The Thigh, Hip, Groin, and Pelvis © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved

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Text of The Thigh, Hip, Groin, and Pelvis © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved

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  • The Thigh, Hip, Groin, and Pelvis 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
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  • Anatomy:
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  • 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
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  • Assessment of the Thigh History Onset (sudden or slow?) Previous history? Mechanism of injury? Pain description, intensity, quality, duration, type and location? Observation Postural symmetry? Size, deformity, swelling, discoloration? Skin color and texture? Is athlete in obvious pain? Is the athlete willing to move the thigh?
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  • 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Palpation Soft tissue of the thigh (anterior, posterior, medial, lateral) should be palpated for pain and tenderness Bony palpation should also be performed to locate areas of pain/discomfort Utilize palpation to assess body symmetry (compare bilaterally)
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  • 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Special Tests Thomas test Test for hip contractures -Permanent fixation of the hip in primary positions, with limited passive or active motion at the hip joint. Locomotion is difficult and pain is sometimes present when the hip is in motion. It may be caused by trauma, infection, or poliomyelitis. Straight Leg Raise Test for hip extensor tightness Can also be used to assess low back or SI joint dysfunction
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  • 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Prevention of Thigh Injuries Thigh must have maximum strength, endurance, and extensibility to withstand strain Dynamic stretching programs may aid in muscle preparation for activity Strengthen programs can also help in preventing injuries Squats, lunges, leg press Core strengthening
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  • 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Recognition and Management of Thigh Injuries Quadriceps Contusions Cause of Injury Direct blow to the Thigh Constantly exposed to traumatic blows Signs of Injury Pain, transitory loss of function, immediate bleeding of affected muscles Ecchymosis Swelling Palpable knot Early detection and avoidance of internal bleeding are vital increases recovery rate and prevents muscle scarring
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  • Care RICE and NSAIDs Crutches for more severe cases Isometric quadriceps contractions should begin as soon as tolerated Ice on a stretch Padding, heat, massage and ultrasound to prevent myositis ossificans Padding may be worn for additional protection upon return to play
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  • 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Myositis Ossificans Cause of Injury Formation of ectopic bone following repeated blunt trauma Signs of Injury X-ray shows calcium deposit 2-6 weeks following injury Pain, weakness, swelling, decreased ROM Tissue tension and point tenderness Care Treatment must be conservative May require surgical removal if too painful and restricts motion (after one year - remove too early and it may come back) If condition is recurrent it may indicate problem with blood clotting
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  • Quadriceps Muscle Strain Cause of Injury Sudden stretch when athlete falls on bent knee or experiences sudden contraction Associated with weakened or over constricted muscle Signs of Injury Superficial tear causes fewer symptoms than deeper tear Pain, point tenderness, spasm, loss of function and little discoloration Complete tear may leave athlete w/ little disability and discomfort but with some deformity Palpable divot or lump/ball of muscle Care Rest, ice and compression to control internal bleeding Determine extent of injury early Neoprene sleeve may provide some added support
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  • 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Hamstring Muscle Strains Cause of Injury Multiple theories of injury Hamstring and quad contract together Change in role from hip extender to knee flexor Fatigue, posture, leg length discrepancy, lack of flexibility, strength imbalances, etc Signs of Injury Muscle belly or point of attachment pain Hemorrhage, pain, loss of function and possible discoloration Grade 1 - soreness during movement and point tenderness Grade 2 - partial tear, identified by sharp snap or tear, severe pain, and loss of function
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  • 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Signs of Injury (continued) Grade 3 - Rupturing of tendinous or muscular tissue, involving major hemorrhage and disability, edema, loss of function, ecchymosis, palpable mass or gap Care RICE Rehab Restrict activity until soreness has subsided Ballistic stretching and explosive sprinting should be avoided Lengthy return to play 6-8 weeks
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  • Acute Femoral Fractures Cause of Injury Generally involving shaft and requiring great force Occurs in middle third due to structure and point of contact Signs of Injury Shock, pain, swelling, deformity Must be aware of bone displacement and gross deformity Loss of function Care Treat for shock, verify neurovascular status, splint before moving, reduce following X-ray Secure immediate emergency assistance and medical referral
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  • Femoral Stress Fractures Cause of Injury Overuse Females who are amenorrheic are more vulnerable to stress fx Signs of Injury Persistent pain in thigh X-ray or bone scan will reveal fracture Commonly seen in the femoral neck Management Analgesics, NSAIDs RICE ROM exercises are carried out w/ pain free ROM Rest, limited weight bearing 4-6 respectively
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  • 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Recognition and Management of Specific Hip, Groin, and Pelvic Injuries Groin Strain Cause of Injury One of the more difficult problems to diagnose Often seen early in the season due to poor strength and flexibility Occurs from running, jumping, twisting w/ hip external rotation or severe stretch Signs of Injury Sudden twinge or tearing during active movement Produce pain, weakness, and internal hemorrhaging Point tenderness
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  • 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Groin Strain (continued) Care RICE, NSAIDs and analgesics for 48-72 hours Determine exact muscle or muscles involved Rest is critical Restore normal ROM and strength -- provide support w/ wrap Refer to physician if severe groin pain is experienced
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  • Sprains of the Hip Joint Cause of Injury Result of violent twist due to forceful contact Force from opponent/object or trunk forced over planted foot in opposite direction Signs of Injury Signs of acute injury and inability to circumduct hip Pain in hip region, w/ hip rotation increasing pain Care X-rays or MRI should be performed to rule out fx RICE, NSAIDs and analgesics Depending on severity, crutches may be required ROM and PRE are delayed until hip is pain free
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  • 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Piriformis Syndrome Cause of Condition Compression of sciatic nerve; irritation due to tightness or spasm of muscle May mimic sciatica Signs of Injury Pain, numbness and tingling in butt may extend below knee and into foot Pain may increase following periods of sitting, climbing stairs, walking or running Care Stretching and massage NSAIDs may be prescribed Cessation of aggravating activities will be prescribed Corticosteroid injection may also be suggested Surgery is sometimes an option as well
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  • Dislocated Hip Cause of Injury Rarely occurs in sport Result of traumatic force directed along the long axis of the femur Signs of Injury Flexed, adducted and internally rotated hip Palpation reveals displaced femoral head, posteriorly Serious pathology Soft tissue, neurological damage and possible fx Care Immediate medical care (blood and nerve supply may be compromised) Contractures may further complicate reduction 2 weeks immobilization and crutch use for at least one month
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  • Hip Problems in Adolescent Athletes Legg Calve-Perthes Disease (Coxa Plana) Cause of Condition Avascular necrosis of the femoral head in child ages 4-10 Articular cartilage becomes necrotic and flattens Signs of Condition Pain in groin that can be referred to the abdomen or knee Limping is also typical Varying onsets and may exhibit limited ROM
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  • 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
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  • Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease Care Bed rest to reduce chance of chronic condition Brace to avoid direct weight bearing Early treatment and head may re-ossify and re-vascularize Complication If not treated early, will result in ill-shaping and