the Wolf &the Dog - ?· The first dogs probably evolved from wolf breeds in Asia, which were smaller…

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<ul><li><p>SQN job no: 0607053 Client: Defenders of Wildlife Project: Wolf Book Date: 08SEP06 Stage: Final Component: Book, Front CoverFinished size: 8.5 x 8.5 inches Ink: 4/4 (4 color process) Stock: 100 lb. cover, white </p><p>theWolf &amp; theDog:F I R S T F R I E N D T O B E S T F R I E N D</p><p>08SEP_Wolf_Book_FINAL.qxp 3/29/07 2:12 PM Page FC1</p></li><li><p>SQN job no: 0607053 Client: Defenders of Wildlife Project: Wolf Book Date: 08SEP06 Stage: Final Component: Book, Pages 2-3Finished size: 8.5 x 8.5 inches Ink: 4/4 (4 color process) Stock: 80 lb. cover, white</p><p>Ja</p><p>ckM</p><p>ills</p><p>Jack Mills</p><p>08SEP_Wolf_Book_FINAL.qxp 3/29/07 2:12 PM Page 2</p></li><li><p>3</p><p>Dogs have long been known as mans bestfriend, but that title doesnt go far enough. Wetrust dogs to protect our children, our families,</p><p>and our homes. We turn to dogs as partners inworkfrom herding livestock to detecting drugs orexplosives. We share our lives with dogs and enjoytheir steadfast friendship. Dogs are loved, cherished,honored members of our families.</p><p>Many of the qualities that we value in ourdogsincluding loyalty, intelligence, kindness,and couragecome directly from their wolfancestors. Yet even as dogs have become awelcomed part of our society, the wolf hasbeen the victim of unfounded persecution anda target for execution.</p><p>Defenders of Wildlife has long worked toprotect wolves from those still determined toharm themand we are very proud of our</p><p>long history of success. Our admiration for the wolfand its role in nature is so strong we feature it in ourlogo. And it serves as a constant reminder of one ofour most magnificent wild species. </p><p>There is a great deal to admire in the wolf, and wesee much of it reflected every day in our steadfastdomestic companions who greet us each evening witha wagging tail.</p><p>Humans have a love affair with dogs. As youenjoy this book, we hope it will illustrate foryou why wolves are just as deserving of ouradmiration, and our protection.</p><p>Rodger SchlickeisenPresident</p><p>A Message from Defenders of Wildlife </p><p>Ja</p><p>ckM</p><p>ills</p><p>k Mills</p><p>08SEP_Wolf_Book_FINAL.qxp 3/29/07 2:12 PM Page 3</p></li><li><p>4</p><p>SQN job no: 0607053 Client: Defenders of Wildlife Project: Wolf Book Date: 08SEP06 Stage: Final Component: Book, pages 4-5Finished size: 8.5 x 8.5 inches Ink: 4/4 (4 color process) Stock: 80 lb. cover, white</p><p>d</p><p>37 MILLIONYEARS AGO:Evolution of</p><p>the first canids</p><p>9 MILLION YEARS AGO:Evolution of Eucyon,</p><p>forebearer of wolf, dogand coyote </p><p>1 MILLIONYEARS AGO:</p><p>Evolution of thegray wolf</p><p>Timeline Schematic O F W O L F/ D O G E V O L U T I O N</p><p>R</p><p>ich</p><p>ard</p><p>Ols</p><p>eniu</p><p>s/N</p><p>AT</p><p>ION</p><p>AL</p><p>GEO</p><p>GR</p><p>AP</p><p>HIC</p><p>IMA</p><p>GE</p><p>CO</p><p>LLEC</p><p>TIO</p><p>N/G</p><p>etty</p><p>Imag</p><p>esCoyote</p><p>Wolf howlingCanid skull</p><p>14,000 - 100,000YEARS AGO:</p><p>Evolution of thedomesticated dog</p><p>Siberian husky</p><p>12,000 YEARS AGO:Human buried withpup. Wolf or dog?</p><p>No one knowsbutthe affection</p><p>seems undeniable.</p><p>Ja</p><p>ckM</p><p>ills</p><p>08SEP_Wolf_Book_FINAL.qxp 3/29/07 2:13 PM Page 4</p></li><li><p>5</p><p>At some point, long before recorded history, wolvesand humans established a special relationship. Noone knows if wolves took the initiative and</p><p>ingratiated themselves with mankind while scavengingat camp sites, or if humans actively adopted lessaggressive wolf pups. But at some point, a particularlyfriendly pup probably bonded with a human, acceptingthat man or woman as part of its pack.</p><p>Once a wolf became accepting of humans, its benefitsto those humans were unquestionable. Deeply loyal, awolf could use its keen senses to warn when troubleapproached. It could help chase down prey, and itcould guard families.</p><p>Scientists once thought the evolution of wolves intodogs was complete roughly 12,000 to 14,000 yearsagobut new evidence suggests it could have beenmuch earlier than thatperhaps 100,000 years ago.The first dogs probably evolved from wolf breeds inAsia, which were smaller than the gray wolves weknow today in North America. Over time, peoplebegan to realize the advantages of improving on theirdogs natural assets, and selective breeding began. </p><p>The very first species of dogs were the greyhoundbredin the deserts of Africa for their speed in bringingdown preyand the mastiff, first seen in northernEurope and created as especially powerful guard dogs.</p><p>1886: First dog show,founded by Charles Cruft</p><p>1884: Establishment ofthe American Kennel Club</p><p>1570: First known attempt to classify dogs</p><p>De Canibus Britannicisby Dr. John Caius</p><p>MIDDLE AGES: Dogsbred for specific</p><p>hunting traits</p><p>3,000 - 4,000YEARS AGO:</p><p>Development ofdistinct dog breeds</p><p>Long, Long Ago . . .</p><p>Jack Mills</p><p>R</p><p>ich</p><p>ard</p><p>Ols</p><p>eniu</p><p>s/N</p><p>AT</p><p>ION</p><p>AL</p><p>GEO</p><p>GR</p><p>AP</p><p>HIC</p><p>IMA</p><p>GE</p><p>CO</p><p>LLEC</p><p>TIO</p><p>N/G</p><p>etty</p><p>Imag</p><p>es</p><p>GreyhoundLabrador retriever</p><p>Pembroke Welshcorgi West Highland white terrier</p><p>08SEP_Wolf_Book_FINAL.qxp 3/29/07 2:13 PM Page 5</p></li><li><p>6</p><p>SQN job no: 0607053 Client: Defenders of Wildlife Project: Wolf Book Date: 08SEP06 Stage: Final Component: Book, pages 6-7Finished size: 8.5 x 8.5 inches Ink: 4/4 (4 color process) Stock: 80 lb. cover, white</p><p>When wolves were sufficiently evolved tobecome dogs, human hunting methodschanged. Once the best hunting technique</p><p>was to hit the prey with a stone axea dangerousstrategy. But as soon as humans had dogs aspartners, they began to employ weapons that couldkill from further away, including spears or arrows.</p><p>These weapons were less likely to kill at first blow,</p><p>but a dog could track a wounded animal and bring it</p><p>to bayeven fight it if necessary.</p><p>Perhaps one of the most significant gifts that dogs have</p><p>given to humanity is this partnership that helped our</p><p>species to advance and prosper. </p><p>Working Together</p><p>Ja</p><p>ckM</p><p>ills</p><p>Ja</p><p>ckM</p><p>ills</p><p>08SEP_Wolf_Book_FINAL.qxp 3/29/07 2:13 PM Page 6</p></li><li><p>7</p><p>Ja</p><p>ckM</p><p>ills</p><p>Ja</p><p>ckM</p><p>ills</p><p>08SEP_Wolf_Book_FINAL.qxp 3/29/07 2:13 PM Page 7</p></li><li><p>8</p><p>SQN job no: 0607053 Client: Defenders of Wildlife Project: Wolf Book Date: 08SEP06 Stage: Final Component: Book, pages 8-9Finished size: 8.5 x 8.5 inches Ink: 4/4 (4 color process) Stock: 80 lb. cover, white</p><p>For centuries dogs were what wed today call</p><p>mongrelsunspecific breeds that tended to follow</p><p>the coloration and size of the wolves from which</p><p>they descended. But eventually humans began to take</p><p>advantage of the fact that some dogs had superb</p><p>herding instincts, some were better hunters, and some</p><p>were natural guardians, and they began to breed</p><p>specific types of dogs.</p><p>The mastiff and the greyhound were bred intoexistence some 4,000 years ago. But the practice ofselective breeding really took off with the rise of thearistocracy in the Middle Ages. Members of thenobility considered it a sign of prestige to maintain dogpacks created to hunt a variety of prey. Beagles werebred to bay loudly while tracking foxes and otherspecies so a hunting party could follow them by ear.Hounds were developed with enhanced senses of smell</p><p>Creating a Breed ApartJack Mills</p><p>Jeff Foott/Discovery Channel Images/Getty Images</p><p>Wolf</p><p>Jean Baptiste Charpentier/The Bridgeman Art Library/Getty Images</p><p>08SEP_Wolf_Book_FINAL.qxp 3/29/07 2:13 PM Page 8</p></li><li><p>9</p><p>to pursue even cold trails. Terrierstremendous</p><p>diggerswere created to go after animals that tended to</p><p>hide underground.</p><p>Retrievers were bred in part for their gentle mouths that</p><p>dont crush prey when they return with it. Labradors</p><p>developed as exceptional swimmers and water lovers,</p><p>and so are useful for duck hunting. Boarhounds,</p><p>wolfhounds, elkhoundseach was created to be used in</p><p>hunting one specific prey.</p><p>By the Renaissance, companion breeds had been</p><p>developed. These were dogs too small and delicate to be</p><p>used as work partners, and were designed simply as</p><p>petsa luxury only the rich could afford. Workingbreeds continued to become more specialized, withcollies and shepherds for herding, pit bulls and bulldogsfor fighting and protection, and a dazzling array ofother dogs for hunting.</p><p>In the 1800s, the first dog shows popularized theconcept of pure-bred dogs. Today the American KennelClub recognizes well over 150 breeds, and there are anestimated 300-400 breeds of dogs in existence. Todaythere are dogs in every part of the human-inhabitedworld, and most dog owners regard their pets as farmore than a luxurythey are necessities and belovedmembers of our family.</p><p>k Mills Siberian husky</p><p>Fox Photos/Hulton Archive/Getty ImagesJean Baptiste Charpentier/The Bridgeman Art Library/Getty Images</p><p>08SEP_Wolf_Book_FINAL.qxp 3/29/07 2:13 PM Page 9</p></li><li><p>10</p><p>SQN job no: 0607053 Client: Defenders of Wildlife Project: Wolf Book Date: 08SEP06 Stage: Final Component: Book, pages 10-11Finished size: 8.5 x 8.5 inches Ink: 4/4 (4 color process) Stock: 80 lb. cover, white</p><p>Domestication produced some quite universalresults. Because they dont have to survive inthe wild, domesticated dogs are often smaller</p><p>and less cunning than wild wolves. They also tend tohold on to juvenile behaviors longer. For example, wolfpups will play but rapidly outgrow the desire to do so.Dogs, on the other hand, are eager to play almostthroughout their lives.</p><p>But on a genetic level, dogs and wolves areextremely similar. The DNA differencebetween the two is less than 1% (thatincludes comparing wolves to Chihuahuas,Great Danes or huskies). Meanwhile, forcomparison, there is an approximate 6%difference between wolves and coyotes.</p><p>Of course there are very significantdifferences between wolves and dogs.</p><p>Most importantly, dogs are tamable and trainable,while wolves (and all wild canines) are generallynot. Dogs are willing to accept a position in ahuman pack, and generally exhibit docility, acomparative lack of fear, and a high tolerance forstress. Wolves have a much quicker reaction tostress, and reach a fight or flight point muchmore rapidly than dogs. </p><p>Physical differences are some of the mostobvious distinguishing characteristics betweenwolves and dogs. Wolves tend to remainroughly consistent in size within theirsubspecies (that is, gray wolves dont varygreatly in size, although they are considerablylarger than most other wolf species), and whiletheir coat color can range from pure white toinky black, their coats textures are the same.</p><p>A Dog is not a Wolf</p><p>Ja</p><p>ckM</p><p>ills</p><p>Newfoundland</p><p>08SEP_Wolf_Book_FINAL.qxp 3/29/07 2:13 PM Page 10</p></li><li><p>Dogs exhibit a wide range in size, from toy breeds just afew inches high to the mighty Newfoundland and theIrish wolfhound, which stand 30 inches tall or higher atthe shoulder. A Maltese has a dramatically long, silky</p><p>coat, a poodle sports curly hair, a huskys coat is similarto a wolfs, and a bulldog wears an extremely shortcoat. There are even hairless dogs and dogs like thekomondor with corded coats.</p><p>Ja</p><p>ckM</p><p>ills</p><p>11</p><p>08SEP_Wolf_Book_FINAL.qxp 3/29/07 2:13 PM Page 11</p></li><li><p>12</p><p>SQN job no: 0607053 Client: Defenders of Wildlife Project: Wolf Book Date: 08SEP06 Stage: Final Component: Book, pages 12-13Finished size: 8.5 x 8.5 inches Ink: 4/4 (4 color process) Stock: 80 lb. cover, white</p><p>Communication in Wolves and Dogs</p><p>Wolves use vocalizations, body language andtheir incredible senses of sight, smell, andhearing to communicate. Posture and tail</p><p>position are extremely important in establishingorder in a wolf pack; the alpha (or leader) wolfstands straight with tail elevated, while subservientwolves cringe, put their tails down, and refrain fromlooking the leader in the eye. Wolves use scentmarkings to establish their home territory. Andwolves call out with howls to get the attention of</p><p>other wolves that might be nearby or miles away.</p><p>But wolves almost never bark.</p><p>Dogs use each of the same senses to communicate, but</p><p>selective breeding has altered the standard forms of</p><p>wolf communication. Many dogs bred for their ultra-</p><p>shaggy or silky coats are less able to see visual cuesfor</p><p>example, an English sheepdog relies as much on</p><p>hearing as on sight. Dogs like the basenji, which are</p><p>bred to have very curly tails, are less able to express</p><p>Ja</p><p>ckM</p><p>ills</p><p>Ja</p><p>ckM</p><p>ills</p><p>08SEP_Wolf_Book_FINAL.qxp 3/29/07 2:14 PM Page 12</p></li><li><p>13</p><p>emotions with their tails. Pugs have extremely</p><p>foreshortened noses, and that has diminished their</p><p>sense of smell. </p><p>And dogs barkand bark and barkto indicate a</p><p>warning, excitement, eagerness, or a wide variety of</p><p>other emotions. Dogs also howl, although some species</p><p>are more prone to do so than others. And dogs often</p><p>harken back to the old call of the wild when they howl</p><p>along with a siren, a violin or singing. Interestingly,</p><p>while wolves rarely bark in the wild, they can learn to</p><p>bark when kept with dogs.</p><p>Basenji</p><p>Old English sheepdog</p><p>08SEP_Wolf_Book_FINAL.qxp 3/29/07 2:14 PM Page 13</p></li><li><p>14</p><p>SQN job no: 0607053 Client: Defenders of Wildlife Project: Wolf Book Date: 08SEP06 Stage: Final Component: Book, pages 14-15Finished size: 8.5 x 8.5 inches Ink: 4/4 (4 color process) Stock: 80 lb. cover, white</p><p>Over the millennia, the advances of civilizationhave left less and less wild lands available forwolves (and all wild species). But the expansion</p><p>of humanity that has proven problematic for wolveshas been a boon to dogsa species that has benefitedfrom its inclusion in human society. There are now anestimated 10,50012,500 gray wolves in the UnitedStates, and more than 60 million pet dogs.</p><p>Habitat loss is a very real threat to wolvesbutits important to understand how the actualextermination of wolves became such a highpriority for so long. The blame can be assignedpartly to livestock depredation, but also to folktales, legends, and childrens stories.</p><p>The Three Little Pigs, Little Red Riding Hood,and countless other fairy tales use The Big BadWolf as the villain. Over time, this repeated andcolorful bias helped inflame public opinion againstwolves and harm the species. In the United States,wolves were declared vermin. So many were shotthat by the 1980s, the only population in the</p><p>lower 48 states was a small pack in farnorthern Minnesota. </p><p>It has taken a great deal of work and a goodmeasure of educational outreach to informthe public about the key roles wolves play innature and how they share many of thequalities we most admire in dogs.</p><p>The Fall of the Wolf . . . The Rise of the Dog</p><p>08SEP_Wolf_Book_FINAL.qxp 3/29/07 2:14 PM Page 14</p></li><li><p>Jack Mills</p><p>08SEP_Wolf_Book_FINAL.qxp 3/29/07 2:14 PM Page 15</p></li><li><p>SQN job no: 0607053 Client: Defenders of Wildlife Project: Wolf Book Date: 08SEP06 Stage: Final Component: Book, pages 16-17Finished size: 8.5 x 8.5 inches Ink: 4/4 (4 color process) Stock: 80 lb. cover, white</p><p>Jack Mills</p><p>08SEP_Wolf_Book_FINAL.qxp 3/29/07 2:14 PM Page 16</p></li><li><p>17</p><p>For most of human history, we havent needed toconcern ourselves about sustaining the web oflife. But today, for the first time since the</p><p>extinction of the dinosaurs sixty-five million years ago,were losing species faster than nature can create newones. And thats because of our relentless populationgrowth and development of modern technologies evermore capable of altering the natural world.</p><p>Given current trends, it is estimated that by the time achild born today reaches his or her 30th birthday, oneof every five current species on Earth will be eitherdoomed or already extinct. After that, if present trendscontinue, the prospect will worsen.</p><p>Because the wolf has endured such a long h...</p></li></ul>