The larval development of Petrolisthes politus (Gray, 1831) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Porcellanidae) under laboratory conditions

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  • This article was downloaded by: [Tufts University]On: 27 October 2014, At: 11:39Publisher: Taylor & FrancisInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office: MortimerHouse, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK

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    The larval development of Petrolisthes politus (Gray,1831) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Porcellanidae) underlaboratory conditionsGonzalo Hernndez , Juan Bolaos , Karen Graterol & Carlos LiraPublished online: 09 Aug 2010.

    To cite this article: Gonzalo Hernndez , Juan Bolaos , Karen Graterol & Carlos Lira (2000) The larval development ofPetrolisthes politus (Gray, 1831) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Porcellanidae) under laboratory conditions, Studies on NeotropicalFauna and Environment, 35:2, 143-156

    To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1076/0165-0521(200008)35:2;1-9;FT143

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  • Stud Neotrop Fauna & Environm 35: 143156 (2000) 0165-0521/00/3502-0143$15.00 Swets & Zeitlinger

    INTRODUCTION

    In the Caribbean Sea, the family Porcellanidae is rep-resented by 10 genera and 40 species, of which thegenus Petrolisthes, with 15 species, is the most di-verse (see Haig, 1956; Gore & Abele, 1973; Werd-ing, 1978, 1982, 1983; Scelzo, 1982; Gore, 1983;Lira et al., 1996). From among these species, thelarval development has been described only forPetrolisthes armatus (Gibbes, 1850) by Gore (1970,1972), Petrolisthes galathinus (Bosc, 1802) by Huni(1979), Petrolisthes tonsorius Haig, 1960, by Pel-legrini & Gamba (1985), Petrolisthes magdalenensisWerding, 1978, by Mller & Werding (1990) andPetrolisthes tridentatus Stimpson, 1858, from Pacif-ic specimens, by Gore (1971).

    Petrolisthes politus has been reported from theFlorida Keys, Gulf of Mexico, Panama, Colombia,and several Caribbean islands (Haig, 1956; Scelzo,1982, 1985). Studies on this species are restricted toits ecology and morphometry (Scelzo, 1985) and themorphology of its prezoea (Hernndez et al., 1995).

    This paper provides a detailed morphology of thezoeae and megalopa of P. politus and discusses itsrelation with congeneric species.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS

    Twenty four ovigerous females of Petrolisthes poli-tus were collected by hand from a rocky beach on thenorth coast of Isla Cubagua (10 50N, 64 10W),Venezuela, and transported to the laboratory (Bocadel Rio, Isla Margarita), where they were individual-ly held in fingerbowls 19 cm in diameter filled withfiltered and UV-sterilized sea water, at room temper-ature, 25 2C, and a salinity of 37 1 untilhatching.

    The larvae were incubated individually in 150 mlglass containers. The water quality was the same asin the fingerbowls and the food was newly hatchednauplii of Artemia. The water was changed andthe larvae fed daily. Survival and moulting wererecorded. From 80 to 120 larvae hatched in eachbatch.

    Specimens of living and dead larvae and exuviaein both zoeal stages, derived from all 15 females,were preserved in a 1:1 mixture of glycerine and 70%isopropyl alcohol. Dissections were carried out on anexcavated slide under a Wild M8 stereoscopic micro-scope. Drawings were made with the aid of an Olym-pus U-IT120 camera lucida using an OlympusBMAX-50 compound microscope. Measurementswere made with a calibrated ocular. At least three

    The larval development of Petrolisthes politus(Gray, 1831) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Porcellanidae)

    under laboratory conditions

    Gonzalo Hernndez, Juan Bolaos, Karen Graterol and Carlos Lira

    Laboratory of Carcinology, Orient University, Margarita Island, Venezuela

    Abstract

    The complete larval development of the shallow-water Caribbean porcellanid crab, Petrolisthes politus (Gray, 1831), isdescribed and illustrated from specimens reared in the laboratory. Petrolisthes politus hatches as a prezoea, which persistfor less than 90 minutes, and then molts through two subsequent zoeal stages, which are completed in 6 to 7 and 14 to 16days, respectively, before the megalopal stage is reached. From a total of about 2000 zoeae that were cultured, only tworeached the megalopal stage. The two megalopae survived for up to 5 days but did not molt to the first crab stage. Thezoeae of P. politus are compared with those of Petrolisthes rufescens (Heller, 1861), Petrolisthes lamarckii (Leach,1820), Petrolisthes carinipes (Heller, 1861), Petrolisthes coccineus (Owen 1839) and Petrolisthes pubescens (Stimpson,1858), which were hitherto the only species having bifid lateral spines on the telson of the first zoeal stage.

    Keywords: Petrolisthes, Porcellanidae, morphology, larva, zoea, megalopa, Caribbean Sea.

    Correspondence: G. Hernandez, Universidad de Oriente, Ncleo Nueva Esparta, Apdo. 630, Porlamar, Cdigo Postal6301, Isla de Margarita, Venezuela. E-mail: gonzalo@enlared.net

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  • 144 G. HERNNDEZ ET AL.

    specimens of each zoeal stage of two or more fe-males were measured, dissected and analyzed. Thefemales and specimens of their zoeal progeny aredeposited in the collection of the Laboratorio de Car-cinologa at the Universidad de Oriente.

    The carapaces of both zoeal stages and of the meg-alopa were measured in the standard way for Porcel-lanidae (Gore, 1970, 1971, 1972; Yaqoob, 1974,1979; Huni, 1979; Pellegrini & Gamba, 1985; Mller& Werding, 1990). These measurements are ex-pressed as the arithmetic average of the number ofmeasured specimens and their standard deviation; thefollowing abbreviations are used: CL= carapacelength; CW= carapace width; RL= rostral length;LPS= length of posterior spines of the carapace. Thedistribution of the chromatophores and coloration ofthe specimens was determined for live or recentlyfixed specimens.

    The term seta is employed as by Thomas (1960),Huni (1979) and Stuck & Truesdale (1988). Never-theless, in order to standardize the terminology em-ployed in this study with others, in the comparativetables, the term process was preferred in the case ofthe endites of the maxillulae and maxillae. The no-menclature for the different types of setae is that pro-posed by Stuck & Truesdale (1988). The counts andsetal formulas assume a proximo-distal arrangement.The dorsal setae on the endopodite of maxillipeds 1and 2 and the apical setae of the scaphognathite weredesignated with roman numerals.

    RESULTS

    Petrolisthes politus hatches as a prezoea which per-sist less than 90 minutes, and then molts through twosubsequent zoeal stages which last 6 to 7 and 14 to 16days, respectively, before the megalopa is reached.The duration of the megalopa could not be estab-lished since the two specimens obtained died beforereaching the first crab stage.

    Description of the zoeal and megalopal stagesZoea ISize: CL = 1.70 0.12 mm, range = 1.45-1.85 mm;RL = 10.40 0.45 mm, range = 9.75-11.18 mm; LPS= 2.51 0,30 mm, range = 2.08-2.88 mm. Specimensmeasured = 30. Specimens examined = 30.

    Carapace (Figs. 1A, C1-C3): with two pairs of set-ulose setae on dorsum, these pairs separated by a

    hump; posteroventral margins with 3 to 5 shortspinules. Rostral spine 6.0 to 6.8 times the CL; withacute spinules arranged in about four rows; tipsdownwards curved. Posterior spines 1.3 to 1.8 timeCL, with acute spinules ventrally. Eyes sessile.

    Antennule (Fig. 2A): uniramous, with three aes-thetascs and 3 setae, one setulose seta longer than theother 2 simple ones.

    Antenna (Fig. 2D): endopodite fused to pro-topodite, with acute tip and 1 setulose seta subtermi-nally; exopodite 1.7 times longer than endopodite,with acute tip and 3 setae (2 setulose, 1 simple) in arow on distal third, plus 1 spine located in a differentplane from the setae and nearer to the tip.

    Mandibles (Fig. 3G): incisor and molar processesasymmetrical; the teeth of the incisor process longerthan the molar ones; palp absent.

    Maxillule (Fig. 3A): coxal endite with 8, rarely 9setae (4 or 5 setulose, 4 setulodenticulate); basal en-dite with 9 setae (3 setulose, 6 denticulate); en-dopodite with a short subterminal spine and 4, rarely3 setae (2 setulose, 2 setulodenticulate) distally; mi-crotrichia on inner margin; exopodite absent.

    Maxilla (Fig. 3D): coxal endite with 7 setae (1setulodenticulate, 6 setulose) on proximal lobe, and4 setae (1 denticulate, 3 setulose) on distal lobe; ba-sal endite with 7 setae (2 setulodenticulate, 5 setu-lose) on proximal lobe, and 7 setae (2 setulodenticu-late, 5 setulose) on distal lobe; endopodite with 8(3+2+3) setulose setae; scaphognathite with 6 or 7setae on the anterior lobe plus 1 apical seta on poste-rior lobe, all setulose; microtrichia on endopodite,scaphognathite and endites.

    Maxilliped 1 (Fig. 4A): coxopodite unarmed;basipodite with 1+1+2+3 setulose setae; endopodite4-segmented, with 3,3,2+3,7+I setulose setae; micro-trichia on dorsal margin of articles 2 and 3; exopoditepartially bisegmented, with four terminal setulosesetae on second article.

    Maxilliped 2 (Fig. 4D): coxopodite unarmed;basipodite with 1+1, or rarely 1+2, setulose setae;endopodite 4-segmented, with 1or 2,2,1+2,5+I setae,all setulose, with the exception of 1 serrate seta ondistal article; microtrichia on dorsal margin of thethird article; exopodite partially bisegmented, withfour setulose setae on second article.

    Maxilliped 3 (Fig. 5A): biramous, unarmed andwithout signs of segmentation.

    Pereiopods (Fig. 5D): biramous buds that grow asstage progresses.

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  • 145LARVAL DEVELOPMENT OF PETROLISTHES POLITUS

    Fig. 1. Petrolisthes politus (Gray). Lateral view of the carapace and posterior spines of zoea I (A) and zoea II (B); distal, mesial andproximal portions of the rostrum of zoea I (C) and zoea II (D); dorsal view of the carapace of the megalopa (E) and details of itsfront (F).

    Abdomen (Fig. 6A): composed of 5 somites,somites 3 to 5 with dorsal serrations. Somites 4 and 5with posterolateral spines. Somite 5 with a pair ofsetulose setae on posterodorsal margin.

    Telson (Figs. 6A, A1-A6): slightly wider than long;posterior margin with 7+7 processes, symmetricallyarranged. The first is a bifid spine with its inner ram-us longer than its outer one. The second is a thin,setulose seta. All major setae (processes 3 to 7) withhooked terminal serrations, most noticeable on firstand second pairs. The fifth pair of major setae locat-ed on central prominence. Anal spine present. Dorsalsurface with 2+2+2 short setulose setae. Microtrichiaon central prominence.

    Coloration: Carapace translucent. Ventral marginsof both the rostral and posterior spines orange; theirdorsal margins amber. Red chromatophores distrib-uted as follows: 1 on each mandible, 1 on gastriclevel, 1 on each basipodite of maxillipeds 1 and 2, 1on mesodorsal region of the carapace and 1 on bifur-cation of posterior spines, 1 black chromatophore ongastric region.

    Zoea IISize: CL = 2.99 0.24 mm, range = 2.63 to 3.23 mm;RL = 17.99 0.11 mm, range = 17.05 to 18.38 mm;LPS = 4.39 0,26 mm, range = 3.85 to 4.65 mm.Specimens measured = 13. Specimens examined = 27.

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  • 146 G. HERNNDEZ ET AL.

    Fig. 2. Petrolisthes politus (Gray). Antennule of zoea I (A), zoea II (B) and the megalopa (C); antenna of zoea I (D), zoea II (E) and themegalopa.

    Carapace (Figs. 1B, D1-D3): with the same seta-tion as that of zoea I. Posteroventral margin general-ly unarmed (few specimens with 2 or 3 minutespines). Rostral spine 4.5 to 6 times CL, with spinu-lation as in zoea I. Posterior spines 1.2 to 1.4 timesCL and with smaller spinules than those of zoea I.Eyes pedunculate.

    Antennule (Fig. 2B): mesial portion of protopoditewith 2 setulose setae on outer margin, 1 setulose setaon distal third of inner margin, and 4 setulose setaeon junction of the rami of the appendage. Endopoditeunarmed, exopodite almost twice as long as en-dopodite, with 3+3+3+3+2+3 or 4 subequal aes-thetascs plus 3 setulose setae terminally.

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  • 147LARVAL DEVELOPMENT OF PETROLISTHES POLITUS

    Fig. 3. Petrolisthes politus (Gray). Maxillule of zoea I (A), zoea II (B) and the megalopa (C); maxilla of zoea I (D), zoea II (E) and themegalopa (F); mandibles of zoea I (G), zoea II (H) and the megalopa (I).

    Antenna (Fig. 2E): exopodite 0.6 time the lengthof endopodite, with 3 simple setae plus 1 spine sub-terminally. Endopodite with 1 setulose seta and 1spine subterminally.

    Mandibles (Fig. 3H): asymmetrical; palp present.

    Maxillule (Fig. 3B): coxal endite with 10 setae (5setulodenticulate, 5 setulose); basal endite with 10setae (3 setulose, 7 denticulate); endopodite with 1short spine on inner margin and 4 (exceptionally 3)setae (2 setulose, 2 setulodenticulate).

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  • 148 G. HERNNDEZ ET AL.T

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