The Revolutionising History of Afric an National Congress ... revolutionising history of...The Revolutionising History of Afric an National Congress Youth League ANC YL POLITICAL EDUCATION MANUAL

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  • The Revolutionising History of AfricanNationalCongressYouthLeague

    ANCYLPOLITICALEDUCATIONMANUAL

  • IntroductoryRemarks The History of the AfricanNationalCongressYouthLeague

    isundeniablyarevolutionalisinghistory of SouthAfrica. The younganddedicatedactivistswhogathered

    at the BantuMen'sSocialCentrein1944became the trueanddedicatedrevolutionarieswhochangedSouthAfrica'spoliticalatmosphere.

    When the foundinggeneration of the ANC YL proclaimedFREEDOMINOURLIFETIMEin1944,fewpeoplehad the hopethattherewasapossibilitythatultimately,blackpeopleandwomeninSouthAfricawillgain the freedom,rightsandindependencewecurrentlyenjoy.

    TheformationoftheANCYLradicallyreshapedthemethodsofstruggleagainstoppressionandgavenewenergytotheNationalLiberationMovement.

  • TheideaoftheYouthLeague InSA,therewasgrowingmilitancyoftheTradeUnionMovement

    andtheCommunistPartyofSouthAfrica. TheYouthfelttheneedtoformamilitantyouthleagueoftheANC. Theyouththerebychosetotakeastanceoppositetothatoftheir

    parentorganisation,whichtheyincreasinglyviewedaspacifistandliberal.

    LionelMxolisiMajombozi,amedicalstudentatWitsUniversity,wasthefirsttomoottheideaofformingtheANCYouthLeaguearguingthatitbepresentedtothetotheANColdguardasmovetorecruityoungpeopleandthushidingitsrealintentions,viz.Oftransformingamoribundorganisationintoamilitantagentofpoliticalchange.

    DuringtheANCAnnualConferencein1942,theemergenceofmilitancyamongsttheAfricanyouthgroupswasnoted,andtheconferenceinstructedtheANCNationalExecutiveCommitteetoformtheYouthLeagueoftheANC.

  • Theformativeyears Therewasnoapparentprogressthroughtheremainderof1943,and

    theDecember1943ConferenceoftheANCagaincalledfortheformationoftheCongressYouthLeague.

    ThiscallwasfollowedbytheformationoftheNationalProvisionalCommitteeinMarch1944,whichconsistedofthefollowingleaders: WilliamNkomo(Chairperson) LionelMxolisiMajombozi(Secretary) AntonLambede OliverTambo WalterSisulu(JointConvenor) CongressMbatha(JointConvenor) DavidBopape WilsonZConco D.V.Maqanda J.Malepe A.B.Sililo AndThabethe

  • The1944Manifesto TheNPCmandatedWilliamNkomo,AntonLambedeand

    NelsonMandelatodrawupthefoundingpolicydocument,andthiswastobecometheYouthLeaguesManifesto.

    TheManifestoserved asaguidingcompassfortheprogrammesoftheYouthLeague. AsthefirstdocumenttodefinethegoalsoftheYouthLeague

    andgiveititsideologicaldirection. TheManifestowasissuedanddeclaredthatAFRICAN

    PEOPLEELECTEDTODETERMINETHEIROWNFUTUREBYTHEIROWNEFFORTS andstressedtheYLsloyaltytotheleadershipoftheANCintheNationalRevolution.

    Atthisstage,therewasstrongideologicalinclinationtowardsAfricanNationalism.

  • The1944Manifesto

    TheManifestoalsoannouncedaProgrammeofActionwhichintendedtoachievethefollowing: DraftaConstitution WinovertheYouth MobiliseFinancialSupportfortheANC Andmakeastudyofthepoliticalandeconomicchallengesfacingtheliberationmovement.

  • OfficialLaunchoftheANCYL TheofficiallaunchoftheANCYLtookplaceonSeptember10,1944

    attheBantuMensSocialCentreinJohannesburg. TheManifestowasunveiledthesameday. AntonLambedewaselectedPresidentandNelsonMandela/Oliver

    TamboelectedSecretary. TheNationalExecutiveCommitteeelectedintheCongress

    included: WilliamNkomo WalterSisulu A.P.Mda RobertResha RobertSobukwe OliverTambo MxolisiMajombozi DilizintabaMji

  • AfricanNationalism

    TheANCYLwasformedtosupplement,consolidateandgivenewimpetustothestruggleagainstracialoppressionaschampionedbytheANC.

    YetemphasiswasplacedonAfricanNationalism,whichaffirmedtheroleofAfricansastheirownliberatorswithinSAandabroad.

    TheAfricanNationalismespousedbytheANCYLdidnotimplyreverseracism,butemphasisedtheemancipationofAfricansastheprimaryfocusofpoliticalengagementsandprogrammes.

    WhilstaffirmingAfricanLeadership,AfricanNationalismdidnotsuggesttheexclusionofwhitesasinterpretedbythePACin1959.

  • The1948BasicPolicyDocument Beforethe1949ANCNationalConference,theANCYLwas

    facedwitharesponsibilitytomakeameaningfulimpactontheANC.

    ABasicPolicyDocumentwasthenadoptedbytheANCYLasaguidelinedocumentonhowtheYouthLeagueleadershipintendedtoshapeandinfluencetheANC.

    TheBasicPolicyDocumentwassomewhatarevisionofthe1944sradicalAfricanNationalismanddemonstratedprogresswithintheANCYLintermsofthequalityofdebatesandoriginalideas.

    TheBasicPolicyDocumentamongstotherssaid:TheCongressYouthLeagueholdsthatpoliticaldemocracyremainsanemptyformwithoutsubstance,unlessitisproperlygroundedonabaseofeconomicand,especiallyindustrialdemocracy

  • TheANCYLImpactontheANC In1948,OliverTamboandWalterSisuluwereelectedto

    theANCNationalExecutiveCommittee,andbecamethefirstYouthLeagueleaderstobeelectedtotheleadershipoftheANC.

    Afterthe1949CongressoftheANC,therewasacallformoreurgentandradicalmethodsofwagingthestrugglepromptedbydomesticandinternationalrealities.

    TheANCYLscallformoreradicalmethodsmarkedtheLeaguespartingofwayswiththenANCPresidentA.BXuma,whopatronisinglyreferredtotheYouthLeagueleaders(Lambede,Mandela&Tambo)asmykindergartenboys,whentheypressedforanindependentapproach.

    Inturn,theYLleadershipaccusedtheANCleadershipofbeingtooconcernedwiththecolonialregimesframeworkandprovisionsoftheNativesRepresentativeCouncil,thuscompromisingthestrugglefornationalliberation.

  • ANCYLfoughtdespitesetbacks

    ThefirstPresidentAntonLambedediedundermysteriouscircumstancesin1947andDr.MxolisiMajombozidiedinacaraccidentin1949.

    Despitetheserealities,theANCYLsuccessfullyintroducedtheconceptofmilitancyattheANCAnnualConferencein1949.

    Fromthattime,theANCputliberalismandpacifismbehinditandfoughtthecolonialoppressionwithdedicationandfocus.

    TheANC1949sProgrammeofActionwasanexpressionofyouthsdissatisfactionwithliberalismandmoderatemodelsoffightsrepression.

    TheProgrammeheraldedanendtodeputationsandpetitionstothecolonialMasters,whichwaspartofthemethodsofgainingfreedomfortheAfricanmajority.

    In1949,WalterSisuluwaselectedANCSecretaryGeneralandNelsonMandela,OliverTamboandDumaNokweintotheANCNEC.

  • ThesignificanceoftheANC1949Conference.

    DespiteelectingWalterSisuluasSecretaryGeneralandgettingamoreyouthleagueleadersintotheNEC,theANCYLsupportedDr.J.SMorokatobePresidentoftheANC,althoughhehadjustjoinedtheANC.

    TheProgrammeofActionadoptedinthe1949ANCConferenceprimarilyaimedtodestroy,asamatterofpriority,alldiscriminatoryinstitutionsofgovernance,includingtheNativesRepresentativesCouncil(NPC).

    FormerANCPresidentXumasoughttofightracismwithintheprovisionsoftheNPC,andtheYouthLeaguecalledfortheimmediatedismantlingofthisandallotherracistinstitutionsofgovernance.

  • TheDefianceCampaign TheANCledDefianceCampaigngrewfromtherisingmilitancyofthe

    increasinglyagitatedandradicalisedyouth. NelsonMandelawasVolunteerinChiefoftheDefianceCampaign

    (laterelectedPresidentoftheTransvaalANC)andmobilisedasmanypeopletojoinindefyingapartheidlaws.

    FromtheDefianceCampaignemergedaprogrammaticalliancebetweentheANC,SouthAfricanIndianCongress,AfricanPeoplesOrganisation(Colouredmembers),andtheCommunistPartyofSouthAfrica.

    Together,thesealliescalledajointstrikeonthe1st ofMay1950,whichwaswidelysupported.

    Onthe26th ofJune1950,theANCcalledandparticipatedinthestrikeagainsttheSuppressionofCommunismAct.

    26JunewasthenconsideredasSouthAfricanFreedomDay. Duringthisperiod,theANCbegantoappreciatetherealitythat the

    repression,imprisonmentanddeathwerepartofthestruggleagainstracism.

  • TheradicalisationoftheANC

    TheradicalisationoftheANCalsohaditsrootsintheworkersstrugglesofthetimeandtheCommunistPartyofSouthAfrica,whichwasbyandlargearadicalorganisationinitsownright.

    TheactivitiesoftheANCYLduringdefiancecampaign,andthecrisisyearsoftheearly1950shadaconsiderableontheANCitself.

    YouthLeagueleaderswerefocusedonamissionwhichtheyperceivedtobeconsolidationofradicalviewsandthepromotion ofmilitantactionoftheANC.

    ThisledtoarrestsofmanyleadersoftheANC,includingANCPresidentJ.SMorokawhoafterthearrest,distancedhimselffromtheANCduringthetrial,andwasrepresentedbyaseparateLawyer.

    ThisalienatedthemassesandledtotheelectionofCheifAlbertLuthuliasPresidentoftheANCinthe1952AnnualConference.

    PresidentLuthuliledtheANCduringandtowardsthemobilisationfortheFreedomCharter.

  • TheFreedomCharter ProposedbyProfessorZ.KMatthewsattheCapeAnnualConferencein1953,aftertheDefianceCampaignandmilitantactionsofthetime.

    ResolvedintheANC42nd NationalConferencein1953,andreaffirmedinthe43rd Conference1954.

    AdoptedaftermassivemobilisationacrossthecountryinKliptownonthe26th (SouthAfricanFreedomDay)ofJune1955.

    Fromthereforth,leadersoftheANCYLwereatthehelmoftheANCatNationallevelandvariousregionsofSouthAfrica.

    TheconstituteacropthatledtheANCinexile,prisonandundergroundandthefirstleadersofademocraticSouthAfrica.

  • FromFreedomCharter,toArreststoMilitarystruggles:

    DuringthepostFreedomCharteryears,theracistStatecontinuedwithsuppressionandinMarch21,1960massacred69ProtestorsinSharpeville.

    Inthesameyear,theANCwasbannedundertheSuppressionofCommunismAct,andNelsonMandelawasaskedbytheregimetoresignfromtheANCbeforeitwasbanned.

    NelsonMandelainitiatedtheprocessthatledtotheformationofUmkhontoWeSizwe,militarywingoftheANC.

    OnDecember16,1961,UmkhontoWeSizwe(MK)carriedoutitsfirstactofmilitarysabotage,andthearmedstrugglebegan.

    ANCYLmilitantswerebehindtheformationofMK. NelsonMandelasaidatthetime:ITWOULDBEWRONGAND

    UNREALISTICFORAFRICANLEADERSTOCONTINUEPREACHINGPEACEANDNONVIOLENCEATATIMEWHENTHEGOVERNMENTMETOURDEMANDSWITHVIOLENCE.

  • Youngpeoplekeptthefiresburning Inpracticalterms,theANCYLhadceasedtoexistasamass

    basedorganisationwhenthebanningwasimplementedin1960.

    Despitethese,youngpeopleinsidethecountryandinexilewereattheforefrontofintroducingnewmethodsofstruggleagainstapartheidrepression.

    TheconveningofthefirstNationalConsultativeConferenceinMorogoroin1969wasadirectresultoftheimpatienceoftheYoungmilitarycadets(includingChrisHani)inexilewhodraftedamemorandumfortheattentionofleadership.

    MostbattlesinsideSouthAfricawereledbyYoungpeople,andthisincludesthestrugglesofNUSAS,SASO,SASM,the1976generation,COSAS,SAYCOandotheryouthformations.

  • The1982ANCYouthLeagueConference

    The 1982Congress of the ANC YL wasorganizedbywhatcametobeknownas the YouthSection of the ANC,andwasaddressedbyPresidentOliverTambo.

    The 1982 ANC YL wasledbyComradesHeadmanMakhonco,LizweNene,ZakesDube,SiphoMajomboziandNelsonDumasi,andtheseleadersbegantoparticipateininternationalforumsandorganisationssuchas the WorldFederation of DemocraticYouth(WFDY)and the WorldFestival of YouthandStudents.

    Otherleaders of the ANC YouthSectionwereMaxSisulu,EddieFunde,TebohoMafole,JackieSelebi,ManalaManzini,SiphiweNyandaandMandlaMsimang.

  • THE YOUNGLIONS

    During the 1980s,PresidentOliverTambourged the progressiveforcesinSouthAfricatomake the countryungovernable.

    Because of the bravery of youngactivistsin the face of constantharassmentandrepression,PresidentOliverTamboreferredtothe youthactivists of the 1980sas the "YoungLions".

    The YoungLionskept the militancy of the 1944foundinggenerationandearly1960syouthwhen the MKwasformed.Theyweredisciplined,fearless,anddedicatedtodefeat the minorityracistregime.

  • SAYCO

    InJune1986,aprovisionalcommitteetoreviveorganizedyouthactivismwithin the CongressmovementwasformedtoprepareforaCongress of whatlaterbecame the SouthAfricanYouthCongress(SAYCO).

    The CommitteemembersincludedDeaconMathe,AleckNchabeleng,StanzaBopape,PeterMokaba,ObedBapela,DanMontsintsi,DavidAbrahamse,RoseSonto,FransMohlalaandCasselMathale.

    SAYCOwaslaunchedsecretlyin1987andPeterMokabawaselectedPresidentandRapulaneMolekaneelectedasSecretaryGeneral.SAYCObecamepart of the UDFforcesthatmobilizedallSouthAfricansagainstapartheidrepression.

    With the unbanning of politicalpartiesin1990,bothUDFandSAYCOweredisbandedtogivewayto the ANC and ANC YL.

  • TheunbanningofpoliticalpartiesandrelaunchoftheANCYL

    InKwaNdebelein1991, the ANC YL heldits17th NationalCongressandelectedPeterMokabaandRapuMolekaneasPresidentandSecretaryGeneralrespectively.

    The Congresswasaddressedbythen ANC DeputyPresidentWalterSisuluin thepresence of formerPresidentOliverTamboandotherNationalExecutiveCommitteemembers,includingPresidentJacobZuma.

  • KwaNdebeleANCYLCongress TheothermemberselectedtotheleadershipoftheANCYLinKwa Ndebele

    includethefollowingleaders: LuluJohsonasDeputyPresident MphoLekgoroasDeputySecretaryGeneral IgbatiusJacobsasTreasurerGeneral NyamiBooi KhaogeloLekgoro AndrewDipela ThaboMasebe ThabangMakwetla ParksMakhahlana JerryNdou DerekMasoek FebePotgieter MzwandileMhlanzi

    TheCongressextensivelydebatedthecharacteroftheANCYLand itsrelationtotheANC,andtheorganisationalreportsaid,theANCYLisanorganisationalmobilisationandmasspoliticalorganoftheANC.

  • PRESIDENTSOFTHEANCYL

    1944T02008

  • AntonLambede(1944to1947 Bornin1914,andelectedfirstPresidentoftheANCYLin

    1944,Lembedewasregardedasadaringthinkerandarticulateleader.

    Ofpeasantorigin,andobtainedaBAdegreethroughcorrespondencewithUNISA,andagainthroughselfeducation,obtainedanLLBdegree.

    LembedeisknownforbeingmilitantlynationalisticwithverystrongviewsontheAfricannessofthestruggle.

    Hehadprofoundinfluenceonthe1944ManifestooftheANCYL.

    WasinvolvedineffortstobuildapartnershipwiththeNatalIndianCongressandthecolouredAfricanPeoplesOrganisation.

    Hediedin1947attheageof33.

  • AshbyPeter(A.P)Mda(1947to1949) FoundingmemberoftheANCYL,andhighlyrespectedpoliticalorganiserand

    theoretician,A.PMdawaselectedPresidentafterthedeathofAntonLembede.

    ObtainedaBAdegreethroughUNISA,andwasonceateacherinthecatholicelementaryschoolinOrlandoTownship.

    AtthetimeofLemebedesdeath,MdawasadeputyspeakeroftheANCinTransvaalandexofficiointheANCNationalExecutiveCommittee.

    Underhisleadership,theANCYLexpandedtoNatalandsomeareasoftheCape,mostnotablyFortHarewherethefirstYLbranchwaslaunchedin1948.

    Mdawasoneoftheprincipalauthorsofthe1948ANCYLBasicPolicyDocument.

    Althoughhefavouredsocialisteconomicprinciples,hewashostiletotheinfluenceofcommunistsintheANCashebelievedthattheiragendaunderminedAfricannationalism.

    HeopposedtheAfricanistsbreakaway,butagreedtoaddressthePACNationalExecutiveCommitteeinSeptember1959.

    InApril1963,hewasexiledtoBasotholandandlaterestablishedaLawpractice.

  • GodfreyMokgonanaePitjie(1949to1951)

    Bornin1917intheNorthernTransvaal,andobtainedanadvancedBAdegreeinanthropologyfromFortHareamidstdifficulties.

    WasrecruitedbyA.PMdain1948,andbecameamemberoftheANCNECduetohisPresidencyoftheANCYL.

    HesteppeddownfromthepositionofPresidentin1951topursueacareerinteaching.

    Inthelate1950s,hededicatedattentioninLawandservedarticleswithMandela&TamboLawfirm.

    Hewasavictimofstatesponsoredprohibitionsonpracticinglaw.

  • NelsonMandela(1951to1953) MandelabecamePresidentoftheANCYLinthemostdifficultperiodofthetime,andwasdescribedbyOliverTamboasabornmassleader.

    HegraduatedfromHealtdownwithhisclosefriend,andlater,partnerincrime,MxolisiMajomboziandtheywenttogethertoFortHareUniversity.

    ElectedtotheANCNECin1949,andwasPresidentoftheTransvaaldivisionin1952.

    VolunteerinChiefinthe1952DefianceCampaign,andaTreasonandRivoniaTrialist.

    FounderofMKandspent27yearsinRobenIslandasapoliticalPrisoner.

    Releasedin1990andelectedfirstpresidentofSouthAfrica.

  • JoeMatthews(1953to1954)

    Bornin1929,andattendedSt.PetersCollegeinRossentenville,andwasencouragedbyhisteacherOliverTambotojointheANCYL.

    StudiedinFortHarefrom1948andbecameSecretaryoftheYLthere.Graduatedin1950andmovedtoJHBtostudyLawatWitsUniversity....