THE WORK PROGRAM OF COMPLEXITY John N. Warfield, Ph. D. Electrical Engineering, Purdue, 1952. 1

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THE WORK PROGRAM OF COMPLEXITY John N. Warfield, Ph. D. Electrical Engineering, Purdue, 1952. 1 Slide 2 THE ROAD LESS TRAVELED The Meaning of Complexity: Two Analogies Two Domains for the World of Engineering Scientific Legacies for the Domains: Calculus and Dynamics of Motion versus Logic & Behavior The Work Program of Complexity: Processes and Infrastructure Relevant Literature Epilog (optional) Thought Leaders on Behavioral Pathologies 2 Slide 3 WATER OXYGENHYDROGEN INCLUSION STRUCTURE #1 3 Slide 4 AIR OXYGENNITROGEN INCLUSION STRUCTURE #2 4 Slide 5 DOMAIN OF ENGINEERING DOMAIN OF NORMALITY DOMAIN OF COMPLEXITY INCLUSION STRUCTURE #3 5 Slide 6 MY PRIMARY ASSUMPTION The world of engineering can be partitioned into two domains: The Domain of Normality The Domain of Complexity Most engineering takes place in the Domain of Normality, but todays systems engineering has moved into the Domain of Complexity. 6 Slide 7 THE DOMAIN OF NORMALITY BENEFITS FROM MANY OF ITS COMPONENTS: 4 Centuries of Science and Mathematics 2 to 3 Centuries of Engineering Experience Great cooperation in engineering societies Standards, Literature, Methodology A globally-accepted language Highly-developed algorithms and processes 7 Slide 8 THE DOMAIN OF NORMALITY CAN BE ENTERED FROM THE DOMAIN OF COMPLEXITY, BUT NOT TOO SOON!!! THE WORK PROGRAM OF COMPLEXITY LIGHTS THE WAY TO THE DOMAIN OF NORMALITY, BY STRUCTURING A PROBLEMATIC SITUATION SO THAT IT CAN BE DEALT WITH IN FAMILIAR WAYS. 8 Slide 9 THE DOMAIN OF COMPLEXITY CAN BENEFIT GREATLY FROM TWO LEGACIES: 2,300 years of the study of formal logic One century of the study of human behavioral pathologies 9 Slide 10 BEFORE GENERAL SCIENTIFIC FINDINGS CAN BE WELL-USED, THEY MUST BE PARTICULARIZED TO THE SPECIFIC PROBLEMATIC SITUATION THAT IS ENCOUNTERED. THIS IS TRUE BOTH IN THE DOMAIN OF NORMALITY AND THE DOMAIN OF COMPLEXITY. 10 Slide 11 THE FINDINGS FROM THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES HAVE REPEATEDLY BEEN ADAPTED TO PARTICULAR ENGINEERING SITUATIONS. BUT THE FINDINGS ABOUT FORMAL LOGIC AND HUMAN BEHAVIORAL PATHOLOGIES ARE SELDOM ADAPTED TO PROBLEMATIC SITUATIONS IN THE DOMAIN OF COMPLEXITY. IT IS MY LIFETIME GOAL TO CHANGE THAT. 11 Slide 12 THE PROGRAM FOR THAT CHANGE IS WHAT I CALL THE WORK PROGRAM OF COMPLEXITY (WPOC). IT CONSISTS OF JUST TWO MAIN PARTS: DISCOVERY (of the underlying logic) RESOLUTION (of complexity) 12 Slide 13 DISCOVERY HAS TWO PARTS: DESCRIPTION DIAGNOSIS In carrying out these two parts, formal logic and behavioral pathologies are taken into account in preparing for a system design. 13 Slide 14 DESCRIPTION IS DONE IN A GROUP PROCESS. DIAGNOSIS IS DONE BY AN EXPERIENCED INDIVIDUAL PROFESSIONAL, WHO ITERATES WITH THE GROUP UNTIL THE DESCRIPTION IS FULLY UNDERSTOOD AND ACCEPTED. 14 Slide 15 RESOLUTION (of complexity) INVOLVES TWO PARTS ALSO: DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION (of the design) 15 Slide 16 DESIGN IS DONE IN A GROUP PROCESS. IMPLEMENTATION IS CARRIED OUT BY WHATEVER MEANS THE DESIGN SPECIFIES. 16 Slide 17 THE DESIGN GROUP IS WELL-INFORMED BY THE PRODUCTS OF DISCOVERY, including the Diagnosis Report. 17 Slide 18 IMPLEMENTATION MAY INVOLVE MANY PEOPLE WHO WERE NOT INVOLVED IN THE DISCOVERY AND DESIGN ACTIVITIES. INFRASTRUCTURE OF TWO TYPES IS NEEDED TO SUPPORT THE WPOC. ONE TYPE SUPPORTS THE GROUP WORK. THE OTHER SUPPORTS THE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM NEEDED TO GET SUITABLE IMPLEMENTATION. 18 Slide 19 DESIGNS OF THE TWO TYPES OF INFRA- STRUCTURE HAVE BEEN PUBLISHED AND TESTED. THE FIRST TYPE IS CALLED A SITUATION ROOM DESIGNED SPECIFICALLY TO SUPPORT THE WPOC. THE SECOND TYPE IS CALLED ACORPORATE OBSERVATORIUM. 19 Slide 20 THE SITUATION ROOM IS DESIGNED TO SUPPORT THE GROUP WORK. THE CORPORATE OBSERVATORIUM IS DESIGNED TO SERVE THE NEEDS OF EDUCATION OF IMPLEMENTERS WHO WERE NOT PART OF THE GROUP WORK. IMPLEMENTERS MAY INCLUDE HIGHER- LEVEL MANAGERS AS WELL AS TECHNICIANS, FOR EXAMPLE. 20 Slide 21 ALL OF THE FOREGOING MATERIAL HAS BEEN PUBLISHED IN SEVERAL BOOKS AND NUMEROUS TECHNICAL PAPERS. THE WPOC HAS BEEN TESTED AROUND THE WORLD IN DIVERSE SITUATIONS. THE PRIMARY ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS HAVE OCCURRED IN FORD MOTOR COMPANY AND IN THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE. 21 Slide 22 THE ALGORITHMS FOR STRUCTURING PROBLEMATIC SITUATIONS WERE PUBLISHED IN 1976 AS FOLLOWS: John N. Warfield, SOCIETAL SYSTEMS: PLANNING, POLICY, AND COMPLEXITY, Wiley Interscience (in the Harold Chestnut Systems Engineering Series). 22 Slide 23 THE SCIENCE OF GENERIC DESIGN (FOR USE WITH SOCIOTECHNICAL SYSTEMS) WAS PUBLISHED IN 1990, WITH THE SECOND EDITION IN 1994 AS FOLLOWS: John N. Warfield, A SCIENCE OF GENERIC DESIGN: MANAGING COMPLEXITY THROUGH SYSTEM DESIGN, Ames, IA: The Iowa State University Press 23 Slide 24 THE PROCESS FOR CARRYING OUT THE WORK PROGRAM OF COMPLEXITY WAS DESCRIBED IN 1994, AND MORE THAN A HUNDRED APPLICATIONS TABULATED IN JOHN N. WARFIELD AND A. ROXANA CARDENAS, A HANDBOOK OF INTERACTIVE MANAGEMENT, AMES, IA: THE IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY PRESS. 24 Slide 25 THE OVERVIEW OF THE SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR ALL OF THIS WORK WAS PUBLISHED IN 2,002, INCLUDING DETAILS OF A VARIETY OF APPLICATIONS IN John N. Warfield, UNDERSTANDING COMPLEXITY: THOUGHT & BEHAVIOR Palm Harbor, FL: AJAR Publishing Co. 25 Slide 26 THE ESSENTIAL MATHEMATICS, FIRST PUBLISHED IN 1976, HAVE BEEN OR SOON WILL BE REPUBLISHED IN 2003 in John N. Warfield, THE MATHEMATICS OF STRUCTURE, Palm Harbor, FL: AJAR Publishing Company. 26 Slide 27 THE SOFTWARE PACKAGE THAT SUPPORTS THIS WORK IS A 1997 WINDOWS VERSION, WHICH HAS A HIGH-QUALITY USER GUIDE WRITTEN BY PROFESSOR BEN BROOME OF THE HUGH DOWNS SCHOOLOF HUMAN COMMUNICATION AT THE ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY, TEMPE. THIS VERSION WAS PLACED IN SERVICE IN 1997 BY FORD MOTOR COMPANY AND BY THE DEFENSE SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT COLLEGE. 27 Slide 28 AN INTEGRATED PRESENTATION OF THE FOREGOING IN TERMS OF THE SCIENCE BASE IS OFFERED IN THE PAPER PUBLISHED IN 2003 IN SYSTEMS RESEARCH AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE (A Wiley Journal): John N. Warfield, A PROPOSAL FOR SYSTEMS SCIENCE. For a reprint, email jnwarfield@aol.com 28 Slide 29 THOUGHT LEADERS ON INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIORAL PATHOLOGIES GEORGE A. MILLER 1920-***** MICHEL FOUCAULT 1926-1984 ROBERT F. BALES 1916-***** KEN BOULDING 1910-1994 HERBERT A. SIMON 1916-2001 SIR GEOFFREY VICKERS 1894-1982 29 Slide 30 GRAHAM ALLISON 1940-**** FRIEDRICH HAYEK 1899-1992 MICHEL FOUCAULT 1926-1984 IANNIS KAPELOUZOS *****-***** THOUGHT LEADERS ON GROUP BEHAVIORAL PATHOLOGIES A. H. VAN DE VEN *****-***** ANDRE DELBECQ 1936-***** IRVING JANIS *****-***** HAROLD LASSWELL 1902-1978 NO PHOTO AVAILABLE BRUCE TUCKMAN 1938-***** 30 Slide 31 THOUGHT LEADERS ON ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR PATHOLOGIES CHRIS ARGYRIS *****-***** KURT LEWIN 1890-1847 KEN BOULDING 1910-1994 NO PHOTO AVAILABLE ANTHONY DOWNS 1930-***** HAROLD LASSWELL 1902-1978 JAMES G. MARCH *****-***** H. A. SIMON 1916-2001 31