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The Royal Society of Tropical The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1907-2007 Medicine and Hygiene 1907-2007

The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1907-2007

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Page 1: The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1907-2007

The Royal Society of Tropical The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1907-2007Medicine and Hygiene 1907-2007

Page 2: The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1907-2007

Saint James the Moor slayerSaint James the Moor slayer

Page 3: The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1907-2007

The Americas todayThe Americas today

Page 4: The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1907-2007

What will they bring next time?What will they bring next time?

Page 5: The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1907-2007

Measles in the New World 1500-Measles in the New World 1500-18401840

Page 6: The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1907-2007

Charles Darwin on conquest and Charles Darwin on conquest and diseasedisease

‘Besides the several causes of destruction, there seems to be some mysterious agency generally at work. Wherever the European has trod, death seems to pursue the aboriginal. We may look to the wide extent of the Americas, Polynesia and the Cape of Good Hope and Australia and we find the same result. Nor is it the white man alone that thus acts as the destroyer.’

Charles Darwin. The Voyage of the Beagle, 1836.

Page 7: The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1907-2007

World population (millions)1200-World population (millions)1200-1700. High and low estimates1700. High and low estimates

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700

Page 8: The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1907-2007

The Pontine MarshesThe Pontine Marshes

Page 9: The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1907-2007

DefinitionsDefinitions

Empires. Large, multi-ethnic or multinational political units.

Colonialism. Exclusive sovereignty of one group over another at a distance.

Colonisation. Establishment of privileges over the inhabitants of an occupied country while maintaining strong links with the country of origin.

Stephen Howe. Empire. A very short introduction, 2002

Page 10: The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1907-2007

Sir Patrick Manson. First Sir Patrick Manson. First President of the Society of President of the Society of Tropical MedicineTropical Medicine

‘The role of the Society is...to do justice to tropical patients and to tropical diseases and hygiene’

Sir Patrick Manson. Presidential address to the Society of Tropical Medicine 1907

Page 11: The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1907-2007

The British Empire in 1907The British Empire in 1907

Page 12: The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1907-2007

Selected countries under Selected countries under colonial rulecolonial rule

• Ghana (British 1874-1957)• Kenya (British 1895-1963)• Uganda (British 1894-1962)• Tanzania [Tanganyika] (German/British

1888-1961)• Hong Kong (British 1898-1997)• Singapore (British 1824-1959)• Taiwan (Japanese 1895-1945)• India (British 1858-1950)

Page 13: The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1907-2007

Tintin in the CongoTintin in the Congo

Page 14: The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1907-2007

Beyond the call of dutyBeyond the call of duty

Page 15: The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1907-2007

Mosquito protection 1918Mosquito protection 1918

Page 16: The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1907-2007

Malaria in Taiwan 1906-1941Malaria in Taiwan 1906-1941

Page 17: The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1907-2007

Life expectancy and doctors/1000Life expectancy and doctors/1000

Country Life expectancy (years)

Doctors/1000 population

Hong Kong 82 1.5 (+ Chinese framework)

Singapore 82 1.3

Ireland 80 1.6

Taiwan 78 1.4 (+Chinese medicine)

India 65 0.4

Ghana 59 0.4

Uganda 52 0.25

Kenya 49 1.25

Tanzania 46 0.37

Page 18: The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1907-2007

What went wrong?What went wrong?

• Unfulfilled promises• Over-commitment to Western medicine• Lack of resources• Failure to involve indigenous people• Wars, conflicts and refugees• Population growth• Urbanization• Agricultural needs• HIV/AIDS• Fake drugs, vaccines and baby foods

Page 19: The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1907-2007

What went wrong?What went wrong?

• Unfulfilled promises• Over-commitment to Western medicine• Lack of resources• Failure to involve indigenous people• Wars, conflicts and refugees• Population growth• Urbanization• Agricultural needs• HIV/AIDS• Fake drugs, vaccines and baby foods

Page 20: The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1907-2007

What went wrong?What went wrong?

• Unfulfilled promises• Over-commitment to Western medicine• Lack of resources• Failure to involve indigenous people• Wars, conflicts and refugees• Population growth• Urbanization• Agricultural needs• HIV/AIDS• Fake drugs, vaccines and baby foods

Page 21: The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1907-2007

General Idi Amin. Military Dictator General Idi Amin. Military Dictator of Uganda of Uganda

Page 22: The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1907-2007

What went wrong?What went wrong?

• Unfulfilled promises• Over-commitment to Western medicine• Lack of resources• Failure to involve indigenous people• Wars, conflicts and refugees• Population growth• Urbanization• Agricultural needs• HIV/AIDS• Fake drugs, vaccines and baby foods

Page 23: The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1907-2007

What went wrong?What went wrong?

• Unfulfilled promises• Over-commitment to Western medicine• Lack of resources• Failure to involve indigenous people• Wars, conflicts and refugees• Population growth• Urbanization• Agricultural needs• HIV/AIDS• Fake drugs, vaccines and baby foods

Page 24: The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1907-2007

What went wrong?What went wrong?

• Unfulfilled promises• Over-commitment to Western medicine• Lack of resources• Failure to involve indigenous people• Wars, conflicts and refugees• Population growth• Urbanization• Agricultural needs• HIV/AIDS• Fake drugs, vaccines and baby foods

Page 25: The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1907-2007

What went wrong?What went wrong?

• Unfulfilled promises• Over-commitment to Western medicine• Lack of resources• Failure to involve indigenous people• Wars, conflicts and refugees• Population growth• Urbanization• Agricultural needs• HIV/AIDS• Fake drugs, vaccines and baby foods

Page 26: The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1907-2007

World population 2000-2050World population 2000-2050

010002000300040005000600070008000900010000

World Asia Africa Europe America

Page 27: The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1907-2007

What went wrong?What went wrong?

• Unfulfilled promises• Over-commitment to Western medicine• Lack of resources• Failure to involve indigenous people• Wars, conflicts and refugees• Population growth• Urbanization• Agricultural needs• HIV/AIDS• Fake drugs, vaccines and baby foods

Page 28: The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1907-2007

What went wrong?What went wrong?

• Unfulfilled promises• Over-commitment to Western medicine• Lack of resources• Failure to involve indigenous people• Wars, conflicts and refugees• Population growth• Urbanization• Agricultural needs• HIV/AIDS• Fake drugs, vaccines and baby foods

Page 29: The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1907-2007

What went wrong?What went wrong?

• Unfulfilled promises• Over-commitment to Western medicine• Lack of resources• Failure to involve indigenous people• Wars, conflicts and refugees• Population growth• Urbanization• Agricultural needs• HIV/AIDS• Fake drugs, vaccines and baby foods

Page 30: The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1907-2007

Deuteronomy 28Deuteronomy 28

22. The Lord shall smite thee with a consumption and with a fever, and with an inflammation, and with extreme burning...

60. Moreover he will bring upon thee all the diseases of Egypt, which thou wast afraid of; and they shall cleave unto thee.

61. And every sickness and every plague, which is not written in the book of this law, them will the Lord bring upon thee, until thou be destroyed.

Page 31: The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1907-2007

What went wrong?What went wrong?

• Unfulfilled promises• Over-commitment to Western medicine• Lack of resources• Failure to involve indigenous people• Wars, conflicts and refugees• Population growth• Urbanization• Agricultural needs• HIV/AIDS• Fake drugs, vaccines and baby foods

Page 32: The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1907-2007

What went wrong and who is to What went wrong and who is to blame?blame?

• Unfulfilled promises• Over-commitment to Western medicine• Lack of resources• Failure to involve indigenous people• Wars, conflicts and refugees• Population growth• Urbanization• Agricultural needs• HIV/AIDS• Fake drugs, vaccines and baby foods

Page 33: The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1907-2007

Have the world’s leaders woken Have the world’s leaders woken up?up?

Page 34: The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1907-2007

Makerere Medical School UgandaMakerere Medical School Uganda

Page 35: The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1907-2007

Societies of Tropical MedicineSocieties of Tropical Medicine

American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene •Australian College of Tropical Medicine •Austrian Society for Tropical Medicine and Parasitology • Belgian Society of Tropical Medicine • Brazilian Society for Tropical Medicine •Canadian Society of International Health •Central American and Caribbean Society for Parasitology and Tropical Medicine •Chinese Society of Infectious Diseases and Parasitic Diseases •Danish Society for Tropical Medicine and International Health •Dutch Society of Tropical Medicine •Finnish Society for International Health •German Society of Tropical Medicine and International Health •Italian Society of Tropical Medicine •Israel Society for Parasitology, Protozoology and Tropical Diseases •Japanese Society of Tropical Medicine •Malaysian Society of Parasitology and Tropical •Netherlands Society of Tropical Medicine and International Health •Norwegian Society of Tropical Medicine• Norwegian International Health Association •Parasitology and Tropical Medicine Association of Thailand •Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene •Slovak Medical Society for Infectious and Tropical Diseases •Sociedad Colombiana de Parasitologia y Medicina Tropical •Société de Pathologie Exotique •Spanish Society of Tropical Medicine and International Health •Swedish Society for Tropical Medicine •Swiss Society of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology

Page 36: The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1907-2007

Societies of Tropical MedicineSocieties of Tropical Medicine

American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene •Australian College of Tropical Medicine •Austrian Society for Tropical Medicine and Parasitology • Belgian Society of Tropical Medicine • Brazilian Society for Tropical Medicine •Canadian Society of International Health •Central American and Caribbean Society for Parasitology and Tropical Medicine •Chinese Society of Infectious Diseases and Parasitic Diseases •Danish Society for Tropical Medicine and International Health •Dutch Society of Tropical Medicine •Finnish Society for International Health •German Society of Tropical Medicine and International Health •Italian Society of Tropical Medicine •Israel Society for Parasitology, Protozoology and Tropical Diseases •Japanese Society of Tropical Medicine •Malaysian Society of Parasitology and Tropical •Netherlands Society of Tropical Medicine and International Health •Norwegian Society of Tropical Medicine• Norwegian International Health Association •Parasitology and Tropical Medicine Association of Thailand •Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene •Slovak Medical Society for Infectious and Tropical Diseases •Sociedad Colombiana de Parasitologia y Medicina Tropical •Société de Pathologie Exotique •Spanish Society of Tropical Medicine and International Health •Swedish Society for Tropical Medicine •Swiss Society of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology

Page 37: The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1907-2007

Judgements on colonial medicineJudgements on colonial medicine

‘Colonisation has its health aspects and was never beyond reproach or without blemish. There is one thing that ennobles it, it is the action of the doctor.’ Hubert Lautey, 1926

‘Whatever political advantages colonisation might possess, from the biological standpoint its record is one of the greatest successes of modern history.’ Lewis Gann and Peter Duigan 1970

Page 38: The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1907-2007

EnvoiEnvoi

We are not wholly bad or goodWho live our lives under Milk WoodAnd Thou, I know, will be the first

To see our best side, not our worst.

Dylan Thomas Under Milk Wood 1954

Page 39: The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1907-2007

The Royal Society of Tropical The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1907-2007Medicine and Hygiene 1907-2007