stand with the allies of freedom to support democratic movements in the Middle East and beyond, with the ultimate goal of ending tyranny in our world. And we have declared our own intention: America will stand with the allies of freedom to support democratic movements in the Middle East and beyond, with the ultimate goal of ending tyranny in our world.