The Romance of Democracy: Manifest Destiny All this will be our future history (Political Science 565)

  • View

  • Download

Embed Size (px)

Text of The Romance of Democracy: Manifest Destiny All this will be our future history (Political Science...

  • Slide 1

The Romance of Democracy: Manifest Destiny All this will be our future history (Political Science 565) Slide 2 Gap Slide 3 Confronted with criticism, designer Mark McNairy tweets: MANIFEST DESTINY. SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST. I AM SORRY FOR MY SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST COMMENT. IT HURT ME DEEPLY TO BE CALLED A RACIST AS THAT IS NOT ME. I REACTED WITHOUT THINKING. Slide 4 The Age of Enlightenment ~1650~1800 For: Reason The source of universal truth Scientific method Empiricism Nature as the source of truth Nature as a reserve of resources to be exploited Nature as a thing to be dominated Intellectual freedom Freedom to exercise reason Liberal, but not always democratic May or may not entail political freedom Contract Only consensual agreements are binding 4 Slide 5 The Age of Enlightenment Against Passions Emotions Bigotries Favorable or unfavorable Appetites Tradition Authority Customs Superstition Religious Magical Ritual 5 Slide 6 The Romantic Era ~1780~1850 Against Aristocracy Political forms Social norms & restrictions, manners Over-emphasis on rationalism Deadening, mistaken Science & reason not only sources of truth 6 Slide 7 The Romantic Era For Sincerity Be who you are Authenticity Spontaneity Emotion Love, fear, awe, solidarity The importance of unique individuals Aesthetics Folk art & customs The experience of beauty Nature Inherently valuable More important than the social world Beautiful, forceful New politics Liberal & radical Nationalist 7 Slide 8 Jacksonian Democracy Andrew Jackson Hero of the Battle of New Orleans President 1829-1837 Man of the [white] people Bowed to the crowd at inauguration Promoter of more direct democracy Removal of the Cherokee & Trail of Tears Favored strong states rights, Union 8 Slide 9 Jacksonian Democracy Egalitarian Racist Populist Nationalist Young America Locofocos Expansionist 9 Slide 10 Walt Whitmans The Last of the Sacred Army (1842) A fictional encounter with the last living veteran of the Revolution. He is the last man alive to have served under George Washington, and the Last of His Witnesses. After handling a relic once handled by Washington and bearing his initials, Whitman asks a philosopher, who had also come to see the Last Witness whether it is well that such reverance [sic] be bestowed by a great people on a creature like themselves. The self-respect each one has for his own nature might run the risk of effacement, were such things often seen. Besides, it is not allowed that man pay worship to his fellow. (21) Idolatry Can you worship something you have made? 10 Slide 11 Walt Whitmans The Last of the Sacred Army (1842) The Philosopher: Fear not, because the occurrences that you have just witnessed stem from the fairest and manliest traits in the soul. The philosopher is able to persuade Whitman that it is well that the benefactors of a state be so kept alive in memory and song, when their bodies are mouldering. Then it will become impossible for a people to become enslaved, for though the strong arm of their defender come not as readily to the battle, his spirit is there, through the power of remembrance, and wields a better sway even than if it were of fleshly substance. (22) 11 Slide 12 John L. OSullivan 1813-1895 Democratic party activist Editor, literary critic, govt envoy to Portugal Influential in van Buren, Pierce administrations Founder, editor-in-Chief of United States Magazine & Democratic Review Whitman & Hawthorne NOT Melville 12 Slide 13 John L. OSullivan Defining the American community of belief Moral perfection and political exceptionality of US national identity Expansion of US is expansion of liberty Liberty as a political good of the first order States rights & strong sense of national mission and identity Unconsummated revolution 13 Slide 14 United States Magazine & Democratic Review Politico-literary journal Nationalist project of culture Helped to launch Nathaniel Hawthorne & Walt Whitman to prominence Central to Young America Nationalism, democracy, expansion 14 Slide 15 The Nation as Crusade The high and holy democratic/voluntary principle (Introduction) the fundamental element of [Americas] new social and political system Defining America The best government is that which governs least Let man be fettered by no duty, save His brothers rightlike his, inviolable Slide 16 The Nation as Crusade A community of belief full and free profession of the cardinal principles of political faith on which we take our stand true and living faith Slide 17 The Nation as Crusade US exceptional, world-historical importance All history has to be re-written; political science and the whole scope of all moral truth have to be considered and illustrated in the light of the democratic principle. All old subjects of thought and all new questions arising, connected more or less directly with human existence, have to be taken up again and re-examined in this point of view. Slide 18 The Nation as Crusade The advent of the United States is a discontinuous break with history Transforms not only the future, but also the past Forces reinterpretation of all that has come before and that will come Analogous to birth of Christ Slide 19 The Nation as Crusade The American interest = the universal interest Voluntary principle = democracy = United States = the cause of all mankind Slide 20 The Nation as Crusade Defining the community: What about slavery? Vague commitment to eventual extinction of slavery slavery was not a political problem, but a moral and economic one, the decision of which must rest, voluntarily, with the slave states themselves. Matter of intrastate commerce, not rights (Democratic Review 14, 4/44, p. 429) Slide 21 The Nation as Crusade Defining the community: What about slavery? Union composed of states, not individuals Illegitimate to compel change in status quo Would violate democratic principle Slide 22 The Nation as Crusade Liberty > Equality To be treated as an equal, one must be capable of self- rule. Some can, some cant: According to their knowledge of, and respect for, the rights of a citizen, shall their freedom from governmental restraints be measured out to them, and every privilege which they learn to exercise wisely, government will be forced to relinquish, until each man becomes a law unto himself. (Territorial Aggrandizement) Slide 23 The Nation as Crusade To be considered an equal, one must first become free Anglo-Saxon culture (not biology) makes whites most capable of freedom Until then, it is fair to regard the un-free individual as an inferior Slaves are made incapable of being free because the brutality w/which they are treated has made them brute Natives cannot be free because of their savagery & primitiveness Mexicans cant be free because they are semi-barbarous, have an aristocratic Spanish culture. They may one day be educated enough that they can be free. Slide 24 The Nation as Crusade To forcibly annex Mexico would make a mockery of the voluntary principle It would also taint the US w/people who were not prepared to rule themselves Thus, Mexico should be left alone (he changed his mind) Slide 25 The Nation as Crusade The Great Nation of Futurity we have, in reality, but little connection with the past history of any [other nations], and still less with antiquity, its glories, or its crimes. On the contrary, our national birth was the beginning of a new history. America is new, morally pure, and unstained by sins of the past A radical break from the past Slide 26 The Nation as Crusade America is destined for better deeds. It is our unparalleled glory that we have no reminisces of battle fields, but in defence of humanity, of the oppressed of all nations, of the rights of personal conscience, the rights of personal enfranchisement. America acts with pure motives, in the interest of all mankind by definition Slide 27 The Nation as Crusade We have no interest in the scenes of antiquity, only as lessons of avoidance of nearly all their examples. The expansive future is our arena, and for our history. We are entering on its untrodden space, with the truths of God in our minds, beneficent objects in our hearts, and with a clear conscience unsullied by the past. Slide 28 The Nation as Crusade The old, the past is to be repudiated For Americans, the only history that matters is future history It is not what we have been or what we have done that makes us who we are, but what we will do and who we will be Americans are a people who are unmarked by sin Slide 29 60 seconds of theology What is sin? Not being a bad person Not doing bad things (individual sins) In Christian thought, the taint of original sin is a state of moral imperfection. A person can be very good and still be stained by sin. Makes forgiveness necessary Separates humans from God For OSullivan, America is beyond sin Slide 30 The Nation as Crusade We are the nation of human progress, and who will, what can, set limits to our onward march? Providence is with us, and no earthly power can. We point to the everlasting truth on the first page of our national declaration, and we proclaim to the millions of other lands, that the gates of hellthe powers of aristocracy and monarchy shall not prevail against it. Slide 31 The Nation as Crusade Americas purpose, its telos is to spread democracy throughout the world Telos: A purpose that is part of a things nature, forming what it is America is providentially destined to succeed in this mission. Failure is impossible. Voluntary principle = democracy = United States = the cause of all mankind = The will of God Slide 32 The Nation as Crusade The enemies of the United States and democracy are enemies not only of all mankind, but of God They are intrinsically evil, satanic The gates of hell shall not prevail against it Matthew 16:18 Refers to the Christian church