The Interaction of Man and Dog over Time - Pet and House ... Interaction of Man and Dog over Time ... Introduction 3 Domestication 3 Evolution of the Dog 4 Breeding 7 Types of Dog 8 ... (Canis lupus familiaris)

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  • The Interaction ofMan and Dog over Time

    By Julia HughesFebruary 2011

    The Development and Interaction of Man and Dog over TimeBy Julia Hughes

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  • Contents Page

    Introduction 3

    Domestication 3

    Evolution of the Dog 4

    Breeding 7

    Types of Dog 8

    Conclusion 12

    Appendices

    A - Time-line of Interaction between Man and Animals 13

    B - Other uses for dogs 20

    References 23

    Bibliography 25

    The Development and Interaction of Man and Dog over TimeBy Julia Hughes

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  • IntroductionThis report focuses on the relationship between man and dogs and at what point man takes control of the canine species and domesticated them, how they evolved into the different types of dogs that are available today, either through intense breeding programmes or natural evolution, and what dogs are used for in today's modern society.

    DomesticationMan soon learned that having identified certain behavioural and physiological characteristics of animals, certain species would be a better candidate for domestication than others, making them a faithful and useful companion when it came to hunting and gathering. (UOR) On the whole, most domesticated animals and in particular dogs show the following traits:-

    hardy and flexible;

    easy to feed;

    able to adjust to new conditions temperature and confinement;

    show a liking for humans, comforting;

    easy to breed;

    social and capable of group interactions;

    gregarious; and

    able to maintain a dominance hierarchy, and are thus predisposed to submission. (UOR)

    Mankind has been a hunter gatherer for just 0.5% of human history. During the Ice Age, large mammals such as bison had two predators humans and wolves, both using their intelligence and social skills to bring down prey much larger than themselves by hunting and killing in groups (see picture overleaf). (Gascoigne, 2001)

    Due to their similarity, it became mutually beneficial for the two teams to join up and share their hunting skills and their kill with each other which is why dogs have been mankind's most oldest and faithful companions since the Pleistocene era during the last Ice Age. (Gascoigne, 2001)

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  • Wolves hunting in packs(Serpell, 2002)

    Evolution of the DogDNA tests have proved the today's dog has evolved from the grey wolf (Canis lupus familiaris). Arhaeological digs have unearthed the bones of domesticated dog dating back to the Pleistocene era and the timeline in the Appendix to this report shows references of where and when bones have been found since this era. (Jensen, 2007)

    These various bones show a shortened facial region of the skull, compacted teeth in the jaw bones, a more curved mandible, the eyes become more rounded and forward looking, the frontal sinuses become swollen and the tympanic bullae is reduced in size and flattened (see picture below) together with the slender metapodial and toe bones that distinguish them from those of the wolf. (Jensen, 2007)

    Drawing of a dog skull indicating features of domestication(Serpell, 2002)

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  • The remains suggest that they had originated from the smaller South Asian wolf subspecies rather than the large North American and North Eurasian wolf, excluding the possibility of an African origin. (Jensen, 2007)

    Wild animals need a high degree of perseption and quick reactions to stressful situations in order to survive, which are quite opposite to the charactaristics of docility. As an animal's stress and fear is reduced, it's perception of this environment brings about hormonal changes which reduces brain size (see picture below) and general senses - mainly hearing and sight. The domesticated animal will also retain a juvenile attitude well into adulthood. (Serpell, 2002)

    Ontogenetic changes in brain volume to skull area for five species of canids(Serpell, 2002)

    The picture below shows that even though a wolf and dog can be of the same weight, the head of the domesticated dog is significantly smaller due to the reduction in brain size.

    The skulls of a 43kg wolf (left) and a 43kg dog(Serpell, 2002)

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  • The only genetic difference between the wolf and all breed of dogs is allelomorphic the changes in the rates and times at which various development events ocurr as they all have identical karyotypes, making them interfertile. (Serpell, 2002)

    Early Chinese dogs are thought to be directly decended from the small Chinese Wolf, Canis lupus chanco (see picture below). These dogs moved across the Berings Straits into North America with early human immigrants. Later, the dogs of the Inuit and North Americans were interbred with wolves and sometimes even coyotes. At the same time, Africa was cross breeding dogs with the four species of jackal. (Serpell, 2002)

    The Chinese Wolf(Animal Corner, 2011)

    The dingo is the result of cross breeding the domesticated small wolf of India Canis lupus pallipes, and the pariah dogs of South East Asia, however after being taken over to Australia, they soon escaped their domestic lifestyle and became feral again. (Serpell, 2002)

    During the domestication process of dog from wolf, the animal would first change its coat colour. A paler coat colour signified a more manageable animal. As the animal's perception to its environment changes, other morphology and physiological features are ears becoming dropped due to reduced sense of hearing, tails curled due to reduced need to commnicate, hair becomes thicker and in some cases flops over the eyes, reducing its speed and impairs its vision. They would also develop an earlier reproductive cycle and have a higher litter number and size was stunted as during early domestication, animals suffered from malnutrition from the time of conception. (Serpell, 2002)

    The table overleaf shows the morphological and physiological changes that mammals undergo as they become domesticated.

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  • Changes Animal

    Appearance of dwarf and giant varieties All

    Piebald coat colour All

    Wavy or curly hair Sheep, Poodles, Donkeys, Horses, Pigs, Goats, Mice, Guinea Pigs

    Rolled tails Dogs, Pigs

    Shortened tails, fewer vertebrae Dogs, Cats, Sheep

    Floppy ears Dogs, Cats, Pigs, Horses, Sheep, Goats, Cattle

    Changes in reproductive cycle All except sheep

    The Early Process of Domestication(Turt, 1999)

    BreedingThe dog belongs to a group of carnivores called the Canidae family. This group can be split into 38 different species, one of which is the domesticated dog, Canis familiaris. The canids that are still wild today are terrestrial and mostly nocturnal like the fox, wolf, jackal and coyote. (Serpell, 2002)

    Over the last 200 years, man has intensely cross bred dogs from 10 super breeds to over 700 different types, weights and sizes ranging from the smallest Chihuahua to one of the largest, the Great Dane, however, if all these different breeds were released back into the wild, they would eventually start to look exactly the same as each other. (Sutter & Ostrander, 2004)

    The American Kennel Club registered a total of 916,000 purebred dogs in 2003 and the most popular 20 breeds account for 70% of all registrations (see pie chart overleaf).

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  • Proporation of purebred dog registrations by The American Kennel Club (AKC)(Sutter & Ostrander, 2004)

    Types of DogThere are many different types of dogs that generally fit into several categories (see picture below).

    Different Grouping of Dogs(Sutter & Ostrander, 2004)

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  • These are:-

    Toy the small lap dog (see example below) that is friendly and attention seeking, not requiring a lot of exercise;

    Shih Tzu - toy dog(All Small Dog Breeds, 2009)

    Utility or Non-sporting The chow chow (see picture below) is a member of this group, a miscellaneous cluster of breeds, fit for a particular purpose, with little shared morphology or history;

    Chow Chow(Pet Planet, 2011)

    Pastoral or Herding working dogs used for herding cattle and other cloven hoofed animals (see picture below), has a double waterproof coat to protect them from the elements as they generally work outdoors in severe weather conditions;

    The trustworthy, attentive behaviour of an adult livestock guard dog enables it to live with livestock and protect the animals from predators

    (Serpell, 2002)

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  • Gun or Sporting trained to hunt and retrieve shot game birds, mainly retrievers, spaniels and setters. They have a friendly nature, making them good companions and family dogs, although very active requiring a lot of exercise and attention;

    Spaniel gun dog(Moray Firth, 2010)

    Terrier from the Latin word Terra, meaning earth. A hardy collection of dog, selectively bred to be brave and tough for hunting vermin such as fox, badger or rat above or below ground. While terriers can be quite fiery, they retain a jovial and comical temperament;

    Jack Russell (Brown and White) Terrier(Hughes, 2011)

    Working over the centuries these have been selectively bred to excel in their role as guard, search and rescue dogs. Many of these breeds are heavily muscled, sharing the molosser