THE NEW YORK COURT OF APPEALS CIVIL new york court of appeals . civil jurisdiction and practice outline. ... alternative procedure for selected appeals ... civil jurisdiction and practice

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    THE NEW YORK COURT OF APPEALS CIVIL JURISDICTION AND PRACTICE OUTLINE

    Table of Contents I. APPEALS AS OF RIGHT ................................................................................................................. 3

    A. Individual Jurisdictional Predicates ................................................................................................... 3 1. Two-Justice Dissent at the Appellate Division -- CPLR 5601(a) ..................................................... 3 2. Constitutional Question -- CPLR 5601(b)(1) .................................................................................. 4 3. Constitutional Question -- CPLR 5601(b)(2) .................................................................................. 5 4. Stipulation for Judgment Absolute -- CPLR 5601(c) ...................................................................... 5 5. Appeal Pursuant to CPLR 5601(d) ................................................................................................. 7

    B. Rule 500.10 Review ........................................................................................................................... 8 II. MOTIONS FOR LEAVE TO APPEAL ........................................................................................... 9

    A. Certiorari Jurisdiction ........................................................................................................................ 9 B. What is a Motion for Leave? ............................................................................................................. 9 C. Statutory Requirements -- Jurisdictional Predicates ........................................................................ 9 D. How to Move for Leave to Appeal -- Rule 500.22 Requirements ................................................... 11 E. Common Errors in Motions for Leave ............................................................................................. 12

    III. GUIDELINES FOR PREPARING A MOTION FOR LEAVE TO APPEAL ............................. 15

    A. Certiorari Factors ............................................................................................................................ 15 B. Some Reasons Why the Court Denies Leave .................................................................................. 16 C. Some Reasons Why the Court Grants Leave................................................................................... 17

    IV. RULE 500.11 REVIEW -- ALTERNATIVE PROCEDURE FOR SELECTED APPEALS ... 17

    A. What Is It? ....................................................................................................................................... 17 B. When Is It Invoked? ........................................................................................................................ 17 C. Countering Misconceptions about the Alternative Procedure ....................................................... 17 D. Benefits of the Alternative Procedure ............................................................................................ 18 E. How the Alternative Procedure Works ........................................................................................... 18

    V. APPEALABILITY AND REVIEWABILITY ................................................................................... 19

    A. Definitions ....................................................................................................................................... 19 B. Appealability ................................................................................................................................... 19

    1. Appropriate Court ....................................................................................................................... 19 2. Aggrievement .............................................................................................................................. 19 3. Finality ......................................................................................................................................... 20 4. Miscellaneous Appealability Problems ....................................................................................... 20

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    C. Reviewability ................................................................................................................................... 22 1. Preservation -- Issues Reviewable .............................................................................................. 22 2. CPLR 5501(a) -- Review of Prior Nonfinal Orders and Determinations ...................................... 24 3. Scope of Review .......................................................................................................................... 25

    VI. WHAT IS A FINAL DETERMINATION? -- A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH ............................ 28

    A. Constitutional Requirement............................................................................................................ 28 B. Nonfinality ....................................................................................................................................... 28

    1. Merits Not Addressed -- Too Early .............................................................................................. 28 2. Merits Not Addressed -- Too Late ............................................................................................... 29 3. Merits Addressed -- Remittals for Further Judicial Action .......................................................... 31 4. Merits Addressed -- Claims Pending ........................................................................................... 33

    C. Exceptions to Nonfinality ................................................................................................................ 34 1. Express Severance ....................................................................................................................... 34 2. Implied Severance ....................................................................................................................... 35 3. Party Finality ............................................................................................................................... 35 4. Irreparable Injury ........................................................................................................................ 36

    D. Separate Special Proceedings ......................................................................................................... 37 VII. THE NECESSARILY AFFECTS REQUIREMENT ................................................................ 38

    A. General Overview ........................................................................................................................... 38 B. The "Necessarily Affects" Requirement .......................................................................................... 39 C. Examples of Orders That Necessarily Affect Final Judgments ........................................................ 39 D. Examples of Nonfinal Orders That Do Not Necessarily Affect Final Judgments ............................. 40

    FINALITY CONTINUUM ......................................................................................................................... 41

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    THE NEW YORK COURT OF APPEALS CIVIL JURISDICTION AND PRACTICE OUTLINE

    Prepared by the Clerk's Office, New York Court of Appeals

    I. APPEALS AS OF RIGHT A. Individual Jurisdictional Predicates

    An appeal as of right must meet one of the following statutory jurisdictional predicates (CPLR 5601) or it is subject to dismissal upon motion or by the Court sua sponte (see 22 NYCRR 500.10).

    1. Two-Justice Dissent at the Appellate Division -- CPLR 5601(a)

    a. The dissent must be on a question of law (compare Scheer v Koubek, mot to dismiss appeal denied 69 NY2d 983 [1987] [difference between majority and dissent centered on conflicting interpretations of Insurance Law and consequent conclusion as to whether plaintiff made out a prima facie case: legal question] and Matter of Gardstein v Kemp & Beatley, Inc., mot to dismiss appeal denied 61 NY2d 900 [1984] [dispute between majority and dissent focuses on sufficiency (not weight) of the evidence to support finding of corporate oppression of shareholder: legal question] with Merrill v Albany Med. Center Hosp., appeal dismissed 71 NY2d 990 [1988] [dissent predicated on unpreserved issues] and Matter of Cindy M.G. v Michael A., appeal dismissed 71 NY2d 948 [1988] [difference between majority and dissent based on differing view of underlying facts, not applicable legal standard]; see generally Arthur Karger, Powers of the New York Court of Appeals 6:15, at 203-207 [3d ed rev 2005]).

    b. The dissent must be in appellant's favor (Matter of Barron & Vesel v

    Gammerman, cross appeal dismissed 63 NY2d 671 [1984]; Christovao v Unisul-Uniao de Coop. Transf., 41 NY2d 338 [1977]).

    c. The Appellate Division order must be final.

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    2. Constitutional Question -- CPLR 5601(b)(1) -- Appeal from Final Appellate Division Order

    The constitutional question must be both directly involved in the Appellate Division order and substantial. The appellant has the burden of establishing the direct involvement of the constitutional question (see Karger, 39, at 245).

    a. Direct Involvement (see Karger, 7:8; 7:9-7:10,

    at 231-243). i. The constitutional question must have been properly raised

    in the courts below. Thus, the issue must be preserved before the court of original instance (Matter of Schulz v State of New York, 81 NY2d 336, 344 [1983]; Matter of Shannon B., appea